Respiratory Anatomy Practice Quiz

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Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 234
Questions: 66 | Attempts: 234

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Anatomy Quizzes & Trivia

This is a strictly practice quiz for the class Anatomy and Physiology of Speech-Language and Hearing to help prepare you for the real deal. Good luck!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following are all principle components of respiration?

    • A.

      Vertebral (spinal) column, rib cage, pelvic girdle, pectoral girdle

    • B.

      Rib cage, sternum, pectoral girdle, vertebral (spinal) column

    • C.

      Pelvic girdle, pectoral girdle, manubrium (sternum), diaphragm

    • D.

      Vertebral (spinal) column, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, diaphragm

    • E.

      Diaphragm, sternum, rib cage, vertebral (spinal) column

    Correct Answer
    A. Vertebral (spinal) column, rib cage, pelvic girdle, pectoral girdle
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes all the principle components of respiration, which are the vertebral (spinal) column, rib cage, pelvic girdle, and pectoral girdle. These components are essential for the movement and support of the respiratory system. The vertebral column provides structure and flexibility, the rib cage protects the lungs and assists in breathing, the pelvic girdle supports the lower organs, and the pectoral girdle supports the upper body and aids in the movement of the arms during respiration.

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  • 2. 

    There are 1) _____ vertebrae in our spine: 2) _____ cervical, 3) ____ thoracic, 4) _____ lumbar, 5) _____ sacral, and 6) ______ cochleal.

    Correct Answer
    1) 32-33 2) 7 3) 12 4) 5 5) 5 6) 3-4
    Explanation
    The answer is correct because it accurately identifies the number of vertebrae in each section of the spine. There are typically 32-33 vertebrae in total, with 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, 5 sacral vertebrae, and 3-4 coccygeal (or coccyx) vertebrae.

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  • 3. 

    The C1 atlas provides 1) ________ to the skull. The C2 axis helps with 2) _____________.

    Correct Answer
    1) support 2) rotation
    Explanation
    The C1 atlas provides support to the skull, while the C2 axis helps with rotation. The C1 atlas is the first cervical vertebra, also known as the atlas, which supports the weight of the skull and allows for nodding movements. The C2 axis, on the other hand, has a unique structure called the odontoid process or dens, which allows for rotation of the head. Together, these two vertebrae play a crucial role in providing support and facilitating rotation of the skull.

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  • 4. 

    How many pairs of ribs are there?

    • A.

      32-33

    • B.

      16

    • C.

      12

    • D.

      8

    • E.

      13

    Correct Answer
    C. 12
    Explanation
    There are 12 pairs of ribs in the human body. The ribs are long, curved bones that form a protective cage around the chest area. Each rib is attached to the spine at the back and curves around to connect to the sternum at the front. There are 12 pairs of ribs in total, with the first 7 pairs known as true ribs, as they are directly connected to the sternum. The remaining 5 pairs are called false ribs, with 3 pairs connecting indirectly to the sternum and 2 pairs floating freely.

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  • 5. 

    The sternal portion of the diaphragm origins where?

    • A.

      The upper lumbar vertebrae

    • B.

      C7, T1 - T11

    • C.

      The lower and back border of the xiphoid process

    • D.

      The central tendon

    • E.

      Superior and medially

    Correct Answer
    C. The lower and back border of the xiphoid process
    Explanation
    The sternal portion of the diaphragm originates from the lower and back border of the xiphoid process. This means that the muscle fibers of the diaphragm attach to the lower and posterior part of the xiphoid process, which is the small bone at the lower end of the sternum. This attachment point helps to anchor and support the diaphragm, which is a dome-shaped muscle that plays a crucial role in breathing by contracting and relaxing to create changes in thoracic pressure.

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  • 6. 

    The costal portion of the diaphragm origins where?

    • A.

      Lower border & inferior surface of ribs 7-12

    • B.

      The central tendon

    • C.

      Superior and medially

    • D.

