Anatomy & Physiology: Biochemistry

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Anatomy & Physiology: Biochemistry - Quiz

Biochemistry is the branch of science that explores the chemical processes within and related to living organisms. By using chemical knowledge and techniques, biochemists can understand and solve biological problems. Take the quiz below to know how much you understood biochemistry in the anatomy and physiology class. All the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which is not an organic molecule or compound within the body?

    • A.

      Carbohydrates

    • B.

      Salts

    • C.

      Nucleotides

    • D.

      Lipids

    • E.

      Proteins

    Correct Answer
    B. Salts
  • 2. 

    Salts, acids, and bases are all examples of electrolytes found in the human body.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Salts, acids, and bases are all examples of electrolytes found in the human body because they can dissociate into ions when dissolved in water, allowing them to conduct electric current. Electrolytes play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as maintaining fluid balance, facilitating nerve and muscle function, and regulating pH levels. Therefore, it is true that salts, acids, and bases are electrolytes found in the human body.

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  • 3. 

    Carbohydrates are found in many different forms within the body. Carbohydrates that are made up of only 3-6 carbons and form rings are called ______________________. These are used for quick energy. Another type of quick energy carbohydrates are _____________________, which are made up of 2 ___________________ bound together. Other carbohydrates are stored away for later use. These are made up of many _____________________ and are called _______________________. [separate answer with a comma]

    Correct Answer
    monosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, monosaccharides, polysaccharides
    Explanation
    Monosaccharides are carbohydrates made up of only 3-6 carbons and form rings. They are used for quick energy. Disaccharides, on the other hand, are another type of quick energy carbohydrates made up of 2 monosaccharides bound together. Polysaccharides are carbohydrates made up of many monosaccharides and are stored away for later use.

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  • 4. 

    (a)                (b) Identify the carboyhdrates and choose the correct labels for (a) and (b).

    • A.

      (a) polysaccharide (b) disaccharide

    • B.

      (a) monosaccharide (b) polysaccharide

    • C.

      (a) nucleotide (b)disaccharide

    • D.

      (a) monosaccharide (b) disaccharide

    Correct Answer
    D. (a) monosaccharide (b) disaccharide
    Explanation
    The correct answer is (a) monosaccharide (b) disaccharide. A monosaccharide is a single sugar molecule, while a disaccharide is formed when two monosaccharides are joined together by a glycosidic bond. Therefore, (a) monosaccharide and (b) disaccharide accurately describe the two types of carbohydrates.

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  • 5. 

    Polysaccharides can only be straight in formation.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Polysaccharides can have both straight and branched formations. This is because polysaccharides are made up of multiple monosaccharide units that can be linked together in various ways. While some polysaccharides may have a linear or straight structure, others can have branches or side chains attached to the main chain. Therefore, the statement that polysaccharides can only be straight in formation is incorrect.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the characteristics below is not a characteristic of fats?

    • A.

      Can be saturated or saturated

    • B.

      Protection

    • C.

      Polar

    • D.

      Storage

    • E.

      Nonpolar

    Correct Answer
    C. Polar
  • 7. 

    Which are common functions of prostaglandins in the human body?Check all that apply.

    • A.

      Activation of the inflammatory responses at the sites of damaged tissue

    • B.

      Production of pain and fever

    • C.

      Storage of important steroids

    • D.

      Are produced as a result of white blood cells flooding to the site of damaged tissue

    • E.

      Secrete acidic solutions during digestion

    • F.

      Send signals to the nervous system regarding pain

    • G.

      Involved in cell growth

    • H.

