Quiz: Important Biology Trivia Questions

130 Questions | Total Attempts: 230

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Quiz: Important Biology Trivia Questions

Below is an important biology trivia questions that a biology student should not have a hard time answering. It has some of the hardest questions according to some students and therefore if you give it a try and get the top marks, you should consider yourself smart. Do give it a try and get to see just how well you will do!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The inner wall of the gut, surrounding the lumen consists of
    • A. 

      Circular smooth muscle

    • B. 

      Epithlium

    • C. 

      Connective tissue

    • D. 

      Longitudinal smooth muscle

    • E. 

      Mesentry

  • 2. 
    Motility in the gut is controlled by
    • A. 

      The mesentery

    • B. 

      The submucosal plexus

    • C. 

      The myenteric plexus

    • D. 

      The Serosa

    • E. 

      The Mucosa

  • 3. 
    Which of the following statements are true concerning the lower oesophageal sphincter1 it is composed of skeletal muscle2 it is normally in the contracted state3 it controls the exit of materal from the stomach4 it prevents reflux of stomach acid into the oesophagus5, it relaxes during swallowing
    • A. 

      1 only

    • B. 

      1,2 and 4 only

    • C. 

      1, 3, and 5 only

    • D. 

      2,4. and 5 only

    • E. 

      All 5 of above

  • 4. 
    Rugae are
    • A. 

      Glands in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract

    • B. 

      Folds in the wall of the stomach

    • C. 

      Bands of longitudinal muscle in the duodenum

    • D. 

      Collections of villi in the small intestine

    • E. 

      Contraction of the oesophagus

  • 5. 
    Contraction of the circular muscle layer in the gut wall causes
    • A. 

      The gut to lengthen

    • B. 

      The gut to become narrower

    • C. 

      The gut to become shorter

    • D. 

      The gut to become wider

    • E. 

      No change in the dimensions of the gut

  • 6. 
    Which of the following are found in salvia
    • A. 

      Water

    • B. 

      Ions

    • C. 

      Mucus

    • D. 

      Enzymes

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 7. 
    Which of the following statements about the oesophagus is FALSE
    • A. 

      Food is propelled by peristalsis

    • B. 

      Absorption of nutrients takes place

    • C. 

      There are no digestive enzymes secreted

    • D. 

      It transport food to the stomach

    • E. 

      It secretes mucus

  • 8. 
    Which one of the following is not a component of the hepatobiliary system
    • A. 

      Liver

    • B. 

      Pancreas

    • C. 

      Gallbladder

    • D. 

      Stomach

    • E. 

      Bile duct

  • 9. 
    In which part of the intestine does most digestion and absoption of nutrients take place
    • A. 

      Duodenum

    • B. 

      Jejunum

    • C. 

      Ileum

    • D. 

      Colon

    • E. 

      Caecum

  • 10. 
    Amylase is the enzyme respponsible for
    • A. 

      The breakdown of proteins to amino acids

    • B. 

      The breakdown of strach to monosaccharides

    • C. 

      The breakdown of lipids to fatty acids

    • D. 

      The synthesis of large polysaccharides in the gut

    • E. 

      The emulsification of fat droplets

  • 11. 
    Which one of the following statements is FALSE
    • A. 

      Fructose is absorbed by carrier - mediated diffusion

    • B. 

      Glucose is absorbed by secondary active transport with sodium ions

    • C. 

      Galactose is absorbed by simple diffusion

    • D. 

      Amino acids are absorbed by secondary active transport with sodium ions

    • E. 

      Lipids are absorbed with the aid of micelles

  • 12. 
    Chylomicrons are
    • A. 

      Partially digested protein

    • B. 

      The products of carbohydrate digestion

    • C. 

      Small electrically charged sugar molecules

    • D. 

      Formed by the combination of triglycerides and cholesterol

    • E. 

      Microscopic particles of faeces

  • 13. 
    Arteries carry blood ---------------------- from heart nd towards --------------------------
    • A. 

      Away, Tissue

    • B. 

      Towards, tissue

    • C. 

      Away, veins

    • D. 

      Towards, vein

  • 14. 
    What is exchanged between blood and tissue
    • A. 

      Oxygen

    • B. 

      Carbon-dioxide

    • C. 

      Nutreints

    • D. 

      Waste

    • E. 

