AP World History Semester 1 Final Exam Practice Test

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AP World History Semester 1 Final Exam Practice Test - Quiz

Created by Graham Vogtman, INQuestions used from Zionsville High School (IN), Parkway North High School (MO), and Evansville Memorial High School (IN).


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    One important early symptom of Rome's decline was...?

    • A.

      The replacement of the Republic by an Empire.

    • B.

      Acceptance of Christianity.

    • C.

      The weakness of the Eastern Roman Empire compared to the Western Roman Empire.

    • D.

      The drop in population due to a series of plagues.

    Correct Answer
    D. The drop in population due to a series of plagues.
    Explanation
    During Rome's decline, one important early symptom was the drop in population due to a series of plagues. These plagues, such as the Antonine Plague and the Plague of Cyprian, caused significant loss of life and weakened the population of the empire. The decline in population had far-reaching consequences, including economic decline, decreased military strength, and social instability, all of which contributed to the overall decline of the Roman Empire.

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  • 2. 

    The "lessons" of late Han China and the Roman Empire are that the decline of the civilization, whether temporary or permanent...

    • A.

      Follows inevitably from a centralized, unrepresentative government.

    • B.

      Results from social rebellion in which the poor attack the rich and tear down their institutions.

    • C.

      Results from a lack of religious conviction.

    • D.

      Is not simply the result of attack from outside invaders.

    Correct Answer
    D. Is not simply the result of attack from outside invaders.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the decline of the civilization is not simply the result of attack from outside invaders. This means that the downfall of a civilization cannot be solely attributed to external forces or invasions. Other factors such as internal conflicts, political instability, economic issues, or social unrest can also contribute to the decline. This lesson can be observed in both late Han China and the Roman Empire, where internal factors played a significant role in their decline alongside external pressures.

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  • 3. 

    Despite major differences, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism all show interest in...?

    • A.

      Strong priesthood.

    • B.

      Life after death.

    • C.

      Polytheism.

    • D.

      Clearly organized Church structures.

    Correct Answer
    B. Life after death.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is life after death. Despite their major differences, all three religions, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism, share a common interest in the concept of life after death. In Christianity, the belief in an afterlife is central to its teachings, with the promise of eternal life in heaven or hell. Hinduism believes in the cycle of death and rebirth, known as reincarnation, where the soul is continuously reborn until it achieves liberation. Buddhism also believes in the cycle of rebirth, but seeks to break free from this cycle through enlightenment and the cessation of suffering.

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  • 4. 

    By 600 A.D., looking at the entire world, a good definition of a "barbarian" world be...?

    • A.

      Someone who fights better than a peasant-soldier.

    • B.

      Someone who is illiterate.

    • C.

      Someone who is not part of a civilization.

    • D.

      Someone who is not Christian.

    Correct Answer
    C. Someone who is not part of a civilization.
    Explanation
    A good definition of a "barbarian" by 600 A.D. would be someone who is not part of a civilization. This term was often used by ancient Greeks and Romans to refer to people who were considered uncivilized or outside of the established societies. It was a way to differentiate between those who had organized societies, such as the Greeks and Romans, and those who did not have the same level of social, political, and cultural development. Being part of a civilization meant having a structured society with laws, government, and cultural practices, while being a barbarian meant being outside of these established systems.

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  • 5. 

    The two centers of American civilization included Mexico and the...?

    • A.

      Yucatan Peninsula.

    • B.

      Andean River Valleys and the plateaus of Ecuador and Peru.

    • C.

      American Southwest (present-day Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah).

    • D.

      Rio Plata and Parana river systems of Argentina.

    Correct Answer
    B. Andean River Valleys and the plateaus of Ecuador and Peru.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Andean River Valleys and the plateaus of Ecuador and Peru. This answer is supported by the fact that the Andean region in South America, specifically the river valleys and plateaus of Ecuador and Peru, played a significant role in the development of ancient American civilizations such as the Inca and the Moche. These civilizations had advanced agricultural systems, complex social structures, and impressive architectural achievements, making them important centers of American civilization.

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  • 6. 

    The core civilization for other civilizations in Mesoamerica was the...?

    • A.

      Olmecs.

    • B.

      Aztecs.

    • C.

      Mayans.

    • D.

      Chavin peoples.

    Correct Answer
    A. Olmecs.
    Explanation
    The Olmecs were the core civilization for other civilizations in Mesoamerica. They were the earliest known civilization in the region and had a significant influence on later cultures such as the Aztecs and Mayans. The Olmecs developed many important cultural and artistic traditions, including the creation of monumental stone heads and the establishment of complex trade networks. Their influence can be seen in the religious beliefs, architecture, and artistic styles of later Mesoamerican civilizations.

