Prep Theories Of Personality Midterm

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Theories Of Personality Quizzes & Trivia

In this vocabulary quiz, we’ll be quizzing you on the definitions of a handful of words and phrases regarding personality. Can you distinguish consciousness from pre-consciousness, sadism and masochism? Let’s take a look, shall we?


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Consciousness

    • A.

      All the experiences you are not currently aware of, but can voluntarily recall

    • B.

      All the experiences you are currently aware of.

    • C.

      All the experiences you are not currently aware of, and absolutely can never recall.

    Correct Answer
    B. All the experiences you are currently aware of.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All the experiences you are currently aware of." This is because consciousness refers to our awareness of our surroundings, thoughts, and feelings in the present moment. It includes everything that we are currently experiencing and aware of, such as our thoughts, sensations, and perceptions. It does not include experiences that we are not currently aware of or experiences that we cannot recall.

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  • 2. 

    Pre-Consciousness

    • A.

      All the experiences you are not currently aware of, and absolutely can never recall.

    • B.

      All the experiences you are currently aware of.

    • C.

      All the experiences you are not currently aware of, but can voluntarily recall

    Correct Answer
    C. All the experiences you are not currently aware of, but can voluntarily recall
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All the experiences you are not currently aware of, but can voluntarily recall." Pre-consciousness refers to the experiences that are not currently in our conscious awareness but can be brought back into our awareness through voluntary recall. These experiences may include memories, thoughts, or feelings that were previously stored in our minds but are not actively being thought about or experienced at the present moment.

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  • 3. 

    Unconsciousness

    • A.

      All experiences you are not currently aware of, and absolutely can never recall

    • B.

      All experiences you are not currently aware of, but can voluntarily recall

    • C.

      All the experiences you are currently aware of.

    Correct Answer
    A. All experiences you are not currently aware of, and absolutely can never recall
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All experiences you are not currently aware of, and absolutely can never recall." This means that unconsciousness refers to all the experiences that a person is not currently aware of and will never be able to recall. It implies a state of complete unawareness and inability to remember any past experiences.

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  • 4. 

    Oral Receptive

    • A.

      Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the late oral stage from 6-18 months, dependent on biting and chewing

    • B.

      Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the early oral stage from 0-8months old, dependent on sucking and swallowing actions

    • C.

      Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the early anal stage from 1 year to 2 1/2 years, when the most gratifying behavior is expelling waste

    • D.

      Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the late anal stage from 2 years to 4 years, when the potty training is in motion

    Correct Answer
    B. Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the early oral stage from 0-8months old, dependent on sucking and swallowing actions
    Explanation
    This answer is correct because it accurately describes oral receptive fixation as the result of not achieving gratification during the early oral stage, which occurs from 0-8 months old. This stage is dependent on sucking and swallowing actions for gratification.

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  • 5. 

    Oral Aggressive

    • A.

      Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the early oral stage from 0-8months old, dependent on sucking and swallowing actions

    • B.

      Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the late oral stage from 6-18 months, dependent on biting and chewing

    • C.

      Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the late anal stage from 2 years to 4 years, when the potty training is in motion

    • D.

      Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the early anal stage from 1 year to 2 1/2 years, when the most gratifying behavior is expelling waste

    Correct Answer
    B. Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the late oral stage from 6-18 months, dependent on biting and chewing
    Explanation
    Oral aggressive fixation is the result of not achieving gratification during the late oral stage from 6-18 months, which is dependent on biting and chewing. This fixation occurs when a child's needs for exploration and satisfaction through biting and chewing are not adequately met during this stage of development. It can lead to behaviors such as aggression, hostility, and a tendency to express anger through biting or chewing on objects.

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  • 6. 

    Anal Retentive

    • A.

      Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the early oral stage from 0-8months old, dependent on sucking and swallowing actions

    • B.

      Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the early anal stage from 1 year to 2 1/2 years, when the most gratifying behavior is expelling waste

    • C.

      Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the late oral stage from 6-18 months, dependent on biting and chewing

    • D.

      Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the late anal stage from 2 years to 4 years, when the potty training is in motion

    Correct Answer
    D. Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the late anal stage from 2 years to 4 years, when the potty training is in motion
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the late anal stage from 2 years to 4 years, when the potty training is in motion." This is because anal retentive fixation refers to a personality trait that develops when a child does not receive proper gratification during the late anal stage of development, which is associated with potty training. This fixation can lead to traits such as being overly organized, rigid, and controlling.

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  • 7. 

    Anal Aggressive

    • A.

      Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the late oral stage from 6-18 months, dependent on biting and chewing

    • B.

      Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the early anal stage from 1 year to 2 1/2 years, when the most gratifying behavior is expelling waste

    • C.

      Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the late anal stage from 2 years to 4 years, when the potty training is in motion

    • D.

      Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the early oral stage from 0-8months old, dependent on sucking and swallowing actions

    Correct Answer
    B. Fixation that is the result of not achieving gratification during the early anal stage from 1 year to 2 1/2 years, when the most gratifying behavior is expelling waste
  • 8. 

    Masochism

    • A.

      Getting pleasure from pain or humiliation a result of the death instinct and the reproductive drive

    • B.

      Getting pleasure from pain or humiliation onto others or things a result of the death instinct and the reproductive drive

    Correct Answer
    A. Getting pleasure from pain or humiliation a result of the death instinct and the reproductive drive
    Explanation
    This answer suggests that masochism is the act of deriving pleasure from pain or humiliation, which is believed to be a result of both the death instinct and the reproductive drive. The death instinct refers to the innate desire for self-destruction or aggression, while the reproductive drive relates to the instinctual urge for sexual pleasure and reproduction. Therefore, masochism is seen as a combination of these two drives, resulting in pleasure from pain or humiliation.

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  • 9. 

    Sadism

    • A.

      Getting pleasure from pain or humiliation a result of the death instinct and the reproductive drive

    • B.

      Getting pleasure from pain or humiliation onto others or things a result of the death instinct and the reproductive drive

    Correct Answer
    B. Getting pleasure from pain or humiliation onto others or things a result of the death instinct and the reproductive drive
    Explanation
    Sadism refers to deriving pleasure from inflicting pain or humiliation onto others or things. This behavior is believed to stem from a combination of the death instinct and the reproductive drive. The death instinct refers to the innate desire for destruction and aggression, while the reproductive drive involves the need for power and control. Therefore, sadism can be seen as a manifestation of these underlying instincts, resulting in pleasure derived from causing pain or humiliation onto others or things.

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  • 10. 

    Repetition compulsion

    • A.

      Destructive force turned outward towards other people or things

    • B.

      A mixture of external stimuli and internally generated images, the inability to tell the difference

    • C.

      The tendency human beings have for engaging in certain behaviors, which are often destructive, over and over

    Correct Answer
    C. The tendency human beings have for engaging in certain behaviors, which are often destructive, over and over
    Explanation
    The term "repetition compulsion" refers to the tendency of human beings to engage in certain behaviors repeatedly, even if these behaviors are destructive. This means that individuals may continue to engage in harmful actions or behaviors despite negative consequences. The repetition compulsion is a psychological concept that suggests that individuals may be driven to repeat certain behaviors or patterns due to unconscious motivations or unresolved conflicts. This behavior can be directed towards other people or things, and it may be influenced by a combination of external stimuli and internally generated images.

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  • 11. 

    Aim

    • A.

      Removal or satisfaction of a bodily aim

    • B.

      Never as good as the instinctual object choice used when instinctual object choice is not available

    • C.

      One of the three instinct characteristics determining how strong an instinct is

    Correct Answer
    A. Removal or satisfaction of a bodily aim
    Explanation
    The aim refers to the removal or satisfaction of a bodily need or desire. It is not as effective as the instinctual object choice when the desired object is not available. The aim is one of the three characteristics that determine the strength of an instinct.

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  • 12. 

    Instinctual-object-choice

    • A.

      Behavior that would best satisfy a need.

    • B.

      Removal or satisfaction of a bodily aim

    • C.

      All the experiences you are not currently aware of; and absolutely can never recall

    Correct Answer
    A. Behavior that would best satisfy a need.
    Explanation
    The term "instinctual-object-choice" refers to the behavior that an individual engages in to satisfy a need. This means that when a person has a specific need, they will instinctively choose a behavior that they believe will best fulfill that need. This answer aligns with the definition provided and accurately describes the concept of instinctual-object-choice.

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  • 13. 

    Aggression

    • A.

      All experiences for which you've been punished

    • B.

      Destructive force turned outward towards other people or things

    • C.

      Getting pleasure from pain or humiliation onto others or things a result of the death instinct and the reproductive drive

    Correct Answer
    B. Destructive force turned outward towards other people or things
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Destructive force turned outward towards other people or things." This explanation aligns with the definition of aggression provided in the question. Aggression refers to the act of causing harm or damage to others or things. It involves a destructive force that is directed outwardly. This behavior can be exhibited towards both people and objects. The other options mentioned in the question, such as experiences for which one has been punished or deriving pleasure from pain or humiliation onto others, may be related to aggression but do not fully capture its essence.

