Surgical Tech (Appleton & Lange) Part 3

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Surgical Technology Quizzes & Trivia

Information from section 1 of the study guide questions 201 -300 in the Appleton and Lange book


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The type of wound healing that requires debridement is

    • A.

      First

    • B.

      Second

    • C.

      Third

    • D.

      Fourth

    Correct Answer
    C. Third
    Explanation
    Debridement is the process of removing dead or damaged tissue from a wound in order to promote healing. This is typically necessary in wounds that are not healing properly or have become infected. The third option is the correct answer because it implies that there is a specific type of wound healing that requires debridement. The first and second options do not provide any information about debridement, and the fourth option is not relevant to the question.

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  • 2. 

    To promote healing, a surgical wound must have all of the following requisites EXCEPT

    • A.

      Suture closure of dead space

    • B.

      Drains to remove fluid or air

    • C.

      A moderately tight dressing

    • D.

      Tight sutures to create tension

    Correct Answer
    D. Tight sutures to create tension
    Explanation
    The correct answer is tight sutures to create tension. While all the other options listed promote healing of a surgical wound, tight sutures that create tension can actually hinder healing. Tension on the wound edges can impair blood flow and increase the risk of wound dehiscence (splitting open) or poor scar formation. Therefore, it is important to avoid excessive tension when closing a surgical wound.

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  • 3. 

    Wound healing that employs a technique allowing the would to heal from the bottom up is called

    • A.

      Interrupted intention

    • B.

      First intention

    • C.

      Second intention

    • D.

      Third intention

    Correct Answer
    C. Second intention
    Explanation
    Second intention wound healing refers to the healing process where a wound is left open to heal from the bottom up. This technique is used for larger wounds with a significant loss of tissue or when primary closure is not possible. The wound is allowed to heal by granulation, contraction, and epithelialization. This process takes longer compared to primary intention healing, where the wound edges are closed together with sutures. Interrupted intention, first intention, and third intention are not valid terms used in wound healing.

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  • 4. 

    Which body fluid is least likely to transmit HIV?

    • A.

      Blood

    • B.

      Semen

    • C.

      Saliva

    • D.

      Apinal fluid

    Correct Answer
    C. Saliva
    Explanation
    Saliva is the body fluid that is least likely to transmit HIV. HIV is primarily transmitted through direct contact with infected blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. Saliva contains very low levels of the virus and does not typically transmit HIV unless there is a significant amount of blood present. However, it is still important to practice safe behaviors and avoid activities that involve the exchange of bodily fluids to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

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  • 5. 

    A band of scar tissue that binds together two anatomical surfaces that are normally separate from each other is called

    • A.

      Keloid

    • B.

      Adhesion

    • C.

      Cicatrix

    • D.

      Dehiscence

    Correct Answer
    B. Adhesion
    Explanation
    An adhesion is a band of scar tissue that forms between two anatomical surfaces that are normally separate from each other. This can occur as a result of surgery, infection, or inflammation. Adhesions can cause organs or tissues to become stuck together, leading to pain, discomfort, and potential complications.

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  • 6. 

    A drug that interferes with the blood-clotting mechanism is

    • A.

      Lidocaine

    • B.

      Fentanyl

    • C.

      Heparin

    • D.

      Cefazolin

    Correct Answer
    C. Heparin
    Explanation
    Heparin is a drug that interferes with the blood-clotting mechanism. It is an anticoagulant medication that works by inhibiting the formation of blood clots. Heparin is commonly used in medical settings to prevent or treat conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and during certain surgical procedures. It works by binding to antithrombin III, a natural substance in the body that helps to prevent blood clot formation. By inhibiting the clotting process, heparin helps to prevent the formation of dangerous blood clots that can lead to serious health complications.

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  • 7. 

    An mg is a measurement of

    • A.

      Length

    • B.

      Volume

    • C.

      Weight

    • D.

      Temperature

    Correct Answer
    C. Weight
    Explanation
    An mg is a measurement of weight. Weight is the force exerted on an object due to gravity. It is typically measured in units such as kilograms or pounds. The term "mg" stands for milligram, which is a metric unit used to measure very small amounts of weight. Therefore, the correct answer is weight.

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  • 8. 

    The solutions used intravenously to replace plasma when plasma is not available is 

    • A.

      0.9% NaCl

    • B.