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  • 7. 

    What were the characteristics of Hunter-Gatherer Societies?

    • A.

      Small groups of between 20 and 30 people, constantly moving, and using slash-and-burn farming and hunting for food.

    • B.

      Large bands of sedentary peoples devoted to religious offerings.

    • C.

      Relatively small tribes who relied on iron tools for all of their basic needs.

    • D.

      Large Empires, led by an authoritarian who established different "leagues" of people for farming, hunting, and construction.

    Correct Answer
    A. Small groups of between 20 and 30 people, constantly moving, and using slash-and-burn farming and hunting for food.
    Explanation
    Hunter-gatherer societies were characterized by small groups of people, typically consisting of 20 to 30 individuals. These groups were constantly on the move, as they relied on hunting and gathering for their food supply. Additionally, they practiced slash-and-burn farming, a method where they cleared small areas of land by cutting down and burning vegetation, and then cultivated crops in the nutrient-rich soil. This answer accurately describes the key characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies.

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  • 8. 

    The Paleolithic Age refers to...?

    • A.

      The development of advanced civilizations.

    • B.

      The dawn of mankind.

    • C.

      The first recorded use of farming.

    • D.

      The period when simple stone tools were developed.

    Correct Answer
    D. The period when simple stone tools were developed.
    Explanation
    The Paleolithic Age refers to the period when simple stone tools were developed. During this time, early humans began to use stones as tools for various purposes such as hunting, gathering, and creating shelter. This era is characterized by the use of basic technology and the reliance on natural resources for survival. It is considered the earliest stage of human development, preceding the development of advanced civilizations and the practice of farming.

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  • 9. 

    A characteristic of the human species before the advent of civilization was...?

    • A.

      The ability to organize large political units.

    • B.

      The inability to communicate about abstractions, such as death.

    • C.

      The ability to spread to various geographic and climate settings.

    • D.

      That all tasks were shared equally by men and women.

    Correct Answer
    C. The ability to spread to various geographic and climate settings.
    Explanation
    Before the advent of civilization, humans had the ability to spread to various geographic and climate settings. This means that they were able to adapt and survive in different environments, allowing them to populate different regions of the world. This ability to migrate and settle in various places was crucial for the survival and expansion of the human species. It also demonstrates the adaptability and resilience of early humans in the face of different challenges posed by different environments.

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  • 10. 

    The development of agriculture caused changes in all of the following EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      The role of women in society.

    • B.

      The movements of hunter-gatherer societies.

    • C.

      The tendency to believe in many gods.

    • D.

      Communication between different peoples.

    Correct Answer
    C. The tendency to believe in many gods.
    Explanation
    The development of agriculture led to the establishment of settled communities, which in turn brought about changes in various aspects of society. The role of women in society underwent changes as the division of labor became more pronounced, with men typically taking on agricultural tasks and women focusing on domestic duties. The movements of hunter-gatherer societies were also impacted, as they transitioned to a more sedentary lifestyle centered around farming. Communication between different peoples increased as agriculture allowed for the growth of larger populations and the establishment of trade networks. However, the development of agriculture did not directly influence the tendency to believe in many gods, as religious beliefs are shaped by a variety of factors that are not solely dependent on agricultural practices.

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  • 11. 

    The Neolithic Revolution occurred first in...?

    • A.

      The Middle East.

    • B.

      Egypt.

    • C.

      China.

    • D.

      India.

    Correct Answer
    A. The Middle East.
    Explanation
    The Neolithic Revolution, also known as the Agricultural Revolution, refers to the transition from hunting and gathering to settled farming communities. This significant shift in human history is believed to have first occurred in the Middle East, specifically in the Fertile Crescent region. This area, which includes modern-day Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and parts of Turkey and Iran, offered favorable conditions for the development of agriculture, such as fertile soil, access to water, and a variety of wild plant and animal species. The domestication of plants and animals in this region laid the foundation for the development of complex societies and civilizations.

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  • 12. 

    A society is almost certainly a civilization if...?

    • A.

      It practices sedentary agriculture.

    • B.

      It has a written law code.

    • C.

      It is polytheistic.

    • D.

      It lives in a fertile river valley.

    Correct Answer
    A. It practices sedentary agriculture.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "It practices sedentary agriculture." This is because sedentary agriculture is a key characteristic of a civilization. It involves the cultivation of crops in a permanent settlement, allowing for a stable food supply and the development of complex social and economic systems. The other options, such as having a written law code, being polytheistic, or living in a fertile river valley, are not exclusive to civilizations and can be found in other types of societies as well.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is NOT one of the 5 key traits for a society to be a civilization?

