Urinalysis Study Questions

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Urinalysis Study Questions - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Each kidney is composed of more than a million complete urinary functional units called

    • A.

      Glomeruli

    • B.

      Nephrons

    • C.

      Photons

    • D.

      Medullas

    Correct Answer
    B. Nephrons
    Explanation
    Each kidney is composed of more than a million complete urinary functional units called nephrons. Nephrons are microscopic structures responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and producing urine. They consist of a glomerulus, which filters the blood, and a tubule, which reabsorbs necessary substances and excretes waste products. The correct answer is nephrons because they are the functional units of the kidneys and play a crucial role in maintaining the body's fluid and electrolyte balance.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is not one of the 4 main functions of the kidney?

    • A.

      To rid the body of excess protein

    • B.

      To rid the body of waste products of metabolism

    • C.

      To rid the body of foreign substance

    • D.

      To maintain acid-base equilibrium

    Correct Answer
    A. To rid the body of excess protein
    Explanation
    The kidney plays a crucial role in maintaining the acid-base equilibrium, eliminating waste products of metabolism, and getting rid of foreign substances from the body. However, the primary function of the kidney is not to rid the body of excess protein. While the kidney does filter and excrete small amounts of protein, its main function regarding protein is to reabsorb it and prevent its loss in the urine. Therefore, the correct answer is to rid the body of excess protein.

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  • 3. 

    The process performed by the glomerulus as a part of urine formation is called

    • A.

      Filtration

    • B.

      Secretion

    • C.

      Absorption

    • D.

      Transudation

    Correct Answer
    A. Filtration
    Explanation
    The process performed by the glomerulus as a part of urine formation is called filtration. Filtration is the movement of fluid and solutes from the blood in the glomerulus into the Bowman's capsule. This process allows small molecules such as water, ions, and waste products to pass through the filtration membrane, while larger molecules like proteins and blood cells are retained in the blood. Filtration is the first step in urine formation and plays a crucial role in removing waste products from the body.

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  • 4. 

    An increased cystatin C corresponds to a descreased creatinine clearance and to impaired kidney function.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    An increased cystatin C level indicates that the kidneys are not functioning properly. Cystatin C is a protein that is filtered by the kidneys, and its levels in the blood increase when the kidneys are not able to effectively clear it from the body. This is often seen in individuals with impaired kidney function. Creatinine clearance, on the other hand, is a measure of how well the kidneys are able to remove waste products from the blood. A decrease in creatinine clearance is also indicative of impaired kidney function. Therefore, an increased cystatin C level corresponds to a decreased creatinine clearance and impaired kidney function.

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  • 5. 

    During urine formation which of the following substances is generally not allowed to filter through the glomerular capillaries?

    • A.

      Ascorbic acid

    • B.

      Plasma protein

    • C.

      Urea

    • D.

      Creatinine

    Correct Answer
    B. Plasma protein
    Explanation
    During urine formation, plasma proteins are generally not allowed to filter through the glomerular capillaries. This is because the glomerular capillaries have small pores that only allow small molecules like water, ions, and waste products to pass through. Plasma proteins are large molecules that are important for maintaining osmotic pressure and other functions in the blood, so they are usually retained in the bloodstream and not filtered into the urine.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following substances makes up the majority of total urinary dissolved organic solids?

    • A.

      Protein

    • B.

      Urea

    • C.

      Creatinine

    • D.

      Sodium

    Correct Answer
    B. Urea
    Explanation
    Urea is the correct answer because it is the main component of urinary dissolved organic solids. Urea is a waste product formed in the liver when proteins are broken down. It is then filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in urine. Protein, creatinine, and sodium are also present in urine, but they do not make up the majority of urinary dissolved organic solids.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is true of the estimated glomerular filtration rate test/calculation (eGFR)?

    • A.

      A larger urine sample is needed for the eGFR than for a creatinine clearance test

    • B.

      Only a blood samples is needed for the eGFR

    • C.

      Patient race is a factor in the formula

    • D.

      None of the above

    • E.

      More than one of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Only a blood samples is needed for the eGFR
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that only a blood sample is needed for the eGFR. This test is used to estimate how well the kidneys are functioning by measuring the level of creatinine in the blood. It does not require a urine sample or take into account the patient's race in the calculation.