      All of above

  • 15. 
    What differnet types of tissue are found in artery walls
    • A. 

      Epithielam

    • B. 

      Smooth muscle

    • C. 

      Connective

    • D. 

      All above

  • 16. 
    Which blood vessel : is site of gas exchange and waste exchange
    • A. 

      Capillary

    • B. 

      Artery

    • C. 

      Vein

    • D. 

      Ateriole

    • E. 

      Venule

  • 17. 
    Which blood vessel: reservoir for approx 60% of total blood
    • A. 

      Capillery

    • B. 

      Artery

    • C. 

      Vein

    • D. 

      Arteriole

    • E. 

      Venule

  • 18. 
    Which blood vessel: plays important role in regulating blood pressure and in distributing blood
    • A. 

      Cainpillary

    • B. 

      Artery

    • C. 

      Vein

    • D. 

      Arterole

    • E. 

      Venule

  • 19. 
    What does this descibe :these have thinner walls, it relates to the blood pressure is less, they have valves to prevent backflow
    • A. 

      Capillary

    • B. 

      Artery

    • C. 

      Vein

    • D. 

      Arterole

    • E. 

      Venule

  • 20. 
    The hollow centre of blood vessels through which blood flows is called the
    • A. 

      Lamina

    • B. 

      Lumen

    • C. 

      Tunica Interna

    • D. 

      Pre-capillary spincter

    • E. 

      Tunica adventitia

  • 21. 
    Blood vessels that are composed of only a single layer of cells and a basement membrane and that allow exchange of nutrients between the blood and tissues cells are called
    • A. 

      Arteries

    • B. 

      Capillaries

    • C. 

      Veins

    • D. 

      Venules

    • E. 

      Arterioles

  • 22. 
    Relaxation or decrease in the amount of smooth muscle contraction results in --------------- & ---------------- in the size of arteriole
    • A. 

      Vasocontriction , increase

    • B. 

      Vasoconstriction, decrease

    • C. 

      Vasodilation , increase

    • D. 

      Casodilation , decrease

    • E. 

      None of these

  • 23. 
    If blood vessels has a wall consisting of a layer of endothelium & a basement membrane and the diameter of the vessel is approximately the same as that of a red blood cell then the vessel is probadly a
    • A. 

      Arteriole

    • B. 

      Artery

    • C. 

      Venule

    • D. 

      Capillary

    • E. 

      Vein

  • 24. 
    Which of the following is NOT true of resistance
    • A. 

      The smaller the blood flow the greater the resistance

    • B. 

      The thicker the blood the higher the resistance

    • C. 

      The longer the vessel the greater the resistance

    • D. 

      The smaller the diameter the greater the resistance

    • E. 

      It is likely to increase by dehydration

  • 25. 
    The pulmonary circulation carries deoxgenated blood from the --------------------- to the lung and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the -------------
    • A. 

      Left ventricle, right atrium

    • B. 

      Right ventricle, left atrium

    • C. 

      Left atrium, right ventricle

    • D. 

      Right atrium, left ventricle

    • E. 

      Right ventricle, left ventricle

  • 26. 
    Veins are thinner walls than arteries because they
    • A. 

      They carry less blood than arteries

    • B. 

      Unlike arteries they have no muscle in their walls

    • C. 

      Are vessels where gas and nutreints exchange takes place

    • D. 

      Carry blood at lower pressure

    • E. 

      They are more numerous than arteries

  • 27. 
    What method is used to calculate energy expenditure by measuring oxygen consumption
    • A. 

      Bomb calorimetry

    • B. 

      Basal calorimetry

    • C. 

      Direct calorimetry

    • D. 

      Indirect calorimetry

    • E. 

      Excersice calorimetry

  • 28. 
    What percentage of the day's total energy expenditure of the average person is represented by the basal metobolism
    • A. 

      10-15%

    • B. 

      30 -40%

    • C. 

      65 - 70%

    • D. 

      Over 90%

    • E. 

      Less than 5%

  • 29. 
    What is the major factor that determine basal metabolic rate
    • A. 

      Age

    • B. 

      Gender

    • C. 

      Body composition

    • D. 

      Body weight

    • E. 

      Activity levels

  • 30. 
    Which of the following is a feature of basal metabolic rate (bmr)
    • A. 

      Fever decrease bmr

    • B. 

      Fasting increase bmr

    • C. 