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  • 14. 

    Substitute-object-choice

    • A.

      Never as good as the instinctual object choice used when instinctual object choice is not available

    • B.

      The tendency human beings have for engaging in certain behaviors, which are often destructive, over and over

    • C.

      Behavior that would best satisfy the need

    Correct Answer
    A. Never as good as the instinctual object choice used when instinctual object choice is not available
    Explanation
    This answer suggests that substitute object choice is never as effective as instinctual object choice, especially when the latter is not available. It implies that human beings tend to engage in certain behaviors repeatedly, even if they are destructive, because they are not able to satisfy their needs in the best possible way without instinctual object choice.

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  • 15. 

    Primary process thinking

    • A.

      All the experiences you are currently aware of

    • B.

      The egos use of higher mental functions like logic, memory, planning, anticipation, etc

    • C.

      A mixture of external stimuli and internally generated images, the inability to tell the difference

    Correct Answer
    C. A mixture of external stimuli and internally generated images, the inability to tell the difference
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "A mixture of external stimuli and internally generated images, the inability to tell the difference." This refers to primary process thinking, which involves a blending of external sensory inputs and internal mental representations. In primary process thinking, there is a lack of differentiation between reality and fantasy, leading to the inability to distinguish between externally perceived stimuli and internally generated images.

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  • 16. 

    Strength

    • A.

      Removal or satisfaction of a bodily aim

    • B.

      One of the three instinct characteristics determining how strong an instinct is

    • C.

      Behavior that satisfies the need

    Correct Answer
    B. One of the three instinct characteristics determining how strong an instinct is
    Explanation
    The given answer explains that strength is one of the three instinct characteristics that determine how strong an instinct is. This implies that the strength of an instinct is measured by the extent to which it satisfies or removes a bodily aim. Therefore, the more a behavior satisfies a need, the stronger the instinct is considered to be.

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  • 17. 

    Object

    • A.

      One of the three instinct characteristics determining how strong an instinct is

    • B.

      Removal or satisfaction of a bodily aim

    • C.

      Behavior that satisfies the need

    Correct Answer
    C. Behavior that satisfies the need
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Behavior that satisfies the need". This answer aligns with the given information about instincts and their characteristics. It states that one of the ways to determine the strength of an instinct is through the removal or satisfaction of a bodily aim. This implies that engaging in a behavior that fulfills a need is a sign of a strong instinct. Therefore, "Behavior that satisfies the need" is a suitable explanation for the correct answer.

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  • 18. 

    Secondary process thinking

    • A.

      The egos use of higher mental functions like logic, memory, planning, anticipation, etc

    • B.

      Never as good as the instinctual object choice used when instinctual object choice is not available

    • C.

      A mixture of external stimuli and internally generated images, the inability to tell the difference

    Correct Answer
    A. The egos use of higher mental functions like logic, memory, planning, anticipation, etc
    Explanation
    Secondary process thinking refers to the ego's use of higher mental functions such as logic, memory, planning, and anticipation. It is the conscious and rational aspect of thinking that helps individuals navigate and solve problems in their daily lives. However, secondary process thinking is not as effective as instinctual object choice, which is the unconscious and automatic process of selecting objects that satisfy instinctual desires. Secondary process thinking involves a mixture of external stimuli and internally generated images, which can sometimes blur the line between reality and imagination.

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  • 19. 

    Neurosis

    • A.

      When the driving force of the personality is the superego

    • B.

      No superego, lacks morals, conscience, and empathy

    • C.

      Ultimate fragmentation of the ego boundaries

    Correct Answer
    A. When the driving force of the personality is the superego
    Explanation
    Neurosis refers to a psychological condition where the driving force of the personality is the superego. The superego represents the moral and ethical standards that individuals internalize from society. When the superego becomes the dominant force, it can lead to excessive guilt, anxiety, and self-criticism. This can result in maladaptive behaviors and difficulties in functioning. Therefore, when the driving force of the personality is the superego, it is associated with neurosis.

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  • 20. 

    Psychosis (schizophrenia)

    • A.

      When the driving force of the personality is the superego

    • B.

      Ultimate fragmentation of the ego boundaries

    • C.

      No superego, lacks morals, conscience, and empathy

    Correct Answer
    B. Ultimate fragmentation of the ego boundaries
    Explanation
    The given answer suggests that the correct explanation for psychosis (schizophrenia) is the ultimate fragmentation of the ego boundaries. This means that in schizophrenia, the boundaries between the individual's sense of self and the external world become severely disrupted or fragmented. This can lead to symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking. It is believed that this fragmentation of ego boundaries is a result of underlying abnormalities in brain function and structure.