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  • 8. 

    The total renal blood flow is approximately:

    • A.

      40 mL/min

    • B.

      120 mL/min

    • C.

      600 mL/min

    • D.

      1200 mL/min

    Correct Answer
    D. 1200 mL/min
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 1200 mL/min. This is because the kidneys receive a large amount of blood flow in order to filter waste products and maintain fluid balance in the body. The kidneys receive about 20% of the total cardiac output, which is approximately 6000 mL/min. Therefore, the total renal blood flow is estimated to be around 1200 mL/min.

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  • 9. 

    In which part of the kidney does concentration of urine mostly take place?

    • A.

      The glomeruli and bowman's capsules

    • B.

      The loop of henle

    • C.

      The proximal convoluted tubules

    • D.

      The distal convoluted tubules and the collecting duct

    Correct Answer
    D. The distal convoluted tubules and the collecting duct
    Explanation
    The concentration of urine mostly takes place in the distal convoluted tubules and the collecting duct of the kidney. These structures are responsible for reabsorbing water and solutes from the filtrate, thereby concentrating the urine. The loop of Henle is primarily involved in establishing a concentration gradient, while the glomeruli and Bowman's capsules are responsible for the initial filtration of blood. The proximal convoluted tubules also play a role in reabsorption, but not as significant as the distal convoluted tubules and collecting duct in concentrating urine.

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  • 10. 

    During the flow of filtrate through the tubules, which of the following substances is not absorbed in significant amounts?

    • A.

      Water

    • B.

      Glucose

    • C.

      Creatinine

    • D.

      Phosphate

    • E.

      Sulfate

    Correct Answer
    C. Creatinine
    Explanation
    Creatinine is not absorbed in significant amounts during the flow of filtrate through the tubules.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the answers below represents the direction of the flow of filtrate through the nephron?

    • A.

      Loop of henle, proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, glomerular space (bowman's capsule), collecting tubule

    • B.

      Collecting tubule, distal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, proximal convoluted tubule, glomerular space (bowman's capsule)

    • C.

      Proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, glomerular space (bowman's capsule), loop of henle, collecting tubule

    • D.

      Glomerular space (bowman's capsule), proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubule

    Correct Answer
    D. Glomerular space (bowman's capsule), proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubule
    Explanation
    The correct answer represents the correct direction of the flow of filtrate through the nephron. The filtrate first enters the glomerular space (Bowman's capsule), then moves to the proximal convoluted tubule, followed by the loop of Henle. After that, it passes through the distal convoluted tubule and finally reaches the collecting tubule. This sequence represents the correct flow of filtrate through the nephron in the renal system.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is NOT an organic substance found in the urine?

    • A.

      Urea

    • B.

      Uric acid

    • C.

      Creatinine

    • D.

      Ammonia

    Correct Answer
    D. Ammonia
    Explanation
    Ammonia is not an organic substance found in urine. Organic substances are compounds that contain carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms. Urea, uric acid, and creatinine are all organic substances that are normally present in urine. Ammonia, on the other hand, is a compound that does not contain carbon-hydrogen bonds and is typically excreted in the form of ammonium ions rather than as ammonia gas in urine.

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  • 13. 

    The average amount of urine passed by a normal adult in 24 hours is approximately:

    • A.

      300-400 ml

    • B.

      600-700 ml

    • C.

      900-1000 ml

    • D.

      1200-1500 ml

    Correct Answer
    D. 1200-1500 ml
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 1200-1500 ml. This range represents the average amount of urine passed by a normal adult in 24 hours. It is important to note that individual urine output can vary depending on factors such as fluid intake, activity level, and overall health. However, this range is generally considered to be within the normal range for adults.

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  • 14. 

    The principle site of urea formation is the:

    • A.

      Spleen

    • B.

      Kidney

    • C.

      Liver

    • D.

      Bladder

    Correct Answer
    C. Liver
    Explanation
    The liver is the correct answer because it is the main organ responsible for urea formation. Urea is a waste product that is formed in the liver during the breakdown of proteins. The liver plays a crucial role in metabolism and detoxification, and one of its functions is to convert ammonia, a toxic byproduct of protein metabolism, into urea. Urea is then transported to the kidneys for excretion in the urine. The spleen, kidney, and bladder do not have a significant role in urea formation.