      Hyperthyroidism increase bmr

    • D. 

      Females have higher bmr than males on a body weight basis

    • E. 

      Pregnancy decrease bmr

  • 31. 
    What is athe range of body fat content of normal weight young women
    • A. 

      9- 17%

    • B. 

      25-30%

    • C. 

      33 - 37%

    • D. 

      38 - 44%

    • E. 

      50 - 60%

  • 32. 
    What is the range of body fat of normal weight young men
    • A. 

      5 -9%

    • B. 

      12 -15%

    • C. 

      15 - 22%

    • D. 

      23 - 28%

    • E. 

      35 - 40%

  • 33. 
    The recommended energy intake for an average 25yr old woman is
    • A. 

      15000kcals

    • B. 

      3200 kcals

    • C. 

      2000 kcals

    • D. 

      2700 kcals

    • E. 

      1000 kcals

  • 34. 
    The thermic effect of food normally accounts for how much of TEE
    • A. 

      5- 10%

    • B. 

      15-30%

    • C. 

      35 -40%

    • D. 

      MORE THAN 50%

    • E. 

      LESS THAN 5%

  • 35. 
    Dietary guidelines recommend that carbohydrates contribute what percentage of the total energy intake
    • A. 

      25-30%

    • B. 

      55 -60%

    • C. 

      65 -75%

    • D. 

      85 - 90%

    • E. 

      Less than 25%

  • 36. 
    What of the following is not found in plants
    • A. 

      Starch

    • B. 

      Glycogen

    • C. 

      Protein

    • D. 

      Dietary

    • E. 

      Lipids

  • 37. 
    Which of the following is a component of all 3 disaccharides
    • A. 

      Sucrose

    • B. 

      Glucose

    • C. 

      Fructose

    • D. 

      Galatose

    • E. 

      Maltose

  • 38. 
    What is another name for lactose
    • A. 

      Milk sugar

    • B. 

      Table sugar

    • C. 

      Fruit sugar

    • D. 

      Artifical sugar

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 39. 
    What is the primary storage form of carbohydrates in the body
    • A. 

      Fibrech

    • B. 

      Starch

    • C. 

      Glucose

    • D. 

      Glycogen

    • E. 

      Glucagon

  • 40. 
    Glycogen is stored mainly in which of the following tissue
    • A. 

      Pancreas and kidney

    • B. 

      Stomach and intestine

    • C. 

      Muscle and liver

    • D. 

      Brain and red blood cells

    • E. 

      Adipose tissue

  • 41. 
    When blood glucose levels fall, hat is the primary source of glucose to replenish the level
    • A. 

      Blood lipids

    • B. 

      Liver glycogen

    • C. 

      Muscle glycogen

    • D. 

      Blood fructose

    • E. 

      Adipose tissue

  • 42. 
    Which of the following in not a function of fat
    • A. 

      Carrier of fat - soluble vitamins

    • B. 

      Adds favour to food

    • C. 

      Best source of energy for the brain

    • D. 

      Essential constituent of body tissue

    • E. 

      Provides a long term energy store

  • 43. 
    Current recommendation for the percentage contribution of fat in the diet are
    • A. 

      40-45%

    • B. 

      Less than 20%

    • C. 

      30 - 35%

    • D. 

      55 -60%

    • E. 

      25 - 30%

  • 44. 
    What compound is composed of 3 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol
    • A. 

      Steroid

    • B. 

      Triglyceride

    • C. 

      Phospholipid

    • D. 

      Monoglyceride

    • E. 

      Glycogen

  • 45. 
    A primary function of fat in the body is to
    • A. 

      Build muscle tissue

    • B. 

      Protect vital organs

    • C. 

      Regulate body processes

    • D. 

      Provide the nervous system with energy

    • E. 

      Provide a rapid supply of energy during intense excersice

  • 46. 
    How many differnet kinds of amino acids make up proteins
    • A. 

      8

    • B. 

      10

    • C. 

      14

    • D. 

      26

    • E. 

      20

  • 47. 
    What is the process by which heat or acidity disrupts the normal shape of a protein chain
    • A. 

      Digestion

    • B. 

      Condensation

    • C. 

      Denaturation

    • D. 

      Hydrogenation

    • E. 

      Mutation

  • 48. 
    Which of the following proteins inactivate foreign bacteria and viruses
    • A. 