    • A.

      Centralized Government.

    • B.

      Use of Tools.

    • C.

      A Surplus of Food.

    • D.

      Job Specialization/Social Classes.

    • E.

      Arts/Architecture.

    • F.

      Writing System.

    Correct Answer
    B. Use of Tools.
    Explanation
    The use of tools is not one of the key traits for a society to be considered a civilization. The other traits listed, such as a centralized government, surplus of food, job specialization/social classes, arts/architecture, and writing system, are all essential characteristics of a civilization. The use of tools, although important for the development of a society, is not specifically mentioned as a defining trait for a civilization.

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  • 14. 

    The development of writing...

    • A.

      Resulted from new technologies, mainly the discovery of paper.

    • B.

      Helps explain why agriculture could develop.

    • C.

      Resulted from the needs of various river valley civilizations to communicate with one another.

    • D.

      Helps explain why governments could become more bureaucratic and formal.

    Correct Answer
    D. Helps explain why governments could become more bureaucratic and formal.
    Explanation
    The development of writing helps explain why governments could become more bureaucratic and formal. Writing allowed for the creation of written laws, codes, and administrative records, which were essential for governing large populations and complex societies. It enabled governments to establish and enforce rules, maintain records, and communicate with their subjects more efficiently. Writing also facilitated the development of a standardized system of communication, which contributed to the growth of bureaucracy and formalized governance structures.

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  • 15. 

    Egypt differed from Mesopotamian Civilization by stressing...?

    • A.

      Extensive trade.

    • B.

      Well-organized, durable empires.

    • C.

      Greater social equality.

    • D.

      More modest building projects.

    Correct Answer
    B. Well-organized, durable empires.
    Explanation
    Egypt differed from Mesopotamian Civilization by stressing well-organized, durable empires. Unlike Mesopotamia, where city-states were the dominant political structure, Egypt had a centralized government ruled by pharaohs who were considered divine. The pharaohs maintained a strong and stable empire that lasted for centuries, with a well-organized bureaucracy and a hierarchical social structure. This emphasis on strong and durable empires set Egypt apart from Mesopotamia, where political power was more fragmented and prone to frequent changes and conflicts.

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  • 16. 

    The transformation that was most responsible for moving humans toward civilization was the...?

    • A.

      Use of fire.

    • B.

      Rise of agriculture.

    • C.

      Rise of specialized classes.

    • D.

      Growth of towns and cities.

    Correct Answer
    B. Rise of agriculture.
    Explanation
    The rise of agriculture was the most responsible transformation for moving humans toward civilization because it allowed for a stable food supply, which in turn led to the development of settled communities, the division of labor, and the establishment of social structures. Agriculture provided a reliable source of food, enabling people to transition from a nomadic lifestyle to a more sedentary one. This shift allowed for the accumulation of surplus food, leading to population growth, the development of specialized skills, and the emergence of complex societies.

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  • 17. 

    The start of sedentary agriculture...

    • A.

      Started in the Middle East, but developed independently in other areas.

    • B.

      Occurred simultaneously in various places and spread around the world.

    • C.

      Arose in the Yangtze and Huang He river valleys.

    • D.

      Began after the abandonment of hunting and gathering.

    Correct Answer
    A. Started in the Middle East, but developed independently in other areas.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Started in the Middle East, but developed independently in other areas." This explanation suggests that sedentary agriculture began in the Middle East but then different regions around the world independently developed their own agricultural practices. This implies that while the Middle East may have been the initial source or inspiration for sedentary agriculture, other areas adapted and developed their own agricultural systems without direct influence or interaction with the Middle East.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following was NOT part of the Sumerian Civilization?

    • A.

      Ziggurats.

    • B.

      Cuneiform.

    • C.

      A simplified alphabet of around 22 different letters.

    • D.

      A numeric system based on 10, 60, and 360.

    Correct Answer
    C. A simplified alphabet of around 22 different letters.
    Explanation
    The Sumerian Civilization was known for its advancements in various fields, including architecture, writing, and mathematics. Ziggurats were one of the architectural achievements of the Sumerians, serving as religious temples. Cuneiform was their system of writing, which involved wedge-shaped symbols impressed on clay tablets. The numeric system of the Sumerians was based on the numbers 10, 60, and 360, which allowed them to perform complex calculations. However, a simplified alphabet of around 22 different letters was not part of the Sumerian Civilization. They primarily used cuneiform for writing, rather than a simplified alphabet.

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  • 19. 

    Unlike Sumer, the Indus River Civilization, and the Harappan Civilization, Egypt...

    • A.

      Did not have an effective method for irrigation.

    • B.

      Lacked a coherent writing system.