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  • 15. 

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is responsible for all of the following except:

    • A.

      Lowering the glomerular blood pressure

    • B.

      Vasoconstriction of the renal arterioles

    • C.

      Reabsorption of sodium

    • D.

      Release of aldosterone

    Correct Answer
    A. Lowering the glomerular blood pressure
    Explanation
    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is responsible for vasoconstriction of the renal arterioles, reabsorption of sodium, and release of aldosterone. However, it does not play a role in lowering the glomerular blood pressure. In fact, the system is activated in response to low blood pressure or low blood volume in order to increase blood pressure and maintain adequate perfusion to the kidneys.

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  • 16. 

    Production of antidiuretic hormone is controlled by the:

    • A.

      Osmotic gradient of the medulla

    • B.

      Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

    • C.

      State of body hydration

    • D.

      Cells of the renal cortex

    Correct Answer
    C. State of body hydration
    Explanation
    The production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is controlled by the state of body hydration. ADH is released by the hypothalamus and acts on the kidneys to regulate water reabsorption. When the body is dehydrated, ADH levels increase, causing the kidneys to reabsorb more water and produce concentrated urine. On the other hand, when the body is well-hydrated, ADH levels decrease, leading to increased urine production and dilution. Therefore, the state of body hydration plays a crucial role in regulating ADH production and water balance in the body.

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  • 17. 

    The first morning specimen of urine is requested often because the:

    • A.

      Patient rested all night

    • B.

      Urine remains in the bladder for a longer time

    • C.

      Urine is more concentrated

    • D.

      Specimen is easier to collect

    Correct Answer
    C. Urine is more concentrated
    Explanation
    The first morning specimen of urine is requested often because the urine is more concentrated. During the night, the body goes through a period of water conservation, leading to a higher concentration of waste products in the urine. This concentrated urine sample provides a better representation of the body's metabolic processes and can help in the diagnosis of certain conditions or monitoring of treatment effectiveness. Additionally, the higher concentration makes it easier to detect any abnormalities or substances of interest in the urine sample.

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  • 18. 

    The primary chemical constituents of urine are water,

    • A.

      Protein and sodium

    • B.

      Chloride and bilirubin

    • C.

      Urea and chloride

    • D.

      Urea and protein

    Correct Answer
    C. Urea and chloride
    Explanation
    Urine is primarily composed of water along with various dissolved substances. Urea, a waste product of protein metabolism, is one of the main chemical constituents of urine. It is produced in the liver and excreted through the kidneys. Chloride is an electrolyte that helps maintain the balance of fluids in the body and is also excreted in urine. Therefore, urea and chloride are the correct primary chemical constituents of urine.

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  • 19. 

    The solid, undissolved particles in the urine are preserved:

    • A.

      Better in acid urine

    • B.

      Better in neutral urine

    • C.

      Better in alkaline urine

    • D.

      Equally well at any pH

    Correct Answer
    A. Better in acid urine
    Explanation
    Solid, undissolved particles in urine are better preserved in acid urine because acidic conditions help to prevent the breakdown or dissolution of these particles. Acidic urine creates an environment that is less favorable for the degradation or solubility of these particles, allowing them to remain intact and visible. In contrast, neutral or alkaline urine may promote the dissolution or degradation of these particles, making them less visible or causing them to dissolve completely. Therefore, acid urine is more effective in preserving the solid particles in urine.

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  • 20. 

    A urine specimen may be rejected by the laboratory for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Nonmatching label and requisition form

    • B.

      Specimen and contaminated with feces

    • C.

      Contamination on the exterior of the container

    • D.

      The container uses a screw-top lid

    Correct Answer
    D. The container uses a screw-top lid
    Explanation
    A urine specimen may be rejected by the laboratory for all of the given reasons except for the container using a screw-top lid. The other reasons mentioned, such as nonmatching label and requisition form, specimen contaminated with feces, and contamination on the exterior of the container, are valid reasons for rejection as they can affect the accuracy and reliability of the test results. However, the type of lid used on the container does not impact the quality of the specimen itself, so it would not be a reason for rejection.

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  • 21. 

    Upon standing, normal urine becomes alkaline chiefly due to:

    • A.

      Acid ash

    • B.

      Increased protein

    • C.

      Increased quinic acids

    • D.