      Enzymes

    • B. 

      Hormones

    • C. 

      Antibodies

    • D. 

      Callagen

    • E. 

      Naemoglobin

  • 49. 
    Most enzymes are
    • A. 

      Fibrous protein

    • B. 

      Globular proteins

    • C. 

      Polysacchardes

    • D. 

      Lipoproteins

    • E. 

      Co-enzymes

  • 50. 
    Which of the following characteristics of enzymes is not true
    • A. 

      They are all catalysts

    • B. 

      They have a protein structure

    • C. 

      They are destroyed by excess heat

    • D. 

      They are destoyed by cold temperature

    • E. 

      They are specific to one substrate

  • 51. 
    What is the major energy carrier in most cells
    • A. 

      ATP

    • B. 

      Glucose

    • C. 

      Pyruvic acid

    • D. 

      A kilocalorie

    • E. 

      Oxygen

  • 52. 
    Glycolsis is the conversion of
    • A. 

      Glycogen to fat

    • B. 

      Glucose to glycogen

    • C. 

      Glucose to pyruvic acid

    • D. 

      Glycogen to protein

    • E. 

      Glucose to acetyl coa

  • 53. 
    The sucssive stages in the breakdown of glucose in the cell are
    • A. 

      Glycolsis, acetyl coa formation, etc krebs cycle

    • B. 

      Krebs cycle, glycolsis, acetyl coa formation etc

    • C. 

      Acetyl coa formation etc glycolsis krebs cycle

    • D. 

      Glycolysis acetyl coa formation krebs etc

    • E. 

      Glycolsis krebs cycle acetyl coa formation etc

  • 54. 
    Glycolysis is a way of producing ATP anaerobically if there were 4 glucose molecules available for glycolysis how many ATP will be produced
    • A. 

      6

    • B. 

      16

    • C. 

      152

    • D. 

      8

    • E. 

      4

  • 55. 
    If there were 6 molecules of glucose available how many ATP ould be produced if they were completely oxidised to carbon dioxide and water
    • A. 

      24

    • B. 

      12

    • C. 

      228

    • D. 

      380

    • E. 

      180

  • 56. 
    When a person is performing intense physical excercise and begins to feel fatigue and burning pain in the muscle it is most likely due to the muscle accumulation of
    • A. 

      Citric acid

    • B. 

      Pyruvic acid

    • C. 

      Lactic acid

    • D. 

      Calcium

    • E. 

      Acetyl coa

  • 57. 
    Krebs cycle takes place in
    • A. 

      The cytoplasm

    • B. 

      The cristae of mitochondria

    • C. 

      The matrix of mitochondria

    • D. 

      The ribosomes

    • E. 

      The outer mitochondrial membrqane

  • 58. 
    Oxygen is needed in
    • A. 

      Glycolsis

    • B. 

      Glycolysis and kerbs cycle

    • C. 

      Krebs cycle and etc

    • D. 

      Glycolysis etc

    • E. 

      Glycolsis krebs cycle etc

  • 59. 
    The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveolia is
    • A. 

      159 mmhg

    • B. 

      40mmhg

    • C. 

      46mmhg

    • D. 

      105mmhg

    • E. 

      0.3mmhg

  • 60. 
    The partial pressure of oxygen in the arteriol blood is
    • A. 

      159mmhg

    • B. 

      40mmhg

    • C. 

      46mmhg

    • D. 

      105mmhg

    • E. 

      0.3mmhg

  • 61. 
    Partial pressure of oxygen in the alveolia is less than in the atmostphere because
    • A. 

      Oxygen leaks across the walls of the bronchi

    • B. 

      Carbon doixide and water vapour are present in the alveolia in higher concentration than the atmosphere

    • C. 

      Atmospheric pressure is much less in the alveoli

    • D. 

      The lungs compress alveolar gas

    • E. 

      There is more nitrogen in the alveoli

  • 62. 
    What is the size of the normal diffusion gradient for oxygen between the alveoli and the pulmonary capillaries
    • A. 

      ~100-110 mmhg

    • B. 

      ~60 - 65 mmhg

    • C. 

      ~10-20mmhg

    • D. 

      ~40 -45 mmhg

    • E. 

      ~1-2 mmhg

  • 63. 
    Which one of the following would have the highest partial pressure of oxygen
    • A. 