    • C.

      Worshipped many gods.

    • D.

      Retained a unified state throughout most of its history.

    Correct Answer
    D. Retained a unified state throughout most of its history.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Retained a unified state throughout most of its history." This means that unlike the other civilizations mentioned, Egypt remained politically unified for a significant portion of its existence. This is supported by the fact that ancient Egypt was ruled by a series of pharaohs who maintained centralized control over the entire kingdom. In contrast, the other civilizations mentioned experienced periods of political fragmentation and decentralization.

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  • 20. 

    Stone tools, hunting and gathering, and an increasing number of Homo sapiens sapiens are features of the...?

    • A.

      Late Paleolithic Age.

    • B.

      Bronze Age.

    • C.

      Neolithic Age.

    • D.

      Mesolithic Age.

    Correct Answer
    A. Late Paleolithic Age.
    Explanation
    Stone tools, hunting and gathering, and an increasing number of Homo sapiens sapiens are characteristic features of the Late Paleolithic Age. This period, also known as the Old Stone Age, was characterized by the use of stone tools and the development of more sophisticated hunting and gathering techniques. The Late Paleolithic Age preceded the Bronze Age, Neolithic Age, and Mesolithic Age, which were characterized by advancements such as the use of metal tools, the development of agriculture, and the transition to settled communities.

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  • 21. 

    A "Dynasty" in Chinese history was...? 

    • A.

      A family that passed the imperial title from generation to generation.

    • B.

      Kings dominated by foreign interests.

    • C.

      Any emperor who lasted more than two decades.

    • D.

      Powerful bureaucrats who ran the state.

    Correct Answer
    A. A family that passed the imperial title from generation to generation.
    Explanation
    In Chinese history, a "Dynasty" referred to a family that passed the imperial title from generation to generation. This means that the ruling power was inherited within the same family, typically from father to son. This system of hereditary succession ensured continuity and stability in the ruling class, as well as the preservation of power and wealth within the family. The dynasty would continue until it was overthrown or replaced by another family through conquest or rebellion.

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  • 22. 

    The "Son of Heaven" concept was designed to promote all of the following EXCEPT...? 

    • A.

      Priests' control of the state.

    • B.

      Loyalty to the Emperor.

    • C.

      The remoteness of the Emperor to his subjects.

    • D.

      An explantation for the decline of dynasties.

    Correct Answer
    A. Priests' control of the state.
    Explanation
    The "Son of Heaven" concept was designed to promote loyalty to the Emperor, emphasize the remoteness of the Emperor to his subjects, and provide an explanation for the decline of dynasties. However, it did not aim to promote priests' control of the state.

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  • 23. 

    The Qin Dynasty differed from the Zhou in that...

    • A.

      It practiced Confucianism.

    • B.

      It was more centralized.

    • C.

      It eventually declined and fell.

    • D.

      It lasted longer.

    Correct Answer
    B. It was more centralized.
    Explanation
    The Qin Dynasty differed from the Zhou in that it was more centralized. This means that power and authority were concentrated in the hands of the central government, rather than being distributed among regional rulers or nobles as in the Zhou Dynasty. The Qin Dynasty implemented a system of strict central control, with a strong bureaucracy and a standardized legal code. This centralization allowed for more efficient governance and military organization, but also led to increased social control and oppression.

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  • 24. 

    Chinese views of nature emphasized...

    • A.

      A powerful, all-seeing God.

    • B.

      Deities that punished sinful people.

    • C.

      Harmony and balance.

    • D.

      That nature was uncontrollable.

    Correct Answer
    C. Harmony and balance.
    Explanation
    Chinese views of nature emphasized harmony and balance. This can be seen in various aspects of Chinese culture, such as the concept of yin and yang, which represents the balance between opposing forces in the universe. Chinese philosophy, including Confucianism and Taoism, also emphasize the importance of living in harmony with nature. Additionally, Chinese art and literature often depict nature as a source of inspiration and beauty, further highlighting the value placed on achieving balance and harmony with the natural world.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following was a Confucian belief?

    • A.

      A good society has a hierarchy both in family and state.

    • B.

      Governments must not interfere with individual rights.

    • C.

      People of all social classes and abilities should be actively involved in the government.

    • D.

      Merchants must be valued for their money-making skills.

    Correct Answer
    A. A good society has a hierarchy both in family and state.
    Explanation
    Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system that emphasizes the importance of social order and harmony. One of the central beliefs of Confucianism is the idea of a hierarchical society, both within the family and the state. Confucius believed that society functions best when everyone knows their place and fulfills their roles and responsibilities accordingly. This hierarchical structure ensures stability and promotes social harmony. Therefore, the statement "A good society has a hierarchy both in family and state" aligns with Confucian beliefs.