      Bacterial action on urea

    Correct Answer
    D. Bacterial action on urea
    Explanation
    When urine is initially produced, it is slightly acidic. However, upon standing, the urea present in urine can be broken down by bacteria into ammonia. This bacterial action on urea leads to an increase in the pH of urine, making it alkaline. Therefore, the correct answer is bacterial action on urea.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following will be LEAST affected in an unpreserved specimen left at room temperature overnight?

    • A.

      Bilirubin

    • B.

      Urbilinogen

    • C.

      RBCs

    • D.

      Protein

    Correct Answer
    D. Protein
    Explanation
    Protein is the correct answer because it is the most stable out of the options listed. When a specimen is left at room temperature overnight, bilirubin and urobilinogen can degrade, leading to changes in their levels. RBCs can also lyse and break down, causing changes in their appearance and count. However, proteins are generally more resistant to degradation and can remain relatively stable even when left unpreserved for a short period of time.

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  • 23. 

    The preferred method of urine preservation in the laboratory is:

    • A.

      Refrigeration

    • B.

      Boric acid

    • C.

      Sodium fluoride

    • D.

      Commercial tablets

    Correct Answer
    A. Refrigeration
    Explanation
    Refrigeration is the preferred method of urine preservation in the laboratory because it helps to maintain the integrity of the urine sample. By keeping the urine at a low temperature, bacterial growth and degradation of the sample are minimized. This ensures that accurate and reliable test results can be obtained from the preserved urine sample. Additionally, refrigeration also helps to prevent the formation of crystals or precipitation in the urine, which could interfere with the analysis.

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  • 24. 

    Before analysis, a refrigerated urine specimen must be:

    • A.

      Warmed to 37 degrees C

    • B.

      Examined for crystal formation

    • C.

      Examined for changes in color

    • D.

      Returned to room temperature

    Correct Answer
    D. Returned to room temperature
    Explanation
    A refrigerated urine specimen needs to be returned to room temperature before analysis because cold temperatures can affect the accuracy of certain tests. Some tests require the urine to be at a specific temperature, usually room temperature, to ensure reliable results. By allowing the specimen to warm up to room temperature, any potential changes in the urine's composition due to refrigeration can be minimized, allowing for more accurate analysis.

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  • 25. 

    Quantitation of a substance that varies with daily activites should be performed on a:

    • A.

      Random specimen

    • B.

      First morning specimen

    • C.

      24 hour specimen

    • D.

      2 hour postprandial specimen

    Correct Answer
    C. 24 hour specimen
    Explanation
    Quantitation of a substance that varies with daily activities should be performed on a 24-hour specimen. This is because a 24-hour specimen provides a more comprehensive and accurate representation of the substance's levels throughout the entire day, capturing any fluctuations that may occur due to daily activities. Other specimens, such as random or first morning specimens, may only capture a snapshot of the substance's levels at a specific time, which may not be representative of its overall variation. A 2-hour postprandial specimen, on the other hand, is specifically used to measure the substance's levels after a meal and may not provide a complete picture of its daily variation.

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  • 26. 

    Will ketones be increased or decreased as a reault of prolonged sitting of a urine sample at room temperature?

    • A.

      Increased

    • B.

      Decreased

    Correct Answer
    B. Decreased
    Explanation
    Ketones are unstable compounds that can degrade over time, especially when exposed to room temperature. Prolonged sitting of a urine sample at room temperature can lead to the breakdown of ketones, resulting in a decrease in their concentration. Therefore, the correct answer is decreased.

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  • 27. 

    Will glucose be increased or decreased as a result of prolonged sitting of a urine sample at room temperature?

    • A.

      Increased

    • B.

      Decreased

    Correct Answer
    B. Decreased
    Explanation
    Prolonged sitting of a urine sample at room temperature can lead to bacterial growth and metabolism of glucose in the urine. This results in the consumption of glucose by bacteria, leading to a decrease in the glucose levels in the urine sample. Therefore, the correct answer is decreased.

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  • 28. 

    Will pH be increased or decreased as a result of prolonged sitting of a urine sample at room temperature?

    • A.

      Increased

    • B.