      C7, T1 - T3

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Lower border & inferior surface of ribs 7-12
    Explanation
    The costal portion of the diaphragm originates from the lower border and inferior surface of ribs 7-12. This means that the muscle fibers of the diaphragm attach to the lower edges of these ribs and the undersides of their surfaces. This origin point allows the diaphragm to contract and relax, causing the muscle to move downward and upward respectively, which in turn helps with the process of breathing. The other options listed (the central tendon, superior and medially, and C7, T1 - T3) are incorrect origins for the costal portion of the diaphragm.

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  • 7. 

    The 3 important diaphragm openings consist of 1) _________ 2) __________ and 3) ______________.

    Correct Answer
    1) aortic hiatus 2) esophageal hiatus 3) foramen vena cava
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 1) aortic hiatus, 2) esophageal hiatus, and 3) foramen vena cava. These are the three important diaphragm openings. The aortic hiatus is an opening in the diaphragm through which the aorta passes. The esophageal hiatus is an opening through which the esophagus passes. The foramen vena cava is an opening for the inferior vena cava to pass through the diaphragm. These three openings are crucial for the passage of important structures between the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

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  • 8. 

    The external intercostals originate...

    • A.

      Lower border of your superior rib

    • B.

      C7, T1 - T11

    • C.

      C7, T1 - T3

    • D.

      Upper lumbar vertebrae

    • E.

      Inferior and towards sternum

    Correct Answer
    A. Lower border of your superior rib
    Explanation
    The external intercostals are muscles located between the ribs that assist in the process of breathing. They originate from the lower border of the superior rib. This means that they start from the bottom part of the rib that is located above them. The other options mentioned in the question, such as C7, T1 - T11, C7, T1 - T3, upper lumbar vertebrae, and inferior and towards sternum, are not correct origins for the external intercostals.

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  • 9. 

    The external intercostals course...

    • A.

      Superior and medially

    • B.

      Inferior and towards sternum

    • C.

      Anterior across the thorax wall

    • D.

      Inferior and laterally

    Correct Answer
    B. Inferior and towards sternum
    Explanation
    The external intercostals are muscles located between the ribs. They course inferiorly, meaning they run downwards, and towards the sternum, which is the central bone in the front of the chest. This direction of the external intercostals allows them to elevate the ribcage during inhalation, expanding the thoracic cavity and aiding in the process of breathing.

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  • 10. 

    The external intercostals insert...

    • A.

      The central tendon

    • B.

      Humerous bone of the upper arm

    • C.

      Upper border of rib below

    • D.

      Posterior surface of rib just below

    Correct Answer
    C. Upper border of rib below
    Explanation
    The external intercostals are muscles located between the ribs. They are responsible for elevating the ribs during inhalation. The correct answer, "upper border of rib below," refers to the insertion point of the external intercostals. This means that the muscle attaches to the upper border of the rib below it. This attachment allows the external intercostals to pull the ribs upwards and outwards, expanding the chest cavity and aiding in the process of inhalation.

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  • 11. 

    The levatores costarum origins...

    • A.

      C7, T1 - T11

    • B.

      Inferior and laterally

    • C.

      The central tendon

    • D.

      Humerous bone of the upper arm

    • E.

      Across the anterior thorax wall

    Correct Answer
    A. C7, T1 - T11
    Explanation
    The correct answer is C7, T1 - T11. The levatores costarum muscles originate from the transverse processes of the seventh cervical vertebra (C7) and the first to eleventh thoracic vertebrae (T1 - T11). They originate inferiorly and laterally from these vertebrae. The levatores costarum muscles do not originate from the central tendon or the humerus bone of the upper arm. They also do not extend across the anterior thorax wall.

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  • 12. 

    The levatores costarum courses...

    • A.

      Inferior & lateral

    • B.

      Superior and medial

    • C.

      Anterior to the thorax wall

    • D.

      Elevate ribs

    • E.

