Theories Of Personality: Humanism

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Theories Of Personality: Humanism - Quiz

Assess knowledge of 4 Humanists in Psychology: Rogers, Maslow, Cattell, and Allport


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Humanism was created as a reaction against what 2 major schools?

    • A.

      Psychoanalysis & Behaviorism

    • B.

      Behaviorism & Cognitivism

    • C.

      Biological/Developmental & Cognitivism

    • D.

      Behaviorism & Social Learning

    Correct Answer
    A. Psychoanalysis & Behaviorism
    Explanation
    Humanism was created as a reaction against psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Psychoanalysis focuses on the unconscious mind and childhood experiences, while behaviorism emphasizes observable behavior and conditioning. Humanism, on the other hand, emphasizes the importance of individual agency, personal growth, and self-actualization. It rejects the deterministic views of psychoanalysis and behaviorism, instead emphasizing free will and the potential for personal growth and self-improvement.

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  • 2. 

    Which Humanist reacted against the structuralism of Wundt and Titchener?

    • A.

      Gordon Allport

    • B.

      Abraham Maslow

    • C.

      Carl Rogers

    • D.

      Raymond Cattell

    Correct Answer
    B. Abraham Maslow
    Explanation
    Abraham Maslow reacted against the structuralism of Wundt and Titchener by proposing a different approach to understanding human behavior and motivation. Maslow developed the theory of humanistic psychology, which emphasized the importance of individual potential, self-actualization, and the hierarchy of needs. He believed that human behavior should be studied holistically, focusing on the whole person rather than breaking it down into isolated components. Maslow's ideas challenged the reductionist approach of structuralism and laid the foundation for the humanistic movement in psychology.

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  • 3. 

    Which one of the following was NOT a reaction against Psychoanalysis?

    • A.

      Pathology

    • B.

      Developmental

    • C.

      Irrational

    • D.

      Unconscious

    • E.

      Biological

    Correct Answer
    B. Developmental
    Explanation
    The term "developmental" does not directly contradict or oppose psychoanalysis. In fact, psychoanalysis itself incorporates aspects of developmental psychology, as it explores the influence of childhood experiences on adult behavior. The other options - pathology, irrational, unconscious, and biological - can be seen as reactions against psychoanalysis because they challenge or question its core concepts and assumptions.

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  • 4. 

    What school believed that people are active organizers and active processors of incoming information?

    • A.

      Behaviorist School

    • B.

      Nativist School

    • C.

      Gestalt School

    • D.

      Psychoanalytic School

    Correct Answer
    C. Gestalt School
    Explanation
    The Gestalt School believed that people are active organizers and active processors of incoming information. This school of thought emphasized the importance of perception and how individuals perceive and make sense of the world around them. They believed that individuals tend to organize information into meaningful patterns and wholes rather than perceiving isolated stimuli. This approach focused on the idea that perception is influenced by the context and the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

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  • 5. 

    Who is known as the "father of phenomenology" ? (Phenomenology: phenomena: world as you perceive it; Noumena: world as it is)

    • A.

      Edmund Husserl

    • B.

      Max Wertheimer

    • C.

      Kurt Lewin

    • D.

      Albert Bandura

    Correct Answer
    A. Edmund Husserl
    Explanation
    Edmund Husserl is known as the "father of phenomenology" because he developed and founded the philosophical discipline of phenomenology. He emphasized the study of consciousness and subjective experience, focusing on the way we perceive and interpret the world around us. Husserl's work laid the foundation for many subsequent phenomenological thinkers and had a significant impact on various fields such as psychology, sociology, and philosophy.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is NOT a Principle Feature of Humanism?

    • A.

      Holistic Approach

    • B.

      Atomistic Approach

    • C.

      Motivation

    • D.

      Self-Determination

    • E.

      Idiographic Method/Case Study Method

    Correct Answer
    B. Atomistic Approach
    Explanation
    Humanism is a philosophical belief that emphasizes the worth and dignity of individuals, as well as their capacity for self-determination and personal growth. It promotes a holistic approach, which means considering the whole person and their interconnectedness with their environment. The principle features of humanism include motivation, self-determination, and the idiographic method or case study method, which focuses on understanding individuals through in-depth analysis. The atomistic approach, on the other hand, is not a principle feature of humanism. It refers to the reduction of complex phenomena into smaller, separate parts, which is contrary to the holistic perspective of humanism.

