The replacement of the Republic by an Empire.
Acceptance of Christianity.
The weakness of the Eastern Roman Empire compared to the Western Roman Empire.
The drop in population due to a series of plagues.
Follows inevitably from a centralized, unrepresentative government.
Results from social rebellion in which the poor attack the rich and tear down their institutions.
Results from a lack of religious conviction.
Is not simply the result of attack from outside invaders.
Life after death.
Clearly organized Church structures.
Someone who fights better than a peasant-soldier.
Someone who is illiterate.
Someone who is not part of a civilization.
Someone who is not Christian.
Andean River Valleys and the plateaus of Ecuador and Peru.
American Southwest (present-day Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah).
Rio Plata and Parana river systems of Argentina.
Small groups of between 20 and 30 people, constantly moving, and using slash-and-burn farming and hunting for food.
Large bands of sedentary peoples devoted to religious offerings.
Relatively small tribes who relied on iron tools for all of their basic needs.
Large Empires, led by an authoritarian who established different "leagues" of people for farming, hunting, and construction.
The development of advanced civilizations.
The dawn of mankind.
The first recorded use of farming.
The period when simple stone tools were developed.
The ability to organize large political units.
The inability to communicate about abstractions, such as death.
The ability to spread to various geographic and climate settings.
That all tasks were shared equally by men and women.
The role of women in society.
The movements of hunter-gatherer societies.
The tendency to believe in many gods.
Communication between different peoples.
The Middle East.
It practices sedentary agriculture.
It has a written law code.
It is polytheistic.
It lives in a fertile river valley.
Use of Tools.
A Surplus of Food.
Job Specialization/Social Classes.
Resulted from new technologies, mainly the discovery of paper.
Helps explain why agriculture could develop.
Resulted from the needs of various river valley civilizations to communicate with one another.
Helps explain why governments could become more bureaucratic and formal.
Well-organized, durable empires.
Greater social equality.
More modest building projects.
Use of fire.
Rise of agriculture.
Rise of specialized classes.
Growth of towns and cities.
Started in the Middle East, but developed independently in other areas.
Occurred simultaneously in various places and spread around the world.
Arose in the Yangtze and Huang He river valleys.
Began after the abandonment of hunting and gathering.
A simplified alphabet of around 22 different letters.
A numeric system based on 10, 60, and 360.
Did not have an effective method for irrigation.
Lacked a coherent writing system.
Worshipped many gods.
Retained a unified state throughout most of its history.
Late Paleolithic Age.
A family that passed the imperial title from generation to generation.
Kings dominated by foreign interests.
Any emperor who lasted more than two decades.
Powerful bureaucrats who ran the state.
Priests' control of the state.
Loyalty to the Emperor.
The remoteness of the Emperor to his subjects.
An explantation for the decline of dynasties.
It practiced Confucianism.
It was more centralized.
It eventually declined and fell.
It lasted longer.
A powerful, all-seeing God.
Deities that punished sinful people.
Harmony and balance.
That nature was uncontrollable.
A good society has a hierarchy both in family and state.
Governments must not interfere with individual rights.
People of all social classes and abilities should be actively involved in the government.
Merchants must be valued for their money-making skills.