      Inhalation

    Correct Answer
    A. Inferior & lateral
    Explanation
    The levatores costarum muscles are located on the posterior side of the thorax. They run in an inferior and lateral direction, meaning they are positioned lower and towards the sides of the thorax. These muscles are responsible for elevating the ribs during inhalation, assisting in the expansion of the thoracic cavity.

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  • 13. 

    The levatores costarum inserts...

    • A.

      Inhalation

    • B.

      The central tendon

    • C.

      Posterior surface of rib just below

    • D.

      Upper border of rib below

    Correct Answer
    C. Posterior surface of rib just below
    Explanation
    The levatores costarum muscles are a group of muscles located on the posterior surface of the ribs. They are responsible for elevating the ribs during inhalation. These muscles insert on the posterior surface of the rib just below its upper border. This insertion point allows the levatores costarum muscles to effectively elevate the ribs and expand the thoracic cavity during inhalation, aiding in the process of breathing.

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  • 14. 

    The serratus posterior superior origins...

    • A.

      Humerous bone of the upper arm

    • B.

      C7, T1 - T3

    • C.

      The central tendon

    • D.

      The lower and back border of the xiphoid process

    • E.

      Lower border & inferior surface of ribs 7-12

    Correct Answer
    B. C7, T1 - T3
    Explanation
    The serratus posterior superior muscles originate from the lower and back border of the xiphoid process, as well as the lower border and inferior surface of ribs 7-12.

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  • 15. 

    The serratus posterior superior courses...

    • A.

      Inferior and lateral

    • B.

      Superior and medial

    • C.

      Anterior across the thorax wall

    Correct Answer
    A. Inferior and lateral
    Explanation
    The serratus posterior superior courses in an inferior and lateral direction. This means that it runs downwards and towards the sides of the body.

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  • 16. 

    The serratus posterior superior inserts...

    • A.

      The lower and posterior surface of ribs 7 - 12

    • B.

      Inhalation

    • C.

      The central tendon

    • D.

      Ribs 2 - 5 near angle

    Correct Answer
    D. Ribs 2 - 5 near angle
    Explanation
    The serratus posterior superior muscle inserts into ribs 2 - 5 near the angle. This means that the muscle attaches to the upper and posterior surface of these ribs, close to where the rib curves. This muscle is involved in the process of inhalation, as it helps to elevate the ribs during breathing. The central tendon is not related to the insertion of the serratus posterior superior muscle, and ribs 7 - 12 are not involved in its attachment.

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  • 17. 

    The pectoralis major origins...

    • A.

      The central tendon

    • B.

      Upper costal cartilages, sternum, clavicle

    • C.

      Humerous bone of the upper arm

    • D.

      Anterior surface of scapula

    • E.

      Inhalation

    Correct Answer
    C. Humerous bone of the upper arm
    Explanation
    The pectoralis major muscle originates from the humerus bone of the upper arm. This means that the muscle begins its attachment on the upper arm bone. The other options mentioned, such as the central tendon, upper costal cartilages, sternum, and clavicle, and the anterior surface of the scapula, are not the correct origins of the pectoralis major muscle.

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  • 18. 

    The pectoralis major courses...

    • A.

      Fans out widely across anterior thorax

    • B.

      Superior and medial

    • C.

      Inferior and lateral

    • D.

      Superior and inferior

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Fans out widely across anterior thorax
    Explanation
    The pectoralis major is a large muscle that is located in the anterior thorax. It originates from the clavicle, sternum, and ribs and inserts into the humerus. The muscle fibers of the pectoralis major fan out widely across the anterior thorax, which allows for a wide range of movements, such as flexion, adduction, and medial rotation of the arm. This arrangement of the muscle fibers is what gives the pectoralis major its characteristic appearance and allows it to perform its functions effectively.

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  • 19. 

    The pectoralis minor origins...

    • A.

      Humerous bone of upper arm

    • B.

      Anterior surface of scapula

    • C.

      Lower and back border of xiphoid process

    • D.

      The lower and anterior border of ribs 7 - 12

    Correct Answer
    B. Anterior surface of scapula
    Explanation
    The pectoralis minor muscle originates from the anterior surface of the scapula.