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  • 21. 

    Antisocial Personality Disorder

    • A.

      When the driving force of the personality is the superego

    • B.

      Ultimate fragmentation of the ego boundaries

    • C.

      No superego, lacks morals, conscience, and empathy

    Correct Answer
    C. No superego, lacks morals, conscience, and empathy
    Explanation
    Antisocial Personality Disorder is characterized by a lack of conscience, empathy, and moral values. The superego, which represents the internalized moral values and conscience, is absent or underdeveloped in individuals with this disorder. This absence leads to a fragmentation of the ego boundaries, causing the individual to disregard social norms and engage in impulsive and often harmful behaviors.

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  • 22. 

    Id

    • A.

      Finds compromise between id and superego

    • B.

      The internal representation of societies traditional values and ideals as interpreted to you by your parents and enforced by rewards or punishments

    • C.

      The original system of personality, when we are born we're all completely id

    Correct Answer
    C. The original system of personality, when we are born we're all completely id
    Explanation
    The original system of personality, known as the id, is the innate and instinctual part of our personality that we are born with. It operates on the pleasure principle, seeking immediate gratification of our basic needs and desires. As we grow, we develop the ego and superego, which help us navigate the demands of reality and societal norms. The id represents our primal instincts and desires, and it is through the development of the ego and superego that we learn to find a compromise between our id's desires and societal expectations.

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  • 23. 

    Superego

    • A.

      The original system of personality, when we are born we're all completely id

    • B.

      The internal representation of societies traditional values and ideals as interpreted to you by your parents and enforced by rewards or punishments

    • C.

      Finds compromise between id and superego

    Correct Answer
    B. The internal representation of societies traditional values and ideals as interpreted to you by your parents and enforced by rewards or punishments
    Explanation
    The superego is the internal representation of societal values and ideals that we learn from our parents and are reinforced through rewards or punishments. It acts as a mediator between the impulsive desires of the id and the moral standards of society. It helps us develop a sense of right and wrong and guides our behavior based on societal norms.

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  • 24. 

    Ego-Ideal

    • A.

      Finds compromise between id and superego

    • B.

      Includes all those experiences for which you've been rewarded

    • C.

      A mixture of external stimuli and internally generated images, the inability to tell the difference

    Correct Answer
    B. Includes all those experiences for which you've been rewarded
    Explanation
    The ego-ideal refers to the internalized standards and values that an individual aspires to meet. It represents the ideal self and includes all those experiences for which a person has been rewarded. These experiences shape the individual's sense of what is desirable and acceptable. The ego-ideal helps the ego find a compromise between the demands of the id (the instinctual desires) and the superego (the moral conscience). By incorporating rewarding experiences, the ego-ideal motivates individuals to strive for socially acceptable behavior and achievement.

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  • 25. 

    Displacement

    • A.

      When the instinctual object choice is unavailable we switch to substitute object choice

    • B.

      Never as good as the instinctual object choice used when instinctual object choice is not available

    • C.

      Behavior that would best satisfy the need

    Correct Answer
    A. When the instinctual object choice is unavailable we switch to substitute object choice
    Explanation
    When the instinctual object choice is unavailable, we switch to a substitute object choice. This means that when we cannot have or achieve our desired or preferred option, we settle for an alternative. The substitute object choice is not as good as the instinctual object choice because it does not fully satisfy our needs or desires. It is a behavior that is adopted in order to best satisfy the need in the given circumstances.

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  • 26. 

    Reaction formation

    • A.

      Ways the ego wards off threats by using anticathexes energy

    • B.

      When the instinctual object choice is unavailable we switch to substitute object choice

    • C.

      In addition to repression the person exhibits the opposite thought or impulse in order to keep the anxiety arousing impulse out of consciousness

    Correct Answer
    C. In addition to repression the person exhibits the opposite thought or impulse in order to keep the anxiety arousing impulse out of consciousness
    Explanation
    Reaction formation is a defense mechanism where a person exhibits the opposite thought or impulse in order to keep the anxiety arousing impulse out of consciousness. This means that when a person is unable to accept or express their true feelings or desires, they may behave in a way that is completely opposite to what they truly feel. This defense mechanism allows the person to avoid the anxiety associated with their true thoughts or impulses by adopting the opposite behavior.

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  • 27. 

    Denial

    • A.

      The tendency human beings have for engaging in certain behaviors, which are often destructive, over and over

    • B.