      Dextrose 5% in water

    • C.

      Lactated Ringer's solution

    • D.

      Dextran

    Correct Answer
    D. Dextran
    Explanation
    Dextran is used intravenously as a solution to replace plasma when plasma is not available. Dextran is a type of polysaccharide that can increase blood volume and help maintain blood pressure. It is often used in situations where there is a shortage of plasma or when plasma is not suitable for use. Dextran is a safe and effective alternative that can help restore and maintain proper fluid balance in the body.

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  • 9. 

    An inch equals

    • A.

      2.2 cm

    • B.

      2.54cm

    • C.

      4.4cm

    • D.

      10cm

    Correct Answer
    B. 2.54cm
    Explanation
    An inch is a unit of length commonly used in the United States and other countries that do not use the metric system. The correct conversion from inches to centimeters is 2.54 cm. This is a widely accepted conversion factor and is used in most scientific and engineering calculations. It is derived from the definition of an inch, which is equal to 2.54 centimeters. Therefore, the correct answer is 2.54cm.

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  • 10. 

    How many milliliters are in 1 ounce?

    • A.

      10

    • B.

      30

    • C.

      75

    • D.

      100

    Correct Answer
    B. 30
    Explanation
    There are 30 milliliters in 1 ounce. This is a standard conversion used in the metric system.

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  • 11. 

    One gram equals

    • A.

      100mg

    • B.

      1000mg

    • C.

      100mL

    • D.

      1000mL

    Correct Answer
    B. 1000mg
    Explanation
    One gram is equal to 1000 milligrams. This is a standard conversion in the metric system, where the prefix "milli-" represents one thousandth of a unit. Therefore, 1000 milligrams is the correct answer.

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  • 12. 

    A drug used to increase blood pressure is

    • A.

      Avitene

    • B.

      Epinephrine

    • C.

      Heparin

    • D.

      Mannitol

    Correct Answer
    B. Epinephrine
    Explanation
    Epinephrine is a drug that can increase blood pressure by stimulating the alpha-adrenergic receptors in blood vessels, causing vasoconstriction. It also stimulates the beta-adrenergic receptors in the heart, increasing heart rate and cardiac output. These actions help to raise blood pressure. Avitene, heparin, and mannitol are not typically used to increase blood pressure. Avitene is a hemostatic agent, heparin is an anticoagulant, and mannitol is an osmotic diuretic used to reduce intracranial pressure.

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  • 13. 

    The action of an anticholinergic drug is to reduce

    • A.

      Heart rate

    • B.

      Anxiety

    • C.

      Nausea

    • D.

      Secretions

    Correct Answer
    D. Secretions
    Explanation
    Anticholinergic drugs work by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is responsible for many bodily functions. One of the effects of acetylcholine is the stimulation of secretions, such as saliva, sweat, tears, and mucus. By reducing the secretion of these fluids, anticholinergic drugs can help alleviate symptoms such as excessive sweating, runny nose, and excessive saliva production. Therefore, the correct answer is secretions.

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  • 14. 

    The total volume in a 30-cc syringe is

    • A.

      1 ounce

    • B.

      2 ounces

    • C.

      3 ounces

    • D.

      4 ounces

    Correct Answer
    A. 1 ounce
  • 15. 

    Naloxone (Narcan) is an example of a/an

    • A.

      Narcotic antagonist

    • B.

      Mydriatic

    • C.

      Histamine

    • D.

      Diuretic

    Correct Answer
    A. Narcotic antagonist
    Explanation
    Naloxone (Narcan) is classified as a narcotic antagonist because it works by blocking the effects of narcotics, specifically opioids, in the body. It is commonly used to reverse the effects of opioid overdose by quickly binding to opioid receptors in the brain, displacing the opioids and rapidly reversing the respiratory depression caused by the overdose. By acting as an antagonist, naloxone helps to restore normal breathing and prevent potentially fatal consequences of opioid overdose.

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  • 16. 

    Avitene is

    • A.

      Hemostatic

    • B.

      Adrenergic

    • C.

      Cycloplegic

    • D.

      Mydriatic

    Correct Answer
    A. Hemostatic
    Explanation
    Avitene is a hemostatic substance. Hemostatic agents are used to control bleeding by promoting the clotting process. Therefore, Avitene is likely a product or medication that helps stop bleeding by promoting the formation of blood clots.