      Alveolar air at the end of exhalation

    • B. 

      Rapidlaly contracting skeleton muscle fibres

    • C. 

      Alveolar air immediately after inhalation

    • D. 

      Blood flowing into the lungs from right side of the heart

    • E. 

      Blood returning to the heart from the tissue cells

  • 64. 
    Which one of the following values represents the amount of oxygen transported in the blood bound to haemoglobin
    • A. 

      197 ml/l

    • B. 

      25 ml / l

    • C. 

      105 ml/l

    • D. 

      40 ml/l

    • E. 

      45 ml /l

  • 65. 
    Which of the following ould be a consquence of an increase in arterial PCO21 reduced ventilation 2 increased ventilation3 stimulation of central chemoreceptors4 increase activity of respiraqtory muscle 5 increase metabolic rate
    • A. 

      1 and 2

    • B. 

      3 and 5

    • C. 

      4 and 5

    • D. 

      2,3,and 4

    • E. 

      3 only

  • 66. 
    Which of the following are consequences of the bohhr effect1 oxygen is released from haemoglobin at lower po2 2 more oxygen is picked up by haemoglobin at the lungs3 the oxygen - haemoglobin dissociation curve remains unchanged4 the oxygen haemoglobin dissociation curve becomes flatter 5 hydrogen ions bind to harmoglobin
    • A. 

      1 only

    • B. 

      2 and 4

    • C. 

      1, 3 and 4

    • D. 

      5 only

    • E. 

      1, 2 and 5

  • 67. 
    In which form is carbon dioxide not carried in blood
    • A. 

      Bicarbonate ion

    • B. 

      Bound to globin

    • C. 

      Carbaminohaemoglobin

    • D. 

      Dissolved in plasma

    • E. 

      Oxyhaemoglobin

  • 68. 
    Fill in the blanks in the following chemical reaction co2+ --------------- ->h2co3 -> h+ -----
    • A. 

      Hco3 o2

    • B. 

      Hco3 h2o

    • C. 

      H h20

    • D. 

      H2o hco3

    • E. 

      02 hco3

  • 69. 
    The enzyme which speeds up the formation of carbonic acids in red blood cells is
    • A. 

      Carbonis synthentase

    • B. 

      Carbonic anhydrase

    • C. 

      Carbonic dehydrogenase

    • D. 

      Carbonic reductase

    • E. 

      Carbonic formase

  • 70. 
    minute volume is defined as
    • A. 

      Tidal volume x frequency of breathing

    • B. 

      Tidal volume x time

    • C. 

      Vital capacity x time

    • D. 

      Residual volume x frequency of breathing

    • E. 

      Frequency of breathing x time

  • 71. 
    Peripheral respiratory   chemoreceptor are located in which of the following areas1 the medulla 2 the pons3 the aortic arch4 the carotid bodies5 the juxtaglomerular appartus
    • A. 

      1 only

    • B. 

      3 only

    • C. 

      1 and 2 only

    • D. 

      2 and 5 only

    • E. 

      3 and 4 only

  • 72. 
    Which of the following factor would produce a decrease in ventilation 1 decrease arterial pco22 increase body temperature 3 severe pain 4 increase blood pressure 5 stretching of anal sphincter
    • A. 

      1 only

    • B. 

      1 3 5

    • C. 

      2 and 4

    • D. 

      5

    • E. 

      All above

  • 73. 
    If the heart rate is 72 beats per minute what is the length of one cardiac cycle
    • A. 

      0.87

    • B. 

      0.83

    • C. 

      0.86

    • D. 

      0.76

  • 74. 
    The ----------------------- nervous system will increase heart rate, where as the -------------------------------  nervous system will decrease heart rate
    • A. 

      Sympathetic ,,, parasympathetic

    • B. 

      parasympathetic,,,sympathetic

  • 75. 
    The main non-neural factor affecting heart rate is a hormone ------------- which will ---------- increase heart rate
    • A. 

      Adrenaline .... increase

    • B. 

      Adrenaline ---- decrease

  • 76. 
    Contraction of the heart muscle is known as
    • A. 

      Diastole

    • B. 

      Systole

  • 77. 
    A person with a systole blood pressure of 130 mmhg and distolic blood pressure of 85mmhg would have a mean arterial blood pressure of approx.
    • A. 

      100mmhg

    • B. 

      107mmhg

    • C. 