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  • 26. 

    Daoists would agree with Confucianists on all of the following EXCEPT...

    • A.

      The importance of political activity.

    • B.

      The importance of restraint in personal life.

    • C.

      The importance of tradition.

    • D.

      The basic harmony of nature.

    Correct Answer
    A. The importance of political activity.
    Explanation
    Daoists would not agree with Confucianists on the importance of political activity. While Confucianists emphasize the importance of active engagement in political affairs and the cultivation of virtuous leadership, Daoists advocate for a more passive and non-interfering approach. Daoists believe in going with the flow of nature and avoiding unnecessary action, including political involvement. They prioritize personal cultivation, inner harmony, and aligning oneself with the natural order of the universe. Therefore, the importance of political activity would be an area of disagreement between Daoists and Confucianists.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following groups was considered "low-standing" in official Chinese social hierarchy?

    • A.

      Soldiers.

    • B.

      Peasants.

    • C.

      Scholars.

    • D.

      Merchants.

    Correct Answer
    D. Merchants.
    Explanation
    In the official Chinese social hierarchy, merchants were considered "low-standing." This is because traditional Chinese society valued agriculture and land ownership over commerce and trade. Merchants were often seen as profiting off the labor of others and were not considered as respectable as the other groups listed. Peasants, on the other hand, were seen as essential for agricultural production and were therefore considered higher in social standing.

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  • 28. 

    One of China's key economic strengths was...?

    • A.

      Imported slave labor.

    • B.

      Government encouragement of the merchant class.

    • C.

      Extensive overseas trade.

    • D.

      Government support for high levels of technological innovation.

    Correct Answer
    D. Government support for high levels of technological innovation.
    Explanation
    China's key economic strength was government support for high levels of technological innovation. This means that the government actively encouraged and invested in the development and advancement of technology, which played a crucial role in driving economic growth and competitiveness. This support helped China to stay at the forefront of technological advancements and maintain a strong position in the global market.

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  • 29. 

    A famous example of "Cultural Diffusion" in early Chinese history was...?

    • A.

      The use of the iron plow from Rome.

    • B.

      The introduction and spread of Buddhism from India.

    • C.

      The use of the chariot from the Mongols.

    • D.

      The spread of paper-making technology from the Middle East.

    Correct Answer
    B. The introduction and spread of Buddhism from India.
    Explanation
    The introduction and spread of Buddhism from India is a famous example of "Cultural Diffusion" in early Chinese history. Buddhism originated in India and gradually spread to China through trade routes and missionary activities. It had a significant impact on Chinese culture, influencing art, philosophy, and social practices. This diffusion of Buddhism demonstrates the exchange and adoption of cultural elements between different societies, highlighting the interconnectedness of ancient civilizations.

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  • 30. 

    The Qin and Han Dynasties were both characterized by...?

    • A.

      Building of massive public works.

    • B.

      Increasing trade with the rest of the world.

    • C.

      Powerful, centralized governments.

    • D.

      A hatred for arts and science.

    Correct Answer
    C. Powerful, centralized governments.
    Explanation
    During the Qin and Han Dynasties, both periods were marked by the presence of powerful, centralized governments. The Qin Dynasty, under the rule of Emperor Qin Shi Huang, implemented a highly centralized system of government, including the standardization of writing, currency, and measurements. Similarly, the Han Dynasty also had a centralized government, with a strong bureaucracy and a well-organized administration. This centralization of power allowed for effective governance and control over the vast territories of these dynasties.

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  • 31. 

    During the Han Dynasty, scholar officials...

    • A.

      Instituted a Civil Service Examination system to prepare professional civil servants.

    • B.

      Lost their government offices to aristocrats.

    • C.

      Came increasingly from the merchant and peasant classes.

    • D.

      Insisted on harsh law codes to maintain control.

    Correct Answer
    A. Instituted a Civil Service Examination system to prepare professional civil servants.
    Explanation
    During the Han Dynasty, scholar officials implemented a Civil Service Examination system to train and select individuals for professional civil service positions. This system aimed to ensure that the government officials were qualified and competent, as they had to pass rigorous exams covering various subjects such as Confucianism, history, and law. By instituting this examination system, the Han Dynasty sought to create a meritocratic bureaucracy, where individuals were appointed based on their knowledge and abilities rather than their social status or connections. This helped to professionalize the civil service and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of governance.

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  • 32. 

    A belief system that focuses on social relationships and personal virtue among people is...?

    • A.

      Confucianism.

    • B.

      Daoism.

    • C.

      Legalism.

    • D.

      Patriarchy.