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  • 17. 

    An absorbable gelatin hemostatic agent that is often soaked in thrombin or epinrphrine solution is

    • A.

      Avitene

    • B.

      Oxycel

    • C.

      Nu-knit

    • D.

      Gelfoam

    Correct Answer
    D. Gelfoam
    Explanation
    Gelfoam is an absorbable gelatin hemostatic agent that is commonly soaked in thrombin or epinephrine solution. It is used to control bleeding during surgical procedures by promoting clot formation. Gelfoam is made from porcine gelatin and is biodegradable, meaning it is gradually absorbed by the body over time. It is a widely used and effective hemostatic agent in various surgical specialties.

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  • 18. 

    Each of the following agents  must be applied using dry gloves or instruments EXCECT

    • A.

      Gelfoam

    • B.

      Collastat

    • C.

      Avitene

    • D.

      Helistat

    Correct Answer
    A. Gelfoam
    Explanation
    Gelfoam is the correct answer because it is the only agent in the given list that does not require dry gloves or instruments for application. Gelfoam is a sterile, absorbable gelatin sponge that is used in surgical procedures to control bleeding. Unlike the other agents listed (Collastat, Avitene, and Helistat), Gelfoam can be applied using wet gloves or instruments without compromising its effectiveness. Therefore, Gelfoam is the exception in terms of the requirement for dry gloves or instruments during application.

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  • 19. 

    An anticoaglant given subcutaneously, intravenously, or as a flush is

    • A.

      Nitroglycerin

    • B.

      Dextran

    • C.

      Heparin

    • D.

      Thrombin

    Correct Answer
    C. Heparin
    Explanation
    Heparin is an anticoagulant commonly administered subcutaneously, intravenously, or as a flush. It works by inhibiting the activity of certain clotting factors in the blood, preventing the formation of blood clots. Nitroglycerin is a vasodilator used to treat angina, dextran is a plasma volume expander, and thrombin is an enzyme involved in blood clotting. Therefore, heparin is the correct answer as it is the only anticoagulant among the options given.

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  • 20. 

    A drug that decreases the tendency of blood platelets to clot is

    • A.

      Warfarin sodium

    • B.

      Diazepam

    • C.

      Lorazepam

    • D.

      Midazolam HCI

    Correct Answer
    A. Warfarin sodium
    Explanation
    Warfarin sodium is a drug that decreases the tendency of blood platelets to clot. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors in the liver, thus preventing the formation of blood clots. Diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam HCI are not drugs that have this specific anti-clotting effect.

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  • 21. 

    An antibiotic used intraoperatively is

    • A.

      Diazepam

    • B.

      Ketoralac

    • C.

      Cyclogyl

    • D.

      Gentamicin

    Correct Answer
    D. Gentamicin
    Explanation
    Gentamicin is an antibiotic that is commonly used intraoperatively. It belongs to the class of aminoglycoside antibiotics and is effective against a wide range of bacteria. Intraoperative use of antibiotics helps prevent surgical site infections by targeting and killing bacteria that may be present in the surgical site. Gentamicin is often administered intravenously or topically during surgery to provide prophylactic coverage against potential pathogens. Its use is particularly common in orthopedic, cardiac, and gastrointestinal surgeries.

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  • 22. 

    A topical antibiotic is

    • A.

      Bacitracin

    • B.

      Ephedrine

    • C.

      Ancef

    • D.

      Keflex

    Correct Answer
    A. Bacitracin
    Explanation
    Bacitracin is a topical antibiotic used to prevent and treat bacterial infections on the skin. It works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria and is commonly used for minor cuts, scrapes, and burns. Bacitracin is effective against a wide range of bacteria, including Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species. It is typically applied directly to the affected area and should not be ingested or used on large areas of the body. Bacitracin is available over-the-counter and is generally safe to use, but it is always recommended to follow the instructions provided by a healthcare professional or on the product packaging.

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  • 23. 

    Which item is used on cut edges of bones to seal off oozing of blood?

    • A.

      Electrocautery

    • B.

      Silver nitrate

    • C.

      Bone wax

    • D.