      170mmhg

  • 78. 
    The bulk of the middle layer of the heart wall is composed of
    • A. 

      Smooth muscle

    • B. 

      Connective tissue

    • C. 

      Epithelium

    • D. 

      Cardiac muscle

  • 79. 
    Which of the following is primary pacemaker of the heart
    • A. 

      Purkinje fibres

    • B. 

      AV bundle

    • C. 

      AV node

    • D. 

      Sino artrial node

  • 80. 
    During the cardiac cycle when the left artia contract the
    • A. 

      The mitral valve is closed

    • B. 

      The semi lunar valves are open

    • C. 

      The right atria is in diastole

    • D. 

      The right venticle is in diastole

  • 81. 
    Heart rate is monitored and regulated by the
    • A. 

      Diencephalon

    • B. 

      Hypothalamus

    • C. 

      Pons

    • D. 

      Medulla

  • 82. 
    If the heart rate is 120 beats per minute the length of each cardiac cycle is ------------------- seconds
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      0.8

    • C. 

      0.5

    • D. 

      1

  • 83. 
    The ventricle are ----------------------% filled with blood prior to artial contraction
    • A. 

      40

    • B. 

      50

    • C. 

      70

    • D. 

      85

    • E. 

      90

  • 84. 
    If a patient has an end distolic volume of 96ml and an end systolic volume of 17ml their stroke volume will be     ml
    • A. 

      113

    • B. 

      79

    • C. 

      5.6

    • D. 

      85

  • 85. 
    Part of mitrochondria where electron transport chain occurs
    • A. 

      Atp

    • B. 

      Cristae

  • 86. 
    Lymphactic vessels found within intestinal villi
    • A. 

      Lacteals

    • B. 

      Acetylcholine

  • 87. 
    Blocks muscarinic receptors
    • A. 

      Atropine

    • B. 

      Parirtal

  • 88. 
    Type of stomach cell which produces hydrochloric acid
    • A. 

      Partietal

    • B. 

      Atropinie

  • 89. 
    First potion of intestine
    • A. 

      Duedenum

    • B. 

      Sphincter

  • 90. 
    Energy currency of cells
    • A. 

      ATP

    • B. 

      CAMP

  • 91. 
    IMPAIRMENT OF BILE FLOW
    • A. 

      CHYLOMICKRONS

    • B. 

      CHOLESTASIS

  • 92. 
    Formed by fatty acids, cholesterol and apoliporoteins
    • A. 

      Cholestasis

    • B. 

      Chylomickronsh

  • 93. 
    Outer layer of gastrointestinal tract wall
    • A. 

      Serosa

    • B. 

      Merosa

  • 94. 
    The main functional unit of the kidneys is  
    • A. 

      Glomerulus

    • B. 

      Nephrons

    • C. 

      Collecting duct

    • D. 

      Renal artery

    • E. 

      Ureter

  • 95. 
    The nephron is made up of hich one of the following types of epthelium
    • A. 

      Simple squamous epithelium

    • B. 

      Pseudostratified columnar epithium

    • C. 

      Stratified columnar epithelium

    • D. 

      Simple columnar epithium

  • 96. 
    List the following structures in the correct order in which fluid travels from the blood through the nephron1, distal convoluted tubule2, glomerulus3, loop of henle4, bowmans capsule 5, proximal convoluted tubule6, collecting duct
    • A. 

      1,3,2,5,6,4

    • B. 

      2,5,1,3,4,6

    • C. 

      5,6,1,3,2,4

    • D. 

      3,4,6,1,5,2

    • E. 

      2,4,5,3,1,6

  • 97. 
    Approximately how much of the water filtered from plasma is reabsoded by the kidneys each day
    • A. 

      99%

    • B. 

      50%

    • C. 

      1%

    • D. 

      100%

    • E. 

      10%

  • 98. 
    The normal glomeruler filteration rate (GFR) is approx.
    • A. 

      100 ml/day

    • B. 

      180 ml/day

    • C. 

      5 l /day

    • D. 

      1500l /day

    • E. 

      0.5l /day

  • 99. 
    Under normal circumstances how much glucose is excreted in the urine per day
    • A. 

      19 gram

    • B. 

      3.2 grams

    • C. 

      0 grams

    • D. 

      30 grams

    • E. 