      Decreased

    Correct Answer
    A. Increased
    Explanation
    When a urine sample sits at room temperature for a prolonged period, it undergoes a process called bacterial decomposition. During this process, bacteria in the urine break down urea into ammonia, leading to an increase in the pH level of the sample. Therefore, the pH of the urine sample would be increased as a result of prolonged sitting at room temperature.

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  • 29. 

    Will nitrite be increased or decreased as a result of prolonged sitting of a urine sample at room temperature?

    • A.

      Increased

    • B.

      Decreased

    Correct Answer
    A. Increased
    Explanation
    Prolonged sitting of a urine sample at room temperature can lead to an increase in nitrite levels. Nitrite is a byproduct of bacterial metabolism in the urinary tract, and its presence in urine is usually indicative of a urinary tract infection. When a urine sample sits at room temperature for an extended period, any bacteria present in the sample can continue to metabolize and produce more nitrite, resulting in an increase in its levels. Therefore, the correct answer is increased.

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  • 30. 

    Will turbidity be increased or decreased as a result of prolonged sitting of a urine sample at room temperature?

    • A.

      Increased

    • B.

      Decreased

    Correct Answer
    A. Increased
    Explanation
    Turbidity refers to the cloudiness or haziness of a liquid caused by the presence of suspended particles. When a urine sample sits at room temperature for a prolonged period, it allows time for any particles or sediment present in the urine to settle. As a result, the concentration of suspended particles increases, leading to an increase in turbidity. Therefore, the correct answer is increased.

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  • 31. 

    Will urobilinogen be increased or decreased as a result of prolonged sitting of a urine sample at room temperature?

    • A.

      Increased

    • B.

      Decreased

    Correct Answer
    B. Decreased
    Explanation
    Prolonged sitting of a urine sample at room temperature can lead to the breakdown of urobilinogen by bacterial action. Urobilinogen is a byproduct of bilirubin metabolism and is normally present in small amounts in urine. However, when the sample is left sitting, bacteria can convert urobilinogen into urobilin, which is a more stable compound. This conversion reduces the levels of urobilinogen in the urine, resulting in a decrease.

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  • 32. 

    Will bilirubin be increased or decreased as a result of prolonged sitting of a urine sample at room temperature?

    • A.

      Increased

    • B.

      Decreased

    Correct Answer
    B. Decreased
    Explanation
    Prolonged sitting of a urine sample at room temperature can lead to the breakdown of bilirubin. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that is produced when red blood cells are broken down. It is normally excreted in the urine. However, when a urine sample is left at room temperature for a long time, the activity of enzymes that break down bilirubin increases, causing a decrease in its concentration. Therefore, the correct answer is decreased.

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  • 33. 

    Will cells be increased or decreased as a result of prolonged sitting of a urine sample at room temperature?

    • A.

      Increased

    • B.

      Decreased

    Correct Answer
    B. Decreased
    Explanation
    Prolonged sitting of a urine sample at room temperature can lead to bacterial growth and multiplication, which can cause the breakdown of cells in the urine. This breakdown of cells can result in a decrease in the number of cells present in the urine sample. Therefore, the correct answer is decreased.

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  • 34. 

    The specific gravity of the urine is determined by its composition. One percent concentration of urinary protein would increase the specific gravity by what figure?

    • A.

      0.003

    • B.

      0.005

    • C.

      0.010

    • D.

      0.015

    • E.

      0.020

    Correct Answer
    A. 0.003
    Explanation
    A 1% concentration of urinary protein would increase the specific gravity of urine by 0.003. This means that for every 1% increase in the concentration of urinary protein, the specific gravity of urine would increase by 0.003.

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  • 35. 

    The normal color of the urine is mostly due to what pigment?

    • A.

      Urochrome

    • B.

      Creatinine

    • C.

      Uric acid

    • D.

      Bilirubin

    Correct Answer
    A. Urochrome
    Explanation
    Urochrome is the pigment responsible for the normal color of urine. It is a yellow pigment that is produced when the body breaks down hemoglobin from old red blood cells. Urochrome is excreted by the kidneys and gives urine its characteristic yellow color. Creatinine, uric acid, and bilirubin are not responsible for the normal color of urine. Creatinine is a waste product of muscle metabolism, uric acid is a waste product of purine metabolism, and bilirubin is a yellow pigment produced during the breakdown of red blood cells, but their presence in urine is abnormal and may indicate underlying health issues.