      Epinephrine

    Correct Answer
    C. Bone wax
    Explanation
    Bone wax is used on cut edges of bones to seal off oozing of blood. It is a sterile mixture of beeswax and isopropyl palmitate, which is applied directly to the bleeding bone surface. The wax acts as a physical barrier, preventing further bleeding and promoting clot formation. It is commonly used in surgical procedures involving bone, such as orthopedic surgeries or spinal surgeries, to control bleeding and provide hemostasis.

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  • 24. 

    The most common diuretic is

    • A.

      Lasix

    • B.

      Pronestyl

    • C.

      Esoptin

    • D.

      Cefadyl

    Correct Answer
    A. Lasix
    Explanation
    Lasix is the most common diuretic because it is a loop diuretic that acts on the kidneys to increase the production of urine. It is commonly used to treat conditions such as edema, congestive heart failure, and high blood pressure. Lasix works by blocking the reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the kidneys, leading to increased urine output and removal of excess fluid from the body. This makes it an effective medication for reducing fluid retention and managing conditions related to fluid overload.

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  • 25. 

    An osmotic diuretic agent used to decrease cerebral edema and intraocular edema is

    • A.

      Diuril

    • B.

      Fluosemide

    • C.

      Papaverine

    • D.

      Mannitol

    Correct Answer
    D. Mannitol
    Explanation
    Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic agent that is commonly used to decrease cerebral edema and intraocular edema. It works by drawing water into the kidneys, increasing urine production and reducing fluid buildup in the brain and eyes. This helps to reduce swelling and pressure in these areas, making it an effective treatment for conditions such as cerebral edema and glaucoma. Diuril, fluosemide, and papaverine are not typically used for these purposes.

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  • 26. 

    A systemic agent used to control uterine hemorrhage is

    • A.

      Protamine

    • B.

      Pitocin

    • C.

      Procainamide HCI

    • D.

      Phenylephrine

    Correct Answer
    B. Pitocin
    Explanation
    Pitocin is a synthetic form of oxytocin, a hormone that helps to stimulate contractions in the uterus. It is commonly used to induce labor or to control uterine hemorrhage after childbirth. Pitocin works by causing the uterine muscles to contract, which can help to stop bleeding and promote uterine contraction and healing. Therefore, pitocin is the correct answer for a systemic agent used to control uterine hemorrhage.

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  • 27. 

    Steroids are used for

    • A.

      Reduction of fluid in body

    • B.

      Deduction of body's need for oxygen

    • C.

      Reduction of tissue inflammation and swelling

    • D.

      Reduction of uterine constriction and contraction

    Correct Answer
    C. Reduction of tissue inflammation and swelling
    Explanation
    Steroids are commonly used to reduce tissue inflammation and swelling. They have anti-inflammatory properties that help to suppress the body's immune response, which in turn reduces inflammation and swelling. This can be beneficial in treating various conditions such as arthritis, allergies, asthma, and skin disorders. Steroids work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory chemicals and reducing the permeability of blood vessels, thereby reducing the accumulation of fluid and swelling in tissues.

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  • 28. 

    Solu-Medrol is a(n)

    • A.

      Antibiotic

    • B.

      Myotic

    • C.

      Mydriatic

    • D.

      Anti-inflammatory

    Correct Answer
    D. Anti-inflammatory
    Explanation
    Solu-Medrol is classified as an anti-inflammatory medication. It is not an antibiotic, myotic, or mydriatic. Solu-Medrol is commonly used to reduce inflammation in various conditions such as allergic reactions, asthma, and autoimmune disorders. It works by suppressing the immune system and reducing the production of substances that cause inflammation.

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  • 29. 

    Tubal patency may be tested by the installation of _____________ into the uterine cavity.

    • A.

      Balanced salt solution

    • B.

      Chymar

    • C.

      Methylene blue

    • D.

      Gentian violet

    Correct Answer
    C. Methylene blue
    Explanation
    Methylene blue is used to test tubal patency by being inserted into the uterine cavity. This dye can flow through the fallopian tubes and exit into the abdominal cavity if the tubes are open and patent. By observing the presence or absence of the dye in the abdominal cavity, the doctor can determine if the fallopian tubes are blocked or not.

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  • 30. 

    A mydriatic drug, Neo-Synephrine, is used to

    • A.

      Constrict the pupil

    • B.

      Dilate the pupil

    • C.

      Anesthetize the eye

    • D.