    Correct Answer
    A. Confucianism.
    Explanation
    Confucianism is a belief system that emphasizes social relationships and personal virtue among people. It promotes the idea of maintaining harmonious interactions within society through concepts such as filial piety, respect for elders, and the cultivation of moral character. Confucianism places great importance on the role of individuals in society and their responsibilities towards others, highlighting the significance of social harmony and the pursuit of personal excellence. This aligns with the description provided in the question, making Confucianism the correct answer.

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  • 33. 

    Chinese belief systems differ from single deity religions and polytheism most in...?

    • A.

      Supporting relative legal support and equality for women.

    • B.

      Concentrating on the need for God's saving grace.

    • C.

      Their secular emphasis and lack of gods to worship.

    • D.

      Emphasizing correct behavior and performance of rituals and rites.

    Correct Answer
    C. Their secular emphasis and lack of gods to worship.
    Explanation
    Chinese belief systems differ from single deity religions and polytheism most in their secular emphasis and lack of gods to worship. Unlike single deity religions that focus on the worship of one god or polytheism that involves the worship of multiple gods, Chinese belief systems prioritize secular values and do not revolve around deities. Instead, they emphasize ethical behavior, moral conduct, and the performance of rituals and rites to maintain harmony and balance in the world. This secular approach sets Chinese belief systems apart from other religious traditions.

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  • 34. 

    Confucianism and Daoism...

    • A.

      Had little influence on China and Chinese society until the late 900s A.D.

    • B.

      Were officially sanctioned doctrines of the Qin and Han Dynasties.

    • C.

      Emphasized the needs of the individual over the welfare of the state.

    • D.

      Originated as responses to societal problems during times of disruption.

    Correct Answer
    D. Originated as responses to societal problems during times of disruption.
    Explanation
    Confucianism and Daoism originated as responses to societal problems during times of disruption. Both philosophies emerged during periods of social and political turmoil in ancient China. Confucianism, developed by Confucius, sought to restore social order and harmony through moral principles and ethical behavior. Daoism, founded by Laozi, emphasized living in accordance with the natural flow of the universe and finding balance. These philosophies provided guidance and solutions to the challenges faced by individuals and society, making them responses to societal problems during times of disruption.

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  • 35. 

    The doctrine sponsored by the Qin Dynasty to support its state...

    • A.

      Paid the northern nomadic groups tribute to prevent invasions.

    • B.

      Tolerated local lords performing functions for the central government.

    • C.

      Broke the power of the vassals in order to enhance the power of the Emperor.

    • D.

      Encouraged education, new ideas, and tolerated criticism of the state.

    Correct Answer
    C. Broke the power of the vassals in order to enhance the power of the Emperor.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Broke the power of the vassals in order to enhance the power of the Emperor." This is because the doctrine sponsored by the Qin Dynasty aimed to centralize power and authority in the hands of the Emperor. They implemented policies that weakened the regional lords and vassals, consolidating power under the Emperor's control. By breaking the power of the vassals, the Qin Dynasty was able to enhance the authority and control of the Emperor over the entire state.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following groups would have most likely supported the Qin Dynasty?

    • A.

      Confucian scholars.

    • B.

      Traditional aristocrats who lost their land and positions.

    • C.

      Daoist priests.

    • D.

      Trained bureaucrats from non-aristocratic groups.

    Correct Answer
    D. Trained bureaucrats from non-aristocratic groups.
    Explanation
    Trained bureaucrats from non-aristocratic groups would have most likely supported the Qin Dynasty because the Qin Dynasty implemented a centralized bureaucratic system that valued meritocracy. The dynasty relied on trained bureaucrats who were selected based on their skills and abilities rather than their social status or family background. This group would have been supportive of the Qin Dynasty's emphasis on meritocracy and the opportunities it provided for individuals from non-aristocratic backgrounds to rise to positions of power and influence.

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  • 37. 

    Chinese women in the classical age...

    • A.

      Were legally subordinated to fathers and husbands at all class levels.

    • B.

      Could become scholar-gentry, as long as they pass the state exams.

    • C.

      Dominated the intellectual and artistic activities of China.

    • D.

      Varied greatly in status, influence, and rights.

    Correct Answer
    A. Were legally subordinated to fathers and husbands at all class levels.
    Explanation
    Chinese women in the classical age were legally subordinated to fathers and husbands at all class levels. This means that regardless of their social status, women were expected to be under the authority and control of their male relatives. This legal subordination limited their rights and autonomy, as they had to adhere to the decisions and wishes of their fathers and husbands.

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  • 38. 

    The two Mediterranean powers that fought in the Punic Wars were...? 

    • A.

      Athens and Sparta.

