Protein Synthesis In The Cellular Factory Quiz

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| By Morgan
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Morgan
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Quizzes Created: 2 | Total Attempts: 2,797
Questions: 15 | Attempts: 340

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Protein Synthesis In The Cellular Factory Quiz - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Ribosomes are used directly to make __________________ in all cells.

    • A.

      Carbohydrates

    • B.

      Lipids

    • C.

      Proteins

    • D.

      Energy

    Correct Answer
    C. Proteins
    Explanation
    Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis in all cells. They read the genetic information stored in the DNA and use it to assemble amino acids into specific sequences, forming proteins. This process is essential for the structure, function, and regulation of cells, as proteins play a crucial role in various biological processes. Therefore, the correct answer is proteins.

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  • 2. 

    How many codons are needed to form one amino acid?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      3

    • C.

      4

    • D.

      6

    Correct Answer
    B. 3
    Explanation
    Three codons are needed to form one amino acid. Each codon consists of three nucleotides, and each nucleotide can be one of four possible bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), or thymine (T). The combination of these bases in a codon determines the specific amino acid that will be incorporated into a protein during translation. With four possible bases and three nucleotides per codon, there are a total of 64 different codons. However, some amino acids can be coded by multiple codons, resulting in redundancy in the genetic code. Overall, three codons are required to form one amino acid.

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  • 3. 

    The correct pairing of nitrogenous bases in DNA is:

    • A.

      Adenine with Guanine; Thymine with Cytosine

    • B.

      Adenine with Uracil; Guanine with Cytosine

    • C.

      Cytosine with Guanine; Adenine with Thymine

    • D.

      Uracil with Thymine; Cytosine with Gunanine

    Correct Answer
    C. Cytosine with Guanine; Adenine with Thymine
    Explanation
    The correct pairing of nitrogenous bases in DNA is Cytosine with Guanine and Adenine with Thymine. This is known as complementary base pairing. Adenine forms two hydrogen bonds with Thymine, while Cytosine forms three hydrogen bonds with Guanine. This pairing is essential for DNA replication and transcription, as it ensures the accurate transmission of genetic information.

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  • 4. 

    Nucleotides are composed of:

    • A.

      Phosphate-Sugar-Nitrogen Base

    • B.

      Phosphate-Sugar-Phosphate

    • C.

      Nitrogen Base-Phosphate-Nitrogen Base

    • D.

      Sugar-Phosphate-Sugar

    Correct Answer
    A. Phosphate-Sugar-Nitrogen Base
    Explanation
    Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. They consist of three components: a phosphate group, a sugar molecule, and a nitrogenous base. The phosphate group provides the backbone of the nucleotide, connecting the sugar and the nitrogenous base. The sugar molecule, either deoxyribose or ribose, is attached to the phosphate group. The nitrogenous base, which can be adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA), is connected to the sugar molecule. Therefore, the correct answer is Phosphate-Sugar-Nitrogen Base.

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  • 5. 

    Double stranded nucleic acid:

    • A.

      MRNA

    • B.

      TRNA

    • C.

      DNA

    • D.

      Nucleotide

    Correct Answer
    C. DNA
    Explanation
    DNA is the correct answer because it is a double stranded nucleic acid. DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides that are complementary to each other and form a double helix structure. mRNA and tRNA are single stranded nucleic acids involved in protein synthesis. Nucleotide is the building block of nucleic acids, including DNA.

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  • 6. 

    Messenger RNA is found in:

    • A.

      Nucleus and Cytoplasm

    • B.

      Cytoplasm only

    • C.

      Nucleus only

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Nucleus and Cytoplasm
    Explanation
    Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis. Therefore, mRNA is found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In the nucleus, mRNA is transcribed from the DNA, and then it is transported out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm, where it undergoes translation to produce proteins.

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  • 7. 

    Which RNA sequence is produced using the DNA sequence AGCTACACT

    • A.

      TCGATGTGA

    • B.

      UCGAUGUGA

    • C.

      AGCUACACU

    • D.

      UCGUACACU

    Correct Answer
    B. UCGAUGUGA
    Explanation
    The RNA sequence is produced by replacing each nucleotide in the DNA sequence with its complementary nucleotide in RNA. In this case, A is replaced with U, G is replaced with C, C is replaced with G, and T is replaced with A. Therefore, the RNA sequence produced from the DNA sequence AGCTACACT is UCGAUGUGA.

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  • 8. 

    What is the correct role of the tRNA (transfer RNA)

    • A.

      Reads every triplet at a time

    • B.

      Pass on genes from one generation to the next

    • C.

      Carries the message

    • D.