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  • 20. 

    The pectoralis minor courses...

    • A.

      Anterior surface of scapula

    • B.

      Inferior and medial

    • C.

      Superior and medial

    • D.

      Anterior across the thorax

    Correct Answer
    B. Inferior and medial
    Explanation
    The pectoralis minor muscle courses inferiorly and medially. This means that it runs in a downward and inward direction. It is located on the anterior surface of the scapula, which is the bone on the back of the shoulder. The muscle does not run superiorly and medially or anteriorly across the thorax.

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  • 21. 

    The pectoralis minor inserts...

    • A.

      The lower and back border of the xiphoid process

    • B.

      The central tendon

    • C.

      Anterior medial portion of ribs 3 - 5

    • D.

      Inhalation

    Correct Answer
    C. Anterior medial portion of ribs 3 - 5
    Explanation
    The pectoralis minor muscle inserts into the anterior medial portion of ribs 3 - 5. This means that the muscle attaches to the front and middle section of these ribs. The other options, such as the lower and back border of the xiphoid process and the central tendon, are incorrect because they do not accurately describe where the pectoralis minor muscle inserts. Additionally, the statement about inhalation is unrelated to the insertion point of the muscle and is therefore not the correct answer.

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  • 22. 

    The subclavius origins...

    • A.

      Underside of clavicle, near scapula

    • B.

      Slightly inferior and medial

    • C.

      Junction of rib 1 and its cartilage

    • D.

      Inhalation

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Underside of clavicle, near scapula
    Explanation
    The subclavius muscle originates from the underside of the clavicle, near the scapula. This means that the muscle begins its attachment on the lower surface of the clavicle, close to where it connects with the shoulder blade. This information helps to locate and identify the subclavius muscle in the body.

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  • 23. 

    The subclavius courses...

    • A.

      Underside of clavicle, near scapula

    • B.

      Slightly inferior and medial

    • C.

      Junction of rib 1 and its cartilage

    • D.

      Inhalation

    Correct Answer
    B. Slightly inferior and medial
    Explanation
    The subclavius muscle courses slightly inferior and medial to the underside of the clavicle, near the scapula. It is located at the junction of the first rib and its cartilage. The subclavius muscle is involved in the process of inhalation.

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  • 24. 

    The subclavius inserts...

    • A.

      Junction of rib 1 and its cartilage

    • B.

      Slightly inferior and medial

    • C.

      Inhalation

    • D.

      The central tendon

    Correct Answer
    A. Junction of rib 1 and its cartilage
    Explanation
    The subclavius muscle inserts at the junction of rib 1 and its cartilage. This means that the muscle attaches at the point where the first rib meets its cartilage. The insertion is slightly inferior and medial, meaning that it is located below and towards the midline of the body. The subclavius muscle is involved in inhalation, helping to elevate the first rib during breathing. The central tendon is not the correct answer as it is not the insertion point of the subclavius muscle.

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  • 25. 

    The serratus anterior origins...

    • A.

      Anterior surface of scapula

    • B.

      Large thin muscle on the side wall of thorax

    • C.

      Inhalation

    • D.

      Anterior, around side of rib cage

    • E.

      Ribs 1 -8 or 9, near costal cartilages

    Correct Answer
    A. Anterior surface of scapula
    Explanation
    The serratus anterior muscle originates from the anterior surface of the scapula. This means that it starts from the front side of the shoulder blade. It is a large, thin muscle located on the side wall of the thorax. The serratus anterior muscle is involved in the process of inhalation, helping to lift the rib cage during breathing. It attaches to the ribs 1-8 or 9, near the costal cartilages, which are the cartilages that connect the ribs to the sternum.

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  • 26. 

    The serratus anterior courses...

    • A.

      Ribs 1 -8 or 9, near costal cartilages

    • B.

      Anterior, around side of rib cage

    • C.

      Inhalation

    • D.

      Anterior surface of scapula

    • E.