    • B.

      Egypt and Persia.

    • C.

      Carthage and Rome.

    • D.

      Greece and Macedonia.

    Correct Answer
    C. Carthage and Rome.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Carthage and Rome. The Punic Wars were a series of conflicts between these two powers in the Mediterranean region. Carthage, a powerful city-state in North Africa, and Rome, the dominant city-state in Italy, fought three major wars between 264 and 146 BCE. These wars were primarily fought over control of trade routes and territories in the Mediterranean. Rome eventually emerged as the victor, leading to the destruction of Carthage and the expansion of Roman influence in the region.

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  • 39. 

    Compared to modern American ideas about democracy, Athenian democracy was distinctive in...?

    • A.

      Urging that the state adopt policies to benefit ordinary citizens.

    • B.

      Separating foreign residents from native civilians.

    • C.

      Electing representatives to govern the city-state.

    • D.

      Urging that all citizens participate directly in lawmaking and policymaking.

    Correct Answer
    D. Urging that all citizens participate directly in lawmaking and policymaking.
    Explanation
    Athenian democracy was distinctive compared to modern American ideas about democracy because it emphasized the direct participation of all citizens in lawmaking and policymaking. In Athens, every eligible citizen had the opportunity to directly voice their opinions and vote on important decisions, rather than electing representatives to govern on their behalf. This direct democracy allowed for a more inclusive and participatory form of government, where ordinary citizens had a direct say in shaping the laws and policies that affected them.

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  • 40. 

    Republican Romans and Democratic Athenians would have agreed that all of the following were politically important EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      A strong military.

    • B.

      An involved citizenry.

    • C.

      Division of powers within the state.

    • D.

      Splendid public buildings.

    Correct Answer
    C. Division of powers within the state.
    Explanation
    Republican Romans and Democratic Athenians would have agreed that all of the following were politically important except for the division of powers within the state. Both Republican Romans and Democratic Athenians valued a strong military as a means of protecting their city-states, an involved citizenry as a way to ensure active participation in political affairs, and splendid public buildings as a symbol of their power and wealth. However, the concept of dividing powers within the state, as seen in systems like checks and balances, was not a prominent feature in either the Roman or Athenian political systems.

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  • 41. 

    The Senate of republican Rome particularly represented the...?

    • A.

      Urban workers.

    • B.

      Merchants and businessmen.

    • C.

      Non-native Romans.

    • D.

      Land-owning aristocracy.

    Correct Answer
    D. Land-owning aristocracy.
    Explanation
    The Senate of republican Rome particularly represented the land-owning aristocracy. This group consisted of the wealthy and influential individuals who owned large amounts of land and held significant political power. The Senate was made up of members from this aristocratic class, who used their influence to shape policies and make decisions that benefited their own interests. This allowed the land-owning aristocracy to maintain their privileged status and control over Roman society.

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  • 42. 

    The Roman Empire...

    • A.

      Insisted that all inhabitants become Roman citizens.

    • B.

      Set up a military draft to supply the Roman legions.

    • C.

      Allowed no political participation from its citizens.

    • D.

      Tolerated local political and religious diversity.

    Correct Answer
    D. Tolerated local political and religious diversity.
    Explanation
    The Roman Empire was known for its policy of tolerating local political and religious diversity. Unlike many other empires of the time, the Romans did not impose their own political or religious beliefs on the regions they conquered. Instead, they allowed the conquered peoples to maintain their own political systems and religious practices as long as they acknowledged Roman authority. This approach helped to maintain stability and prevent widespread rebellion within the empire.

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  • 43. 

    The Greek and Hellenistic approach in science...

    • A.

      Stressed the importance of practical applications.

    • B.

      Emphasized the mysterious forces of nature.

    • C.

      Was purely theoretical.

    • D.

      Used mathematics to try and explain nature's patterns.

    Correct Answer
    D. Used mathematics to try and explain nature's patterns.
    Explanation
    The Greek and Hellenistic approach in science used mathematics to try and explain nature's patterns. This means that they believed that mathematical principles could be applied to understand and explain the natural world. They believed that through mathematical reasoning and observation, they could uncover the underlying patterns and laws that governed nature. This approach was a departure from the purely theoretical and speculative approach of earlier civilizations and laid the foundation for modern scientific inquiry.

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  • 44. 

    Greek and Roman agriculture...

    • A.

      Tended to develop large, commercial estates.

    • B.

      Exported grain to Asia.

    • C.

      Concentrated on dairy and vegetable products.

    • D.

      Employed only a minority of the population.