      Delivers amino acids

    Correct Answer
    D. Delivers amino acids
    Explanation
    tRNA, or transfer RNA, plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. It carries the message from the mRNA (messenger RNA) to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. The tRNA molecules have specific anticodons that recognize and bind to the corresponding codons on the mRNA. Each tRNA molecule is also attached to a specific amino acid. By delivering the correct amino acids to the ribosomes, tRNA ensures that the proteins are assembled in the correct sequence according to the genetic code. Therefore, the correct role of tRNA is to deliver amino acids during protein synthesis.

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  • 9. 

    What sugar does RNA contain?

    • A.

      Table Sugar

    • B.

      Glucose

    • C.

      Ribose

    • D.

      Deoxyribose

    Correct Answer
    C. Ribose
    Explanation
    RNA contains ribose sugar. Ribose is a five-carbon sugar that is a component of RNA molecules. It is a key structural component of the RNA molecule, forming the backbone of the RNA strand. Ribose is different from glucose and table sugar, which are not typically found in RNA. Deoxyribose, on the other hand, is a sugar found in DNA, not RNA. Therefore, the correct answer is ribose.

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  • 10. 

    Which of these processes occurs when a molecule of mRNA is made

    • A.

      Transcription

    • B.

      Replication

    • C.

      Translation

    • D.

      Excretion

    Correct Answer
    A. Transcription
    Explanation
    Transcription is the process in which a molecule of mRNA is made. During transcription, the DNA sequence is copied into a complementary mRNA molecule by RNA polymerase. This mRNA molecule carries the genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes, where it is used as a template for protein synthesis during translation. Replication is the process of DNA duplication, not mRNA synthesis. Translation is the process of protein synthesis, which occurs after transcription. Excretion is the elimination of waste products from the body and is unrelated to mRNA synthesis.

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  • 11. 

    Which of these occurs when an amino acid is linked in the ribosome

    • A.

      Transcription

    • B.

      Translation

    • C.

      Replication

    • D.

      Excretion

    Correct Answer
    B. Translation
    Explanation
    Translation is the process in which an amino acid is linked in the ribosome. During translation, the ribosome reads the mRNA sequence and uses it as a template to assemble a chain of amino acids, forming a protein. This process occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and is essential for protein synthesis. Transcription, on the other hand, is the process of synthesizing mRNA from DNA, replication is the process of DNA duplication, and excretion is the elimination of waste products from the cell.

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  • 12. 

    What is produced during transcription?

    • A.

      RNA polymerase

    • B.

      Proteins

    • C.

      RNA molecules

    • D.

      DNA molecules

    Correct Answer
    C. RNA molecules
    Explanation
    During transcription, RNA molecules are produced. Transcription is the process in which the DNA sequence is used as a template to synthesize a complementary RNA molecule. RNA polymerase, an enzyme, catalyzes this process by adding nucleotides to the growing RNA chain. The resulting RNA molecule is a copy of the DNA sequence and can be further processed and used for various cellular functions, such as protein synthesis or regulation of gene expression. Therefore, RNA molecules are the product of transcription.

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  • 13. 

    What enzyme is used in replication

    • A.

      RNA polymerase

    • B.

      DNA polymerase

    • C.

      Lipase

    • D.

      Sucrase duplicator

    Correct Answer
    B. DNA polymerase
    Explanation
    DNA polymerase is the correct answer because it is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the synthesis of new DNA strands during DNA replication. It adds nucleotides to the growing DNA strand, using the existing DNA strand as a template. RNA polymerase, on the other hand, is responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA, not for replication. Lipase and sucrase duplicator are not enzymes involved in replication, but rather in lipid digestion and sucrose metabolism, respectively.

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  • 14. 

    Amino acids are transferred to the polypeptide chain by a specific tRNA. This tRNA is matched based on:

    • A.

      Anti-codon

    • B.

      Natural abiliity

    • C.

      RNA polymerase

    • D.

      Binding capacity

    Correct Answer
    A. Anti-codon
    Explanation
    Amino acids are transferred to the polypeptide chain by a specific tRNA, which is matched based on its anti-codon. The anti-codon is a three-nucleotide sequence on the tRNA molecule that is complementary to the codon on the mRNA. This complementary base pairing ensures that the correct amino acid is added to the growing polypeptide chain during translation. The anti-codon of the tRNA molecule recognizes and binds to the codon on the mRNA, allowing for the transfer of the specific amino acid to the polypeptide chain.

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  • 15. 

    A mutation is caused by:

    • A.

      A change in protein

    • B.

      A change in DNA bases

    • C.

      A change in cytoplasm

    • D.

      A change in cell processes

    Correct Answer
    B. A change in DNA bases
    Explanation
    A mutation is caused by a change in DNA bases. DNA bases are the building blocks of DNA, and any alteration in these bases can result in a mutation. Mutations can occur due to various factors such as exposure to mutagens, errors during DNA replication, or spontaneous changes. These changes in DNA bases can lead to alterations in the genetic code, which can have significant effects on the structure and function of proteins, ultimately impacting various cellular processes.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jan 07, 2015
    Quiz Created by
    Morgan
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