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  • 36. 

    A pale colored urine usually indicates that:

    • A.

      The urine is dilute

    • B.

      Glucose is present

    • C.

      Protein is present

    • D.

      The patient is an alcoholic

    Correct Answer
    A. The urine is dilute
    Explanation
    A pale colored urine usually indicates that the urine is dilute. Dilute urine means that there is a higher concentration of water and a lower concentration of waste products. This can be caused by drinking a lot of fluids or having a well-hydrated body. In contrast, concentrated urine is usually darker in color and indicates that there is a higher concentration of waste products and a lower concentration of water. Therefore, a pale colored urine suggests that the body is well-hydrated and the urine is less concentrated.

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  • 37. 

    A urine that is yellowish-brown and, on shaking, produces yellow foam MOST likely contains:

    • A.

      Prophyrins

    • B.

      Melanin

    • C.

      Bilirubin

    • D.

      Indican

    Correct Answer
    C. Bilirubin
    Explanation
    A urine that is yellowish-brown and produces yellow foam when shaken is most likely to contain bilirubin. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that is formed from the breakdown of red blood cells in the liver. When present in high levels in the urine, it can cause the urine to have a yellowish-brown color and produce foam when shaken. This can be an indication of liver dysfunction or a problem with the breakdown of red blood cells.

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  • 38. 

    The most probably cause of a white precipitate that is macroscopically visible in urine is:

    • A.

      Amorphous urates

    • B.

      Lipids

    • C.

      Amorphous phosphates

    • D.

      Radiographic contrast media

    Correct Answer
    C. Amorphous phosphates
    Explanation
    The most probable cause of a white precipitate that is macroscopically visible in urine is amorphous phosphates. Amorphous phosphates are a type of crystal that can form in urine when there is an excess of phosphate ions. This can occur due to a variety of reasons, such as a high protein diet or urinary tract infections. When these crystals precipitate out of the urine, they can appear as a white sediment. Lipids and radiographic contrast media are not typically present in urine in sufficient quantities to cause visible precipitates, and amorphous urates would appear as a reddish-brown sediment rather than white.

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  • 39. 

    Crenated RBCs would MOST likely be found in a urine with a specific gravity of

    • A.

      1.003

    • B.

      1.015

    • C.

      1.021

    • D.

      1.038

    Correct Answer
    D. 1.038
    Explanation
    Crenated RBCs are red blood cells that have shriveled and developed abnormal, spiky shapes due to dehydration or exposure to hypertonic solutions. A specific gravity of 1.038 indicates a highly concentrated urine, which means there is a higher concentration of solutes in the urine compared to pure water. This concentration can cause dehydration and lead to the crenation of red blood cells. Therefore, crenated RBCs are most likely to be found in a urine sample with a specific gravity of 1.038.

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  • 40. 

    Specimens that contain intact RBCs cal be visually distinguished from those that contain hemoglobin because

    • A.

      Hemoglobin produces a brighter red color

    • B.

      Hemoglobin produces a cloudy, pink specimen

    • C.

      RBCs produce a cloudy specimen

    • D.

      RBCs are rapidly converted to hemoglobin

    Correct Answer
    C. RBCs produce a cloudy specimen
    Explanation
    RBCs produce a cloudy specimen because they are larger in size and have a higher refractive index compared to hemoglobin. This causes light to scatter when it passes through the specimen, resulting in a cloudy appearance. On the other hand, hemoglobin, being a pigment, does not scatter light as much and therefore does not produce a cloudy specimen.

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  • 41. 

    An ADH deficiency is associated with urine with a:

    • A.

      Specific gravity close to 1.025

    • B.

      Low specific gravity

    • C.

      High specific gravity

    • D.

      Variable specific gravity

    Correct Answer
    B. Low specific gravity
    Explanation
    An ADH deficiency impairs the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine, resulting in the excretion of a larger volume of more dilute urine. This leads to a low specific gravity, as the urine is less concentrated and contains a higher proportion of water.

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  • 42. 

    The refractive index compares:

    • A.

      Light velocity in solutions with light velocity in solids

    • B.

      Light velocity in air with light velocity in solutions

    • C.

      Light scattering by air with light scattering by solutions

    • D.