      Involved in immune system response

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Activation of the inflammatory responses at the sites of damaged tissue
    B. Production of pain and fever
    D. Are produced as a result of white blood cells flooding to the site of damaged tissue
    F. Send signals to the nervous system regarding pain
    G. Involved in cell growth
    H. Involved in immune system response
    Explanation
    Prostaglandins are lipid compounds that play various roles in the human body. They are involved in the activation of the inflammatory responses at the sites of damaged tissue, which helps in the healing process. Prostaglandins also contribute to the production of pain and fever, as they sensitize pain receptors and promote inflammation. They are produced as a result of white blood cells flooding to the site of damaged tissue, further aiding in the immune response. Additionally, prostaglandins send signals to the nervous system regarding pain, are involved in cell growth, and play a role in the immune system response.

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  • 8. 

    Phosopholipids can be found in the cell membrane.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Phospholipids are a major component of the cell membrane. They have a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails, which allows them to form a bilayer structure in water-based environments. This bilayer arrangement creates a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from its external environment. Phospholipids also play a crucial role in regulating the movement of molecules in and out of the cell, as well as maintaining the structural integrity of the cell membrane. Therefore, it is true that phospholipids can be found in the cell membrane.

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  • 9. 

    Expain what the function of steriods is in the body and give 2 or 3 examples.

  • 10. 

    This is model of an amino acid. It is made up of a carboxyl group, on one end, an amine group on the other and the alkyl group is what distinguishes each individual amino acid. Amino acids are the smaller units that make up _______________________.

    • A.

      Nucleotides

    • B.

      Carboyhydrates

    • C.

      Lipids

    • D.

      Proteins

    Correct Answer
    D. Proteins
    Explanation
    Amino acids are the smaller units that make up proteins. Proteins are composed of long chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. Each amino acid has a central carbon atom bonded to a carboxyl group, an amine group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain or alkyl group. The side chain is what distinguishes each individual amino acid and gives it unique properties. Therefore, the correct answer is proteins.

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  • 11. 

    The bond formed between amino acid molecules is an ionic bond.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Amino acid molecules are linked together by peptide bonds, which are covalent bonds, not ionic bonds. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms, while ionic bonds involve the transfer of electrons from one atom to another, resulting in the formation of charged ions. Therefore, the statement that the bond formed between amino acid molecules is an ionic bond is incorrect.

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  • 12. 

    Which is not an example of a steroid?

    • A.

      Testosterone

    • B.

      Tryiglyceride

    • C.

      Cholesterol

    • D.

      Estrogen

    • E.

      (b) and (c)

    Correct Answer
    B. Tryiglyceride
    Explanation
    A triglyceride is not an example of a steroid. Steroids are a class of organic compounds that have a specific structure consisting of four rings of carbon atoms. Testosterone, cholesterol, and estrogen are all examples of steroids. Triglycerides, on the other hand, are a type of fat molecule composed of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule. They do not have the characteristic structure of steroids.

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  • 13. 

    What are the functions of proteins in the body? Check all that apply.

    • A.

      Support

    • B.

      Movement

    • C.

      Insulation

    • D.

      Transport

    • E.

      Buffering

    • F.

      Lubrication

    • G.

      Defense

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Support
    B. Movement
    D. Transport
    E. Buffering
    G. Defense
    Explanation
    Proteins have various functions in the body. They provide support by forming structural components like collagen in connective tissues. They enable movement by acting as contractile proteins in muscles. Proteins also play a role in transport, as they can act as carriers to transport molecules and ions across cell membranes. Buffering is another function of proteins, as they help maintain the pH balance in the body. Additionally, proteins contribute to defense by acting as antibodies and enzymes that protect against pathogens and foreign substances.

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  • 14. 

    Temperature, pH, salinity, and chemical make-up can all influence protein conformation.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Temperature, pH, salinity, and chemical make-up are all factors that can affect the structure and shape of proteins, which is known as protein conformation. Proteins are sensitive to changes in their environment, and any alterations in temperature, pH, salinity, or chemical composition can disrupt the weak bonds that hold the protein in its functional shape. This can lead to denaturation or unfolding of the protein, causing it to lose its biological activity. Therefore, it is true that temperature, pH, salinity, and chemical make-up can all influence protein conformation.