      Lower intra-ocular pressure

    Correct Answer
    B. Dilate the pupil
    Explanation
    Neo-Synephrine is a mydriatic drug, which means it is used to dilate the pupil. Mydriatic drugs work by causing the muscles that control the size of the pupil to relax, allowing the pupil to become larger. This can be beneficial in certain medical procedures, such as eye examinations or surgeries, as it allows for better visualization of the structures within the eye. Therefore, the correct answer is "dilate the pupil."

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  • 31. 

    Immobility of the eye, along with lowered intra-ocular pressure is facilitated by the use of

    • A.

      Diprivan block

    • B.

      Versed block

    • C.

      Xylocaine block

    • D.

      Retrobulbar block

    Correct Answer
    D. Retrobulbar block
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Retrobulbar block. A retrobulbar block is a procedure in which a local anesthetic is injected into the area behind the eye, numbing the eye and reducing intra-ocular pressure. This block is commonly used in eye surgeries to immobilize the eye and create a pain-free environment for the procedure. The other options, Diprivan block, Versed block, and Xylocaine block, are not specifically used for immobilizing the eye or reducing intra-ocular pressure.

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  • 32. 

    Miochol is a(n)

    • A.

      Antihistamine

    • B.

      Blood thinner

    • C.

      Miotic

    • D.

      Anti-inflammatory

    Correct Answer
    C. Miotic
    Explanation
    Miochol is classified as a miotic. Miotics are medications that cause constriction of the pupil of the eye. They are commonly used in ophthalmology to treat conditions such as glaucoma and during eye surgeries. Miochol specifically contains the active ingredient acetylcholine, which acts on the muscles of the eye to cause the pupil to constrict. Therefore, the correct answer is miotic.

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  • 33. 

    An agent that keeps the cornea moist  during surgery and is used for irrigation as well is

    • A.

      Mannitol

    • B.

      Miochol

    • C.

      Chymar

    • D.

      BSS

    Correct Answer
    D. BSS
    Explanation
    BSS (Balanced Salt Solution) is an agent used during surgery to keep the cornea moist and also for irrigation purposes. It is a sterile solution that closely resembles the composition of natural tears, making it suitable for maintaining the cornea's hydration. BSS helps to prevent the cornea from drying out during surgical procedures, ensuring optimal conditions for successful surgery.

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  • 34. 

    An artificial plasma-volume expander is

    • A.

      Mannitol

    • B.

      Dextran

    • C.

      Ringer's solution

    • D.

      Uromatic

    Correct Answer
    B. Dextran
    Explanation
    Dextran is an artificial plasma-volume expander. It is a type of polysaccharide that can be used to increase the volume of blood plasma. Dextran molecules have a high molecular weight and can attract water, leading to an expansion of the plasma volume. This can be beneficial in situations where there is a need to increase blood volume, such as in cases of hypovolemia or shock. Dextran is commonly used in medical settings as a plasma-volume expander due to its ability to increase blood volume and improve circulation.

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  • 35. 

    An antiboagulant used in vascular surgery is

    • A.

      Pretamine sulfate

    • B.

      Heparin

    • C.

      Adrenalin

    • D.

      Papavarine

    Correct Answer
    B. Heparin
    Explanation
    Heparin is an anticoagulant commonly used in vascular surgery. It helps prevent blood clotting by inhibiting the formation of fibrin, a protein involved in clot formation. This property of heparin is crucial during vascular procedures to maintain blood flow and prevent blockages. Pretamine sulfate is not an anticoagulant but a drug used to reverse the effects of heparin. Adrenalin and papavarine are not anticoagulants and are not typically used in vascular surgery.

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  • 36. 

    Heparin effects are reversed by

    • A.

      Pitocin

    • B.

      Phenylephrine

    • C.

      Protamine sulfate

    • D.

      Procainamide Hcl

    Correct Answer
    C. Protamine sulfate
    Explanation
    Protamine sulfate is used to reverse the effects of heparin. Heparin is an anticoagulant medication that prevents blood clotting. However, in certain situations such as surgery or bleeding complications, it may be necessary to reverse the effects of heparin quickly. Protamine sulfate is a medication that binds to heparin and neutralizes its anticoagulant effects. This allows the blood to clot normally again. Pitocin, phenylephrine, and procainamide Hcl are not used to reverse the effects of heparin.

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  • 37. 