      1.8 grams

  • 100. 
    Which one of the following statements is FALSE
    • A. 

      All material filtered by the kidneys appears in urine

    • B. 

      Only small molecules and particles are normally filtered in the kidney

    • C. 

      Red blood cells do not normally appear in the urine

    • D. 

      Collecting ducts can serve more than one nephron

    • E. 

      In diabetes the transport maximum (Tm) for glucose is exceeded

  • 101. 
    The total filteration pressure at the glomerular capillaries is approx.
    • A. 

      60mmhg

    • B. 

      25mmhg

    • C. 

      10mmhg

    • D. 

      1.5mmhg

    • E. 

      75mmhg

  • 102. 
    Which of the following factors occur as compensatory measure in response to sudden large reduction in plasma volume 1. increase production of anti-diuretic hormone2. poduction of diluted urine 3. increase permeability of the renal collectiong duct 4. decrease glomerular filteration 5 constriction of arterioles
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      1,3,5

    • C. 

      4

    • D. 

      2,5

    • E. 

      All

  • 103. 
    Which one of the following is secreted into the urine from the blood
    • A. 

      Amino acid

    • B. 

      Glucose

    • C. 

      Water

    • D. 

      Hydrogen ions

    • E. 

      White blood cells

  • 104. 
    Which of the following systems work closely with the endocrine system to coordinate the body's functions?
    • A. 

      Cardiovascular system

    • B. 

      Respiratory system

    • C. 

      Reproductive system

    • D. 

      Nervous system

    • E. 

      Lymphatic system

  • 105. 
    All of the following are endocrine glands EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Adrenal glands.

    • B. 

      Sweat glands.

    • C. 

      Parathyroid glands.

    • D. 

      Pineal gland.

    • E. 

      Pituitary gland.

  • 106. 
    Which of the following organs contain hormone producing cells?
    • A. 

      Stomach

    • B. 

      Liver

    • C. 

      Skin

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 107. 
    A common second messenger used in signaling pathways of water-soluble hormones is
    • A. 

      TRNA

    • B. 

      ATP

    • C. 

      CAMP

    • D. 

      PTH.

  • 108. 
    Hormones that bind to receptors inside of target cells are usually   .   .   .   .   .
    • A. 

      Lipid soluble

    • B. 

      Water soluble

    • C. 

      Second messengers

    • D. 

      Proteins

    • E. 

      Prohormones

  • 109. 
    Steroid hormones
    • A. 

      Require a second messenger.

    • B. 

      Are secreted by the adrenal cortex

    • C. 

      Are secreted by the posterior pituitary.

    • D. 

      Are secreted by the pancreas

    • E. 

      Attach to receptors on the target cell membrane

  • 110. 
    Which of the following is a possible cellular response to a hormone
    • A. 

      A change in the rate or strength of contraction

    • B. 

      A change in the rate of cellular synthesis

    • C. 

      A change in the rate of secretion of enzymes

    • D. 

      An increase in oxygen consumption

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 111. 
    C.AMP is the most common
    • A. 

      Neurohormone

    • B. 

      Glandular hormone

    • C. 

      Local regulator

    • D. 

      First messenger

    • E. 

      Second messenger

  • 112. 
    Which one of the following hormones is secreted by neurones 
    • A. 

      Insulin

    • B. 

      Oxytocin

    • C. 

      Thyroid stimulating hormone

    • D. 

      Cortisol

    • E. 

      ACTH

  • 113. 
    An example of a hormone that under certain circumstances is regulated by positive feedback is:
    • A. 

      Calcitonin.

    • B. 

      Histamine.

    • C. 

      Oxytocin.

    • D. 

      Melatonin.

    • E. 

      Insulin.

  • 114. 
    Which of the following hormones is released in response to a nerve impulse?
    • A. 

      Adrenaline

    • B. 

      Cortisol

    • C. 

      Testosterone

    • D. 

      Glucagon

    • E. 

      Insulin

  • 115. 
    All of the following are hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary           gland EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Human growth hormone.

    • B. 

      Follicle-stimulating hormone.

    • C. 

      Adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    • D. 

      Prolactin.

    • E. 

      Oxytocin.

  • 116. 
    All of the following pituitary hormones are released in response to hypothalamic releasing hormones EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Human growth hormone.

    • B. 

      Thyroid stimulating hormone.

    • C. 

      Follicle stimulating hormone.