      Large thin muscle on side wall of thorax

    Correct Answer
    B. Anterior, around side of rib cage
    Explanation
    The serratus anterior is a large, thin muscle located on the side wall of the thorax. It courses anteriorly, meaning it runs towards the front of the body, and wraps around the side of the rib cage. This muscle is responsible for assisting in inhalation and plays a role in stabilizing the scapula.

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  • 27. 

    The serratus anterior inserts...

    • A.

      Inhalation

    • B.

      Large thin muscle on side wall of thorax

    • C.

      Inhalation

    • D.

      Ribs 1-8 or 9, near costal cartilages

    • E.

      Anterior surface of scapula

    Correct Answer
    D. Ribs 1-8 or 9, near costal cartilages
    Explanation
    The serratus anterior muscle inserts on ribs 1-8 or 9, near the costal cartilages. This means that the muscle attaches to these ribs and is located close to the cartilages that connect the ribs to the sternum. This insertion point allows the serratus anterior to play a role in stabilizing and moving the ribs during inhalation, helping to expand the chest cavity and facilitate breathing. Additionally, the serratus anterior also attaches to the anterior surface of the scapula, further contributing to its function in shoulder movement and stability.

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  • 28. 

    The sternocleidomastoid origins...

    • A.

      Large muscle on side of neck

    • B.

      Inferior (in two divisions)

    • C.

      Inhalation

    • D.

      Superior surface of clavicle and sternum

    • E.

      Bony skull, behind ear at mastoid process

    Correct Answer
    E. Bony skull, behind ear at mastoid process
    Explanation
    The sternocleidomastoid muscle originates from the bony skull, specifically behind the ear at the mastoid process. This muscle is a large muscle located on the side of the neck and is responsible for various movements, including inhalation. It has two divisions that originate from the superior surface of the clavicle and sternum, respectively.

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  • 29. 

    The sternocleidomastoid courses...

    • A.

      Inhalation

    • B.

      Bony skull, behind ear at mastoid process

    • C.

      Inferior (in two divisions)

    • D.

      Large muscle on side of neck

    • E.

      Superior surface of clavicle and mastoid

    Correct Answer
    C. Inferior (in two divisions)
    Explanation
    The sternocleidomastoid muscle courses inferiorly in two divisions. This means that the muscle extends downwards in two separate parts. It originates from the superior surface of the clavicle and the mastoid process behind the ear on the bony skull. The sternocleidomastoid is a large muscle located on the side of the neck.

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  • 30. 

    The sternocleidomastoid inserts...

    • A.

      Bony skull, behind ear at mastoid process

    • B.

      Superior surface of clavicle and mastoid

    • C.

      Inferior (in two divisions)

    • D.

      Inhalation

    • E.

      Large muscle on side of neck

    Correct Answer
    B. Superior surface of clavicle and mastoid
    Explanation
    The sternocleidomastoid muscle inserts on the superior surface of the clavicle and mastoid. This means that one end of the muscle is attached to the top surface of the collarbone (clavicle) and the other end is attached to the bony prominence behind the ear known as the mastoid process. The muscle is responsible for various movements of the head and neck, including rotation and flexion.

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  • 31. 

    The scalenes origin...

    • A.

      Anterior, medial, posterior in neck

    • B.

      Transverse process of C2 - C7

    • C.

      Inferior and slightly lateral

    • D.

      Ribs 1 & 2

    • E.

      Inhalation

    Correct Answer
    B. Transverse process of C2 - C7
    Explanation
    The scalenes muscles originate from the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae C2 to C7. They are located inferior and slightly lateral to the origin. The scalenes muscles are responsible for assisting in inhalation.

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  • 32. 

    The scalenes course...

    • A.

      Inhalation

    • B.

      Transverse process of C2 - C7

    • C.

      Ribs 1 & 2

    • D.

      Inferior and slightly lateral

    • E.