    Normal saline is used for laparotomy pack moistening and for intraperitoneal irrigation because it is

    • A.

      Hypotonic

    • B.

      Isotonic

    • C.

      Hypertonic

    • D.

      Hyperkalemic

    Correct Answer
    B. Isotonic
    Explanation
    Normal saline is used for laparotomy pack moistening and intraperitoneal irrigation because it is isotonic. Isotonic solutions have the same concentration of solutes as the body's cells, making them compatible with the body's fluids and tissues. This means that normal saline will not cause cells to shrink or swell when it comes into contact with them, maintaining the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body.

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  • 38. 

    The universal donor blood that may be given in extreme emergencies until the patient can be typed and crossmatched is

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      O

    • D.

      AB

    Correct Answer
    C. O
    Explanation
    O is the universal donor blood type because it lacks antigens on the red blood cells that can trigger an immune response in the recipient. This means that O blood can be safely given to patients with any blood type during emergencies when there is no time for typing and crossmatching. On the other hand, A, B, and AB blood types have specific antigens that may cause adverse reactions if given to individuals with incompatible blood types. Therefore, O blood is the safest option in extreme emergencies when immediate transfusion is required.

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  • 39. 

    Levophed

    • A.

      Increases cardiac output

    • B.

      Decreases venous return to the heart

    • C.

      Increases urine secretion

    • D.

      Restores and maintains blood pressure

    Correct Answer
    D. Restores and maintains blood pressure
    Explanation
    Levophed is a medication that is commonly used to restore and maintain blood pressure. It works by constricting blood vessels, which helps to increase blood pressure. By doing so, Levophed ensures that the blood flow to vital organs is maintained, preventing hypotension and improving overall cardiovascular function. Therefore, the correct answer is "restores and maintains blood pressure."

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  • 40. 

    A drug used to treat metabolic acidosis is

    • A.

      Inderal

    • B.

      Pronestyl

    • C.

      Sodium bicarbonate

    • D.

      Isuprel

    Correct Answer
    C. Sodium bicarbonate
    Explanation
    Sodium bicarbonate is used to treat metabolic acidosis, a condition characterized by an excess of acid in the body. It works by neutralizing the acid and restoring the pH balance. Inderal, Pronestyl, and Isuprel are not used for this purpose, making sodium bicarbonate the correct answer.

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  • 41. 

    The last sensation to leave the patient during general anesthesia induction is

    • A.

      Hearing

    • B.

      Sight

    • C.

      Feeling

    • D.

      Smell

    Correct Answer
    A. Hearing
    Explanation
    During general anesthesia induction, various senses of the patient gradually diminish. Hearing is the last sensation to leave the patient because the auditory system is not directly affected by the anesthetic drugs. Even though the patient may not be able to respond or react, they can still perceive sounds until they are fully unconscious. This is why hearing is the last sense to be lost during the induction of general anesthesia.

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  • 42. 

    An ultrashort acting drug useful during intrbation to produce paralysis and also to produce muscle relaxation when used in a dilute solution is

    • A.

      Sublimaze

    • B.

      Valium

    • C.

      Versed

    • D.

      Anectine

    Correct Answer
    D. Anectine
    Explanation
    Anectine is an ultrashort acting drug that is commonly used during intubation to produce paralysis. It is also used in a dilute solution to produce muscle relaxation. Sublimaze, Valium, and Versed are not typically used for these purposes.

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  • 43. 

    Neuroleptoanalgesia combines

    • A.

      A narcotic and an anticholinergic

    • B.

      A tranquilizer and narcotic

    • C.

      An anti-inflammatory and a tranquilizer

    • D.

      A muscle relaxant and a tranqilizer

    Correct Answer
    B. A tranquilizer and narcotic
    Explanation
    Neuroleptoanalgesia is a type of anesthesia that combines a tranquilizer and a narcotic. This combination helps to achieve both sedation and pain relief during medical procedures. Tranquilizers are used to induce calmness and reduce anxiety, while narcotics are used for pain management. By combining these two drugs, neuroleptoanalgesia provides a balanced and effective anesthesia for patients.

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  • 44. 

    A sedative-tranquilizer used to reduce anxiety and apprehension of the pre-op patient and as an adjunct to general anesthesia to reduce the amount and concentration of other more potent agents is

    • A.

      Valium

    • B.

      Marzicon

    • C.