    • D. 

      Adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    • E. 

      Antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

  • 117. 
    The element essential for normal thyroid function is :
    • A. 

      Potassium

    • B. 

      Sodium

    • C. 

      Iodine

    • D. 

      Calcium

    • E. 

      Iron

  • 118. 
    Which of the following statements about the hormone glucagon is true?
    • A. 

      It is secreted by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans

    • B. 

      It is secreted in response to a rise in blood glucose

    • C. 

      It promotes the breakdown of glycogen in the liver

    • D. 

      It promotes the synthesis of glycogen in the liver

    • E. 

      Its actions result in a decrease in blood glucose

  • 119. 
    . Cells that respond to a particular hormone are called
    • A. 

      Receptor cells.

    • B. 

      Sensor cells.

    • C. 

      Secretory cells.

    • D. 

      Active cells.

    • E. 

      Target cells.

  • 120. 
    An organ that can be classified as both an endocrine and exocrine gland is           the
    • A. 

      Hypothalamus

    • B. 

      Thymus gland.

    • C. 

      Pancreas.

    • D. 

      Pituitary gland.

    • E. 

      Gallbladder.

  • 121. 
    Mineralcorticoids
    • A. 

      Are produced in the adrenal cortex.

    • B. 

      Are steroid hormones.

    • C. 

      Help regulate the homeostasis of sodium and potassium.

    • D. 

      All of the above.

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 122. 
    Which of the following hormones controls the production and release of glucocorticoids?
    • A. 

      ADH

    • B. 

      ACTH

    • C. 

      GH

    • D. 

      FSH

    • E. 

      LH

  • 123. 
    The sympathetic division of the autnomic system is also known as which of the following
    • A. 

      The craniosacral divsion

    • B. 

      The craniocervical divsion

    • C. 

      The thoraclumbar divsion

    • D. 

      The thoracosacral divsion

    • E. 

      The craniolumbar division

  • 124. 
    The parasympathetic division of the autnomic system is also known as which of the following
    • A. 

      The craniosacral divsion

    • B. 

      The craniolumbar division

    • C. 

      The thoracosacral divsion

    • D. 

      The craniocervical divsion

    • E. 

      The thoraclumbar divsion

  • 125. 
    Which of the following effects are due to the action of the sympathetic nervous system
    • A. 

      Dilation of eyes

    • B. 

      Decrease heart rate

    • C. 

      Constriction of skin arteriols

    • D. 

      Contraction of the bladder

    • E. 

      Dilation of airwaves

  • 126. 
    Which of the following effects are due to the action of the parasympathetic nervous system
    • A. 

      Dilation of eyes

    • B. 

      Decrease heart rate

    • C. 

      Constriction of skin arterioles

    • D. 

      Contraction of the bladder

    • E. 

      Dilation of airwaves

  • 127. 
    Which of the following statements are TRUE 
    • A. 

      The output pathway from the automonic nervous system is a 2 neurone pathway

    • B. 

      Acetylcholine is used as a neurotransmitter at the parasympathetic nerve terminals only

    • C. 

      Noradrenaline is used as a neurotransmitter at the sympathetic nerve terminals only

    • D. 

      Post ganglionic sympathetic nerve fibres are short

    • E. 

      Pre-ganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibres are long

  • 128. 
    Which of the following is NOT the autonmic nervous system
    • A. 

      The vagus nerve

    • B. 

      The sympathetic chain

    • C. 

      The adrenal glands

    • D. 

      Cervical nerve

    • E. 

      The hyppothalamus

  • 129. 
    Propranolol acts on the autonomic nervous system by doing which one of the following
    • A. 

      Blocking alpha receptors for noradrenaline

    • B. 

      Blocking muscarinic actycholine receptors

    • C. 

      Blocking beta receptors for noradrenaline

    • D. 

      Blocking nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    • E. 

      Blocking calcium release in smooth muscle cells

  • 130. 
    Which one of the following statements is FALSE
    • A. 

      Most autonomic responses are not under conscious control

    • B. 

      Generally speaking if the sympathetic nervous system increase activity in an organ the the parasympathetic nervous system will decrease the activity in an organ

    • C. 

      Sensory receptors monitor internal body condition

    • D. 

      Sensory neurones include pre and post ganlionic neurones

    • E. 

      Most target organs receive dual innervation