      Anterior, medial and posterior in neck

    Correct Answer
    D. Inferior and slightly lateral
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "inferior and slightly lateral." This answer describes the location of the scalene muscles in relation to other anatomical structures. The scalene muscles are positioned inferiorly and slightly laterally in the neck.

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  • 33. 

    The scalenes insert...

    • A.

      Group of three muscles in neck

    • B.

      Ribs 1 & 2

    • C.

      The central tendon

    • D.

      Tranverse process of C2 - C7

    • E.

      Inferior and slightly lateral

    Correct Answer
    B. Ribs 1 & 2
    Explanation
    The scalenes muscles insert into the ribs 1 and 2.

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  • 34. 

    The levator scapulate origins...

    • A.

      Transverse process of C1 - C4

    • B.

      Medial border of scapula

    • C.

      Down

    • D.

      Inhalation

    • E.

      Neck support

    Correct Answer
    A. Transverse process of C1 - C4
    Explanation
    The levator scapulae muscle originates from the transverse processes of the first to fourth cervical vertebrae (C1-C4). It does not originate from the medial border of the scapula or any other mentioned structures. The levator scapulae muscle is responsible for elevating the scapula, helping to rotate and tilt the neck, and providing support to the neck region.

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  • 35. 

    The levator scapulae courses...

    • A.

      Transverse process of C1 - C4

    • B.

      Inferior and slightly lateral

    • C.

      Down

    • D.

      Medial border of scapula

    • E.

      Inhalation

    Correct Answer
    C. Down
    Explanation
    The levator scapulae muscle courses inferiorly and slightly laterally. It runs from the transverse processes of the first to fourth cervical vertebrae down to the medial border of the scapula. This muscle helps in the process of inhalation.

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  • 36. 

    The rectus abdominus origins...

    • A.

      Superior, parallel to midline

    • B.

      Anterior edge of pubic bone

    • C.

      Long ribbon-like muscle on ventral aspect of abdominal cavity

    • D.

      Exhalation

    • E.

      Cartilages of ribs 5-7, xiphoid process

    Correct Answer
    B. Anterior edge of pubic bone
    Explanation
    The rectus abdominis muscle originates from the anterior edge of the pubic bone. This muscle is a long ribbon-like muscle located on the ventral aspect of the abdominal cavity. It runs parallel to the midline and is responsible for exhalation. Additionally, it also attaches to the cartilages of ribs 5-7 and the xiphoid process.

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  • 37. 

    The rectus abdominus courses...

    • A.

      Superior, parallel to midline

    • B.

      Long ribbon-like muscle on ventral aspect of abdominal cavity

    • C.

      Exhalation

    • D.

      Cartilages of ribs 5-7, xiphoid process

    • E.

      Anterior edge of pubic bone

    Correct Answer
    A. Superior, parallel to midline
    Explanation
    The rectus abdominus muscle is a long ribbon-like muscle located on the ventral aspect of the abdominal cavity. It courses superiorly, parallel to the midline of the body. It originates from the cartilages of ribs 5-7 and the xiphoid process, and inserts into the anterior edge of the pubic bone. This muscle is responsible for various movements, such as exhalation, and helps to stabilize the trunk and maintain posture.

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  • 38. 

    The rectus abdominus inserts...

    • A.

      Anterior edge of pubic bone

    • B.

      Superior, parallel to midline

    • C.

      Cartilages of ribs 5-7, xiphoid process

    • D.

      Exhalation

    • E.

      Long ribbon-like muscle on the ventral aspect of abdominal cavity

    Correct Answer
    C. Cartilages of ribs 5-7, xiphoid process
    Explanation
    The rectus abdominis muscle inserts into the cartilages of ribs 5-7 and the xiphoid process. This means that the muscle attaches to these structures, allowing it to perform its functions. The rectus abdominis is a long ribbon-like muscle located in the front of the abdominal cavity. It is responsible for flexing the trunk, compressing the abdominal contents, and stabilizing the pelvis and spine.

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  • 39. 

    The external oblique origins...

    • A.

      Broad, flat muscle on lateral and anterior portions of lower thorax and abdomen

    • B.