      Simply refusing to admit some anxiety arousing circumstances even exist.

    • C.

      Destructive force turned outward towards other people or things

    Correct Answer
    B. Simply refusing to admit some anxiety arousing circumstances even exist.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Denial." Denial refers to the tendency of human beings to refuse to admit the existence of anxiety-arousing circumstances. This defense mechanism allows individuals to avoid facing uncomfortable or threatening situations by simply denying their existence. It is a way of protecting oneself from the anxiety and distress that these circumstances may cause. Denial can be seen as a destructive force turned inward, as individuals may harm themselves by refusing to acknowledge and address their anxieties.

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  • 28. 

    Conscience

    • A.

      All experiences for which you've been punished

    • B.

      The internal representation of societies traditional values and ideals as interpreted to you by your parents and enforced by rewards or punishments

    • C.

      Includes all those experiences for which you've been rewarded

    Correct Answer
    A. All experiences for which you've been punished
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All experiences for which you've been punished." This is because conscience refers to the internal representation of societies traditional values and ideals that have been enforced through rewards or punishments. The experiences for which you have been punished are likely to have shaped your conscience and influenced your understanding of right and wrong.

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  • 29. 

    Identification

    • A.

      All the experiences you are currently aware of

    • B.

      Includes all those experiences for which you've been rewarded

    • C.

      Person takes over characteristics of another person who is successful at satisfying needs

    Correct Answer
    C. Person takes over characteristics of another person who is successful at satisfying needs
    Explanation
    The answer suggests that when a person is successful at satisfying their needs, another person may adopt their characteristics. This implies that individuals may observe and learn from successful individuals, potentially emulating their behaviors and traits in order to achieve similar success in satisfying their own needs.

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  • 30. 

    Repression

    • A.

      Finding acceptable reasons for unacceptable thoughts or actions.

    • B.

      Simply refusing to admit some anxiety arousing circumstances even exist.

    • C.

      The most fundamental of all defense mechanisms. Keeps anxiety arousing experience out of consciousness. All defense mechanisms involve repression and the addition of something else.

    Correct Answer
    C. The most fundamental of all defense mechanisms. Keeps anxiety arousing experience out of consciousness. All defense mechanisms involve repression and the addition of something else.
    Explanation
    Repression is described as the most fundamental defense mechanism that keeps anxiety arousing experiences out of consciousness. It involves finding acceptable reasons for unacceptable thoughts or actions and refusing to admit the existence of anxiety arousing circumstances. This defense mechanism is considered to be the basis for all other defense mechanisms, which also involve repression along with the addition of something else.

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  • 31. 

    Projection

    • A.

      The person reverts to some behavior that was useful in the past.

    • B.

      Person attributes his own unacceptable thoughts or actions onto others.

    • C.

      The most fundamental of all defense mechanisms. Keeps anxiety arousing experience out of consciousness. All defense mechanisms involve repression and the addition of something else.

    Correct Answer
    B. Person attributes his own unacceptable thoughts or actions onto others.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Person attributes his own unacceptable thoughts or actions onto others." This defense mechanism, known as projection, occurs when an individual unconsciously attributes their own undesirable thoughts, feelings, or behaviors onto someone else. By doing so, they can avoid acknowledging or taking responsibility for these aspects of themselves, which helps to keep anxiety at bay. Projection is considered one of the most fundamental defense mechanisms and is often accompanied by repression, where the individual pushes the anxiety-provoking thoughts or experiences out of their conscious awareness.

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  • 32. 

    Sublimation

    • A.

      A form of displacement that achieves extremely high social value

    • B.

      Simply refusing to admit some anxiety arousing circumstances even exist.

    • C.

      In addition to repression the person exhibits the opposite thought or impulse in order to keep the anxiety arousing impulse out of consciousness

    Correct Answer
    A. A form of displacement that achieves extremely high social value
  • 33. 

    Regression

    • A.

      The tendency human beings have for engaging in certain behaviors, which are often destructive, over and over

    • B.

      Destructive force turned outward towards other people or things

    • C.

      The person reverts to some behavior that was useful in the past.

    Correct Answer
    C. The person reverts to some behavior that was useful in the past.
    Explanation
    This answer is correct because it accurately describes the concept of regression. Regression refers to the tendency of individuals to revert back to behaviors or actions that were effective in the past, even if they may not be currently beneficial or appropriate. This can occur when individuals face stress, conflict, or challenges, and they resort to familiar patterns of behavior that have helped them cope in the past.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 19, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 13, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Cyungwirth
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