      Light scattering by particles in solutions

    Correct Answer
    B. Light velocity in air with light velocity in solutions
    Explanation
    The refractive index compares the speed of light in air with the speed of light in solutions. The refractive index is a measure of how much the speed of light changes when it passes through a medium, and it is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in the medium. Therefore, comparing the speed of light in air with the speed of light in solutions allows us to determine the refractive index of the solution.

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  • 43. 

    The specific gravity of the urine is the result of the dissolved substances that are present

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The specific gravity of urine refers to the density of the urine compared to that of water. It indicates the concentration of dissolved substances in the urine, such as salts, proteins, and waste products. Therefore, the statement that the specific gravity of urine is the result of the dissolved substances that are present is true. The more dissolved substances present in the urine, the higher the specific gravity will be.

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  • 44. 

    Diabetes insipidus is characterized by the continuous excretion of dilute urine.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Diabetes insipidus is a condition characterized by the inability of the kidneys to properly regulate the balance of water in the body. This leads to the continuous excretion of large amounts of dilute urine, resulting in increased thirst and dehydration. Therefore, the statement that diabetes insipidus is characterized by the continuous excretion of dilute urine is true.

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  • 45. 

    Dilute urine is usually dark yellow.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Dilute urine is usually pale or clear in color, not dark yellow. Dark yellow urine can indicate dehydration or a high concentration of waste products in the urine.

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  • 46. 

    In diabetes insipidus the specific gravity of urine is approximately 1.001 - 1.005

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In diabetes insipidus, the specific gravity of urine is indeed approximately 1.001 - 1.005. Diabetes insipidus is a condition characterized by excessive thirst and the production of large amounts of diluted urine. This occurs due to a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or an insensitivity of the kidneys to ADH. As a result, the kidneys are unable to concentrate urine effectively, leading to a low specific gravity. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 47. 

    The NORMAL relationship of urine volume and specific gravity is inverse

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The relationship between urine volume and specific gravity is inverse. This means that as the urine volume increases, the specific gravity decreases, and vice versa. This is because specific gravity measures the concentration of solutes in urine, and when there is a larger volume of urine, the concentration of solutes is diluted, resulting in a lower specific gravity. Conversely, when there is a smaller volume of urine, the concentration of solutes is higher, leading to a higher specific gravity. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 48. 

    A refractormeter reads 1.003 with distilled water. The techologist should:

    • A.

      Subtract 0.003 from the specimen results

    • B.

      Add 0.003 to the specimen results

    • C.

      Use a urinometer to measure the specific gravity

    • D.

      Adjust the set screw.

    Correct Answer
    D. Adjust the set screw.
    Explanation
    The refractometer reading of 1.003 with distilled water indicates that the instrument is not calibrated correctly. To ensure accurate results, the technologist should adjust the set screw on the refractometer to correct the calibration.

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  • 49. 

    Orthostatic proteinuria is most frequently ovserved in a specimen obtained

    • A.

      Upon arising in the morning

    • B.

      2 hours after arising in the morning

    • C.

      2 hours after a heavy meal

    • D.

      At the end of the day.

    Correct Answer
    D. At the end of the day.
    Explanation
    Orthostatic proteinuria is a condition where protein is found in the urine only when a person is upright and disappears when they lie down. This condition is most commonly observed at the end of the day. This is because throughout the day, as a person stands and walks, the pressure in the blood vessels of the kidneys increases, causing protein to leak into the urine. However, when the person lies down, the pressure decreases and the proteinuria resolves. Therefore, collecting a specimen at the end of the day is more likely to detect the presence of protein in the urine in cases of orthostatic proteinuria.

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  • 50. 

    Bence Jones protein differs from other urinary protein by its

    • A.

      Solubility at boiling temperature

    • B.

      Reaction with toluidine

    • C.

      Solubility in sulfurinc acid

    • D.

      Quantity

    Correct Answer
    A. Solubility at boiling temperature
    Explanation
    Bence Jones protein is a type of protein that is found in the urine of individuals with multiple myeloma, a type of cancer. It is characterized by its unique property of being soluble at boiling temperature. Unlike other urinary proteins, Bence Jones protein remains dissolved in urine even when heated, which allows for its detection through laboratory tests. This solubility at boiling temperature is a distinguishing feature of Bence Jones protein and helps in its identification and diagnosis.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 01, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Amandaregal
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