      Ribs 5 - 12

    • C.

      Iliac crest and aponeurosis

    • D.

      Superior and lateral

    • E.

      Exhalation

    Correct Answer
    C. Iliac crest and aponeurosis
    Explanation
    The external oblique muscle originates from the iliac crest and aponeurosis. The iliac crest is the upper curved edge of the hip bone, and the aponeurosis is a flat tendon that connects muscles to bones or other muscles. This origin allows the external oblique muscle to have a broad attachment on the lateral and anterior portions of the lower thorax and abdomen. The external oblique muscle is responsible for various movements, including rotation and flexion of the trunk, and also aids in exhalation.

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  • 40. 

    The external oblique courses...

    • A.

      Superior and lateral

    • B.

      Slightly inferior and medial

    • C.

      Exhalation

    • D.

      Broad, flat muscle on lateral and anterior portions of lower thorax and abdomen

    • E.

      Ribs 5 - -12

    Correct Answer
    A. Superior and lateral
    Explanation
    The external oblique is a broad, flat muscle located on the lateral and anterior portions of the lower thorax and abdomen. It runs from the lower ribs (5-12) to the pelvis. The correct answer is "superior and lateral" because the external oblique courses in a direction that is both superior (upwards) and lateral (away from the midline of the body).

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  • 41. 

    The external oblique inserts...

    • A.

      Broad, flat muscle on lateral and anterior portions of lower thorax and abdomen

    • B.

      Superior and lateral

    • C.

      Exhalation

    • D.

      Ribs 5 - 12

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Ribs 5 - 12
    Explanation
    The external oblique muscle inserts on the ribs 5-12. This means that the muscle attaches to these ribs, specifically on their superior and lateral sides. The external oblique is a broad, flat muscle that is located on the lateral and anterior portions of the lower thorax and abdomen. It plays a role in exhalation.

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  • 42. 

    The internal oblique origins...

    • A.

      Large, flat muscle on lateral and ventral aspect of abdomen

    • B.

      Fans out superiorly and medially

    • C.

      Abdominal aponeurosis and inferior border of lower costal cartilages

    • D.

      Anterior 2/3 of iliac crest and lateral half of inguinal ligament

    • E.

      Exhalation

    Correct Answer
    D. Anterior 2/3 of iliac crest and lateral half of inguinal ligament
    Explanation
    The internal oblique muscle originates from the anterior 2/3 of the iliac crest and the lateral half of the inguinal ligament. This means that these are the points where the muscle begins. The other options mentioned, such as the abdominal aponeurosis and lower costal cartilages, are not the origins of the internal oblique muscle. Additionally, the fact that the muscle fans out superiorly and medially is not relevant to its origin.

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  • 43. 

    The internal oblique courses...

    • A.

      Large, flat muscle on lateral and ventral aspect of abdomen

    • B.

      Anterior 2/3 of iliac crest and lateral half of inguinal ligament

    • C.

      Fans out superiorly and medially

    • D.

      Exhalation

    • E.

      Abdominal aponeurosis and inferior border of lower costal cartilages

    Correct Answer
    C. Fans out superiorly and medially
    Explanation
    The internal oblique muscle is a large, flat muscle located on the lateral and ventral aspect of the abdomen. It originates from the anterior two-thirds of the iliac crest and the lateral half of the inguinal ligament. The muscle fibers of the internal oblique course in a fan-like manner, spreading out superiorly and medially. This arrangement allows the muscle to contribute to various movements and actions, such as exhalation. The muscle inserts into the abdominal aponeurosis and the inferior border of the lower costal cartilages.

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  • 44. 

    The internal oblique inserts...

    • A.

      Anterior 2/3 of iliac crest and lateral half of inguinal ligament

    • B.

      Abdominal aponeurosis and inferior border of lower costal cartilages

    • C.

      Fans out superiorly and medially

    • D.