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  • 15. 

    ___________________ are proteins that catalyze reactions. They work by SPECIFICITY, SATURATION, AND REGULATION.

    Correct Answer
    enzymes
    ENZYMES
    Explanation
    Enzymes are proteins that catalyze reactions by increasing the rate of chemical reactions in living organisms. They exhibit specificity, meaning they can recognize and bind to specific substrates. Enzymes also work through saturation, where their activity becomes limited when all the enzyme molecules are bound to substrates. Additionally, enzymes are regulated, meaning their activity can be controlled and adjusted based on the needs of the organism.

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  • 16. 

    Are enzymes always entirely made of amino acids?

    • A.

      Yes

    • B.

      No

    • C.

      Maybe

    • D.

      I have no idea

    Correct Answer
    B. No
    Explanation
    Enzymes are not always entirely made of amino acids. While amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, which include enzymes, enzymes can also contain other components such as cofactors or coenzymes. These additional components can be organic or inorganic molecules that are necessary for the enzyme to function properly. Therefore, enzymes may consist of both amino acids and other molecules.

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  • 17. 

    Order these words from smallest unit to largest:nucleotidenitrogenous basenucleic acid[separate with comma]

    • A.

      Nucleic acid, nitrogenous base, nucleotide

    • B.

      Nucletotide, nucleic acid, nitrogenous base

    • C.

      Nitrogenous base, nucleotide, nucleic acid

    Correct Answer
    C. Nitrogenous base, nucleotide, nucleic acid
    Explanation
    The correct order of these words from smallest unit to largest is nitrogenous base, nucleotide, nucleic acid. A nitrogenous base is the smallest unit, followed by a nucleotide which is made up of a nitrogenous base, sugar, and phosphate group. Finally, a nucleic acid is formed by a chain of nucleotides.

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  • 18. 

    The full name of DNA is _________________________ _________.

    Correct Answer
    deoxyribonucleic acid
    Explanation
    DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. It is a molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. DNA is composed of two strands that form a double helix structure, made up of nucleotides. These nucleotides consist of a sugar molecule called deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), or guanine (G). The sequence of these bases along the DNA molecule determines the genetic code, which carries the information necessary for the production of proteins and the overall functioning of an organism.

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  • 19. 

    The full name of RNA is ___________________  ___________.

    Correct Answer
    ribonucleic acid
    Explanation
    RNA stands for ribonucleic acid. It is a molecule that plays a crucial role in various biological processes. RNA is responsible for transferring genetic information from DNA to proteins, thus playing a vital role in protein synthesis. It is composed of nucleotides, which consist of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. The full name, ribonucleic acid, reflects the composition of this molecule and its role in cellular processes.

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  • 20. 

    Describe some of the differences between DNA and RNA. Where is RNA synthesized? DNA? How many strands do each have? What is the function of RNA? DNA? What binds to adenine in both?

  • 21. 

    What other important molecule contains a nitrogenous base and a ribose???

    • A.

      Bile

    • B.

      Adenosine triphosphate

    • C.

      Fructose

    • D.

      Polysaccharides

    Correct Answer
    B. Adenosine triphosphate
    Explanation
    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the correct answer because it is an important molecule that contains a nitrogenous base (adenine) and a ribose sugar. ATP is known as the "energy currency" of the cell because it stores and transfers energy within cells. It is composed of three phosphate groups, a ribose sugar, and the nitrogenous base adenine. The high-energy bonds between the phosphate groups can be broken to release energy for cellular processes.

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  • 22. 

    The complementary base pairs are ___________ - thymine and cytosine-_____________. [separate with comma]

    Correct Answer
    adenine, guanine
    Explanation
    The complementary base pairs in DNA are adenine and thymine, and guanine and cytosine. Adenine pairs with thymine through two hydrogen bonds, while guanine pairs with cytosine through three hydrogen bonds. Therefore, the correct answer is adenine, guanine.

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