      Anectine

    • D.

      Demerol

    Correct Answer
    A. Valium
    Explanation
    Valium is a sedative-tranquilizer commonly used to reduce anxiety and apprehension in pre-operative patients. It is also used as an adjunct to general anesthesia, helping to decrease the amount and concentration of other stronger medications. Valium's calming effects make it an effective choice for reducing anxiety and promoting relaxation before surgery.

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  • 45. 

    An antimuscarinic

    • A.

      Controls pain

    • B.

      Prevents nausea

    • C.

      Limits salivation

    • D.

      Reverses muscle relaxation

    Correct Answer
    C. Limits salivation
    Explanation
    Antimuscarinic drugs are known for their ability to block the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that stimulates various bodily functions. By inhibiting the muscarinic receptors, antimuscarinic drugs can reduce the production of saliva, leading to a decrease in salivation. This effect can be beneficial in certain medical conditions where excessive salivation is a problem, such as drooling or hypersalivation due to neurological disorders or medication side effects. Therefore, the correct answer is "limits salivation."

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  • 46. 

    Anesthesia given in a combination of several agents to obtain optimum results is called

    • A.

      Regional anesthesia

    • B.

      General anesthesia

    • C.

      Conduction anesthesia

    • D.

      Balanced anesthesia

    Correct Answer
    D. Balanced anesthesia
    Explanation
    Balanced anesthesia refers to the administration of multiple agents in combination to achieve the desired effects during anesthesia. This approach aims to provide optimal pain relief, muscle relaxation, unconsciousness, and amnesia while minimizing side effects. By using a combination of drugs, such as an intravenous induction agent, an inhaled anesthetic, and analgesics, the anesthesiologist can tailor the anesthesia to the specific needs of the patient. This technique allows for a more precise control of the depth and duration of anesthesia, ensuring a safer and more comfortable surgical experience.

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  • 47. 

    A bolus is

    • A.

      A small, intermittent dose intravenously

    • B.

      A dose injected intramuscularly

    • C.

      A rapid dose, subcutaneously

    • D.

      A dose injected all at once, intravenously

    Correct Answer
    D. A dose injected all at once, intravenously
    Explanation
    A bolus refers to a dose of medication or fluid that is administered quickly and all at once, directly into a vein. This method allows for immediate delivery of the substance into the bloodstream, providing a rapid onset of action. Intravenous administration ensures that the medication or fluid is distributed throughout the body efficiently and effectively.

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  • 48. 

    A drug used to soothe and relieve anxiety is a(n)

    • A.

      Cholinergic

    • B.

      Analgesic

    • C.

      Sedative

    • D.

      Narcotic

    Correct Answer
    C. Sedative
    Explanation
    A sedative is a drug that is used to calm and relax a person, reducing anxiety and promoting sleep. It works by slowing down the central nervous system, which helps to decrease brain activity and induce a state of relaxation. Sedatives are commonly prescribed to treat anxiety disorders, insomnia, and other conditions where relaxation and relief from anxiety are desired. Therefore, a drug used to soothe and relieve anxiety is a sedative.

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  • 49. 

    A Bier block provides

    • A.

      Anesthesia to a distal portion of an extremity

    • B.

      Anesthesia below the diaphragm

    • C.

      Anesthetic block surrounding a peripheral nerve

    • D.

      Anesthetic block to a nerve group

    Correct Answer
    A. Anesthesia to a distal portion of an extremity
    Explanation
    A Bier block is a technique used to provide anesthesia to a distal portion of an extremity. It involves the injection of local anesthetic into a vein, which then travels to the desired area of the extremity, numbing it and providing pain relief. This technique is commonly used for procedures such as hand and forearm surgeries.

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  • 50. 

    Which inhalation agent is used for short procedures requiring no muscle relaxation?

    • A.

      Nitrous oxide

    • B.

      Halothane

    • C.

      Ethrane

    • D.

      Forane

    Correct Answer
    A. Nitrous oxide
    Explanation
    Nitrous oxide is the correct answer because it is commonly used as an inhalation agent for short procedures that do not require muscle relaxation. Nitrous oxide is a fast-acting gas that provides analgesic and anxiolytic effects, making it suitable for procedures such as dental work or minor surgeries. It has a rapid onset and offset of action, allowing for quick recovery and minimal side effects.

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