    Correct Answer
    A. Tended to develop large, commercial estates.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Tended to develop large, commercial estates." This means that Greek and Roman agriculture focused on creating large-scale farms that were primarily used for commercial purposes. These estates were likely involved in the production of crops and other agricultural products that could be sold and traded. This suggests that agriculture in these ancient civilizations was more focused on profit and economic gain rather than subsistence farming.

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  • 45. 

    Roman slaves were used for all of the following EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      Household care and tutoring.

    • B.

      Entertainment.

    • C.

      Agricultural labor.

    • D.

      Military service.

    Correct Answer
    D. Military service.
    Explanation
    Roman slaves were used for household care and tutoring, entertainment, and agricultural labor. However, they were not used for military service. In ancient Rome, military service was typically reserved for Roman citizens, and slaves were not granted citizenship rights. They were primarily utilized for domestic tasks, entertainment purposes, and working in the fields. Military service required loyalty and a sense of duty, which slaves were not considered to possess. Therefore, they were excluded from serving in the military.

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  • 46. 

    Hellenistic society was known for its advances in...?

    • A.

      Latin literature.

    • B.

      Medicine and Geometry.

    • C.

      Religious thought.

    • D.

      Democracy.

    Correct Answer
    B. Medicine and Geometry.
    Explanation
    During the Hellenistic period, which lasted from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE to the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE, significant advancements were made in various fields. One of the notable areas of progress was in medicine, with the establishment of medical schools and the development of new theories and practices. Additionally, Hellenistic scholars made significant contributions to the field of geometry, building upon the foundations laid by earlier Greek mathematicians. These advancements in medicine and geometry were emblematic of the intellectual and scientific achievements of the Hellenistic society.

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  • 47. 

    Nomadic invaders often had military advantages over the armies of empires because...?

    • A.

      They were better skilled as horsemen.

    • B.

      They developed better supply lines.

    • C.

      They had smaller distances to cover.

    • D.

      They believed they were fighting inferior cultures.

    Correct Answer
    A. They were better skilled as horsemen.
    Explanation
    Nomadic invaders often had military advantages over the armies of empires because they were better skilled as horsemen. This skill allowed them to maneuver quickly and effectively on horseback, giving them an edge in battles and raids. They were able to launch surprise attacks, retreat rapidly, and outmaneuver their opponents. Additionally, their expertise in horsemanship enabled them to use cavalry forces more effectively, utilizing tactics such as hit-and-run attacks and feigned retreats. This gave them a significant advantage over the slower and less mobile armies of empires, ultimately leading to their military success.

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  • 48. 

    The major impact of Alexander the Great's conquests was the...?

    • A.

      Establishment of a unified government for the Eastern Mediterranean.

    • B.

      Spread of Greek culture throughout the Eastern Mediterranean.

    • C.

      Elimination of foreign influences from Greek culture.

    • D.

      Destruction of regional trade and commerce.

    Correct Answer
    B. Spread of Greek culture throughout the Eastern Mediterranean.
    Explanation
    Alexander the Great's conquests had a major impact on the spread of Greek culture throughout the Eastern Mediterranean. As he conquered various territories, he encouraged the adoption of Greek language, customs, and traditions. This led to a blending of Greek and local cultures, known as Hellenization, which had a lasting influence on the region. Greek became the dominant language of government, administration, and commerce, and Greek art, architecture, philosophy, and literature spread and flourished in the conquered territories. This cultural diffusion played a significant role in shaping the Eastern Mediterranean and its subsequent history.

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  • 49. 

    Roman classic culture...

    • A.

      Developed in relative isolation.

    • B.

      Heavily influenced the cultures of West Africa and Southeast Asia.

    • C.

      Was highly innovative in the arts and sciences.

    • D.

      Borrowed heavily, especially from the Greek and Hellenistic states.

    Correct Answer
    D. Borrowed heavily, especially from the Greek and Hellenistic states.
    Explanation
    The Roman classic culture borrowed heavily, especially from the Greek and Hellenistic states. This means that the Romans incorporated many aspects of Greek and Hellenistic culture into their own. They adopted Greek art, literature, philosophy, and architecture, among other things. This borrowing of ideas and cultural elements helped to shape and influence Roman society and contributed to the development of their own unique culture.

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  • 50. 

    Greco-Roman art and culture emphasized all of the following EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      Human achievement and striving.

    • B.

      Order, symmetry, and balance.

    • C.

      Atheism.

    • D.

      Realism.

    Correct Answer
    C. Atheism.
    Explanation
    Greco-Roman art and culture were known for their focus on human achievement and striving, as well as their emphasis on order, symmetry, and balance. Additionally, realism was highly valued in their art. However, atheism was not a prominent aspect of Greco-Roman culture and therefore is the exception among the given options.

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