Microscopical Examination Of Urine

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Hananhosny
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Urine Quizzes & Trivia

Microscopical urine examination


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    RBC's normal range in urine:

    • A.

      Upto 4/HPF

    • B.

      Upto 40/HPF

    • C.

      Upto 14/HPF

    Correct Answer
    A. Upto 4/HPF
    Explanation
    The normal range for RBCs (red blood cells) in urine is up to 4 per high power field (HPF). This means that in a microscopic examination of urine, it is considered normal to find up to 4 red blood cells per high power field. Any number above this range may indicate a potential problem or underlying condition.

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  • 2. 

    Pyuria refers to:

    • A.

      WBC's greater than 5/HPF

    • B.

      RBC's greater than 5/HPF

    • C.

      WBC's casts greater than 5?HPF

    Correct Answer
    A. WBC's greater than 5/HPF
    Explanation
    Pyuria refers to the presence of white blood cells (WBCs) in the urine. A normal urine sample should contain very few or no WBCs. Therefore, if the number of WBCs in a high-power field (HPF) is greater than 5, it indicates pyuria. This can be a sign of urinary tract infection, kidney infection, or other inflammatory conditions affecting the urinary system.

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  • 3. 

    RBC's casts are indicative of:

    • A.

      Cystitis

    • B.

      Nephritis

    • C.

      Acute glomerulonephritis

    Correct Answer
    C. Acute glomerulonephritis
    Explanation
    The presence of RBC's casts is indicative of acute glomerulonephritis. This condition is characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli in the kidneys, leading to the leakage of red blood cells into the urine. The formation of casts, which are cylindrical structures composed of clumps of red blood cells, is a specific sign of glomerular damage. Cystitis and nephritis may also present with hematuria (blood in the urine), but the presence of RBC's casts specifically points towards acute glomerulonephritis.

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  • 4. 

    Crystals common in alkaline PH:

    • A.

      Triple phosphate

    • B.

      Ca-oxalate

    • C.

      Uric acid

    Correct Answer
    A. Triple phosphate
    Explanation
    Triple phosphate crystals are commonly found in alkaline pH. This is because triple phosphate crystals, also known as struvite crystals, form in alkaline urine. The alkaline pH provides the ideal environment for the formation of these crystals, which consist of magnesium, ammonium, and phosphate. Therefore, when the pH of urine is alkaline, it promotes the precipitation of triple phosphate crystals.

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  • 5. 

    Needle-like crystals:

    • A.

      Alkaline phosphate

    • B.

      Uric acid

    • C.

      Ca-oxalate

    Correct Answer
    B. Uric acid
    Explanation
    Uric acid can form needle-like crystals when it precipitates out of urine. These crystals are commonly seen in conditions such as gout, where there is an excess of uric acid in the body. The needle-like shape of the crystals is due to the unique structure of uric acid molecules, which align in a way that forms elongated, pointed crystals. This characteristic appearance helps in the identification of uric acid crystals under a microscope and can aid in the diagnosis of conditions associated with uric acid deposition.

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  • 6. 

    Bilharzial ova seen in urine:

    • A.

      Schistosoma hematobium(lateral spine)

    • B.

      Schistosoma mansoni (terminal spine)

    • C.

      Schistosoma haematobium (terminal spine)

    Correct Answer
    C. Schistosoma haematobium (terminal spine)
    Explanation
    Schistosoma haematobium is a parasitic flatworm that causes the disease schistosomiasis. One of the characteristic features of this species is the presence of terminal spines on its ova. When these ova are present in the urine, it is a strong indication of a schistosoma haematobium infection. The other two options, schistosoma hematobium (lateral spine) and schistosoma mansoni (terminal spine), do not match the specific characteristic of schistosoma haematobium, making them incorrect answers.

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  • 7. 

    Type of epithelial cells:

    • A.

      Renal tubular

    • B.

      Transitional

    • C.

      Squamous

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above" because renal tubular, transitional, and squamous epithelial cells are all types of epithelial cells. Renal tubular epithelial cells line the renal tubules in the kidneys, transitional epithelial cells are found in the urinary tract and can stretch and contract, and squamous epithelial cells are flat and scale-like and can be found in various parts of the body such as the skin and the lining of blood vessels. Therefore, all three types of cells mentioned in the options are indeed types of epithelial cells.

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  • 8. 

    Crystals with envelope shape:

    • A.

      Ca-oxalate

    • B.

      Triple phosphate

    • C.

      Uric acid

    Correct Answer
    A. Ca-oxalate
    Explanation
    Ca-oxalate crystals have an envelope shape. This means that they are formed in a way that resembles an envelope or a pouch. The shape of the crystals is determined by the arrangement of the molecules and the conditions under which they form. In the case of Ca-oxalate, the molecules are arranged in a way that creates an envelope shape. This shape is characteristic of Ca-oxalate crystals and can be used to identify them under a microscope or through other analytical techniques.

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  • 9. 

    Triple Phosphate crytals have.....shape:

    • A.

      Envelope

    • B.

      Needles

    • C.

      Coffin lid

    Correct Answer
    C. Coffin lid
    Explanation
    Triple Phosphate crystals are also known as ammonium magnesium phosphate or struvite crystals. These crystals typically form in alkaline urine and are commonly associated with urinary tract infections. The term "coffin lid" refers to the shape of these crystals, which appear as large, rectangular or coffin-shaped prisms. This shape is a characteristic feature of triple Phosphate crystals and helps in their identification under a microscope.

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  • 10. 

    Casts take the shape of:

    • A.

      Renal tubules

    • B.

      Cells

    • C.

      Nephrons

    Correct Answer
    A. Renal tubules
    Explanation
    Casts, in the context of this question, refer to solid materials that can form in the renal tubules of the kidneys. These casts can take the shape of renal tubules themselves, as they are composed of materials that have accumulated and solidified within the tubules. Therefore, the correct answer is renal tubules.

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