      Exhalation

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Abdominal aponeurosis and inferior border of lower costal cartilages
    Explanation
    The internal oblique muscle inserts into the abdominal aponeurosis, which is a sheet of connective tissue that runs down the front of the abdomen, and the inferior border of the lower costal cartilages. This means that the muscle attaches to the lower ribs and the connective tissue in the abdomen. This insertion allows the internal oblique muscle to contribute to the flexion, rotation, and lateral bending of the trunk.

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  • 45. 

    The transverse abdominus origins...

    • A.

      Under internal oblique

    • B.

      Lower 7 ribs and superior surface of coxal bone

    • C.

      Horizontal and anterior

    • D.

      Exhalation

    • E.

      Abdominal aponeurosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Lower 7 ribs and superior surface of coxal bone
    Explanation
    The transverse abdominus muscle originates from the lower 7 ribs and the superior surface of the coxal bone. It has a horizontal and anterior orientation. This muscle is involved in exhalation and is connected to the abdominal aponeurosis.

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  • 46. 

    The transverse abdominus courses...

    • A.

      Horizontal and anterior

    • B.

      Slightly superially and medially

    • C.

      Anteriorly, towards sternum

    • D.

      Abdominal aponeurosis

    • E.

      Under internal oblique

    Correct Answer
    A. Horizontal and anterior
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "horizontal and anterior". This means that the transverse abdominus muscle runs in a direction that is parallel to the ground (horizontal) and towards the front of the body (anterior). This muscle is located deep within the abdomen and plays a role in stabilizing the core and supporting the spine. Its horizontal and anterior orientation allows it to provide support and stability to the abdominal region.

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  • 47. 

    The transverse abdominus inserts...

    • A.

      Abdominal aponeurosis

    • B.

      Lower 7 ribs and superior surface of coxal bone

    • C.

      Under internal oblique

    • D.

      Horizontal and anterior

    • E.

      Exhalation

    Correct Answer
    A. Abdominal aponeurosis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "abdominal aponeurosis." The transverse abdominus muscle inserts into the abdominal aponeurosis, which is a tough, sheet-like structure made of connective tissue. This aponeurosis serves as a common insertion point for several abdominal muscles and helps to provide support and stability to the abdominal wall.

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  • 48. 

    Abdominal muscles do all of the following except:

    • A.

      Flexor of vertebral column

    • B.

      Enclose and support abdominal contents

    • C.

      Protect diaphragm

    • D.

      Respiration (displace abdominal contents)

    • E.

      Abdominal muscles do all of these.

    Correct Answer
    C. Protect diaphragm
    Explanation
    The abdominal muscles perform various functions, including flexing the vertebral column, enclosing and supporting abdominal contents, and assisting in respiration by displacing abdominal contents. However, they do not directly protect the diaphragm. The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle located below the lungs, and its primary function is to aid in breathing by contracting and relaxing to create changes in thoracic pressure. While the abdominal muscles indirectly contribute to respiration, they do not have a specific role in protecting the diaphragm.

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  • 49. 

    The subcostals origin...

    • A.

      Exhalation

    • B.

      On posterior aspect in inner wall of lower thoracic cage

    • C.

      Inner surface of ribs, close to vertebral column

    • D.

      Inner surface of rib 1 or 2 above

    • E.

      Superior and lateral

    Correct Answer
    C. Inner surface of ribs, close to vertebral column
    Explanation
    The subcostals originate from the inner surface of the ribs, close to the vertebral column.

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  • 50. 

    The subcostals course...

    • A.

      On posterior aspect in inner wall of lower thoracic cage

    • B.

      Superior and lateral

    • C.

      Slightly superior and medial

    • D.

      Exhalation

    • E.

      Inner surface of rib 1 or 2 above

    Correct Answer
    B. Superior and lateral
    Explanation
    The subcostals run on the posterior aspect of the inner wall of the lower thoracic cage. They course slightly superior and lateral, meaning they are positioned slightly above and towards the side of the thoracic cage. They are responsible for exhalation and attach to the inner surface of the rib 1 or 2 above their origin.

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