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  • 7. 

    Who founded Humanism?

    • A.

      Rogers, Maslow, Cattell

    • B.

      Maslow, Rogers, Allport

    • C.

      Cattell, Rogers, Allport

    • D.

      Maslow, Allport, Cattell

    Correct Answer
    B. Maslow, Rogers, Allport
    Explanation
    Maslow, Rogers, and Allport are all well-known psychologists who made significant contributions to the field of humanism. Abraham Maslow is best known for his hierarchy of needs and his emphasis on self-actualization. Carl Rogers is known for his person-centered approach to therapy, which emphasizes empathy, unconditional positive regard, and genuineness. Gordon Allport is known for his trait theory of personality and his emphasis on the uniqueness of each individual. Together, these three psychologists laid the foundation for the humanistic approach to psychology, which focuses on the potential for personal growth and self-actualization in individuals.

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  • 8. 

    Which one of the following was NOT a reaction against Behaviorism?

    • A.

      External determinants

    • B.

      Exclusion of mental processes

    • C.

      Non-scientific approach

    • D.

      Reduction of "meaningful" experiences

    • E.

      Scientific emphasis

    Correct Answer
    C. Non-scientific approach
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "non-scientific approach". This answer is not a reaction against Behaviorism because Behaviorism itself is a scientific approach to studying behavior. The other options listed are all reactions against Behaviorism in some way. "External determinants" refers to the belief that behavior is influenced by external factors rather than internal mental processes. "Exclusion of mental processes" refers to the rejection of studying internal mental processes as a way to understand behavior. "Reduction of 'meaningful' experiences" refers to the idea that Behaviorism focused solely on observable behaviors and disregarded the subjective experiences and meanings behind them.

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  • 9. 

    Who is known as the "father of social psychology?" (He applied the Gestalt theory to social functioning)

    • A.

      Lev Vygotsky

    • B.

      Kurt Goldstein

    • C.

      Edmund Husserl

    • D.

      Kurt Lewin

    Correct Answer
    D. Kurt Lewin
    Explanation
    Kurt Lewin is known as the "father of social psychology" because he applied the Gestalt theory to social functioning. He believed that individuals' behavior is influenced by their social environment and that understanding the social dynamics is crucial in understanding human behavior. Lewin's work laid the foundation for modern social psychology and he is highly regarded for his contributions to the field.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is NOT a Basic Need (Deficiency Needs; "D" Needs)?

    • A.

      Esteem

    • B.

      Love/Belongingness

    • C.

      Physiological

    • D.

      Companionship

    • E.

      Safety

    Correct Answer
    D. Companionship
    Explanation
    Companionship is not considered a basic need or deficiency need. Basic needs, also known as "D" needs, include physiological needs (such as food, water, and shelter), safety needs (such as security and protection), love/belongingness needs (such as social connections and relationships), and esteem needs (such as self-esteem and recognition). Companionship, although important for social interaction and support, is not typically classified as a basic need in this context.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is NOT a Meta-Need (or Growth Need, Being Need, "B" Need)

    • A.

      Dependency

    • B.

      Curiosity

    • C.

      Aesthetic Needs

    • D.

      Self-Actualization

    Correct Answer
    A. Dependency
    Explanation
    Dependency is not considered a meta-need or growth need because it is more related to basic survival and security needs. Meta-needs are higher-level needs that go beyond the basic physiological and safety needs, and they include self-actualization, aesthetic needs, and curiosity. Dependency, on the other hand, refers to the need for support and assistance from others, which is more closely associated with the lower-level needs of belongingness and love.

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  • 12. 

    What are Rogers' 2 Needs?

    • A.

      Self-Actualization & Positive Regard

    • B.

      Positive Regard & Self-Regard

    • C.

      Unconditional Positive Regard & Conditional Positive Regard

    • D.

      Self and Self-Ideal

    Correct Answer
    B. Positive Regard & Self-Regard
    Explanation
    Rogers' 2 needs are Positive Regard and Self-Regard. Positive Regard refers to the acceptance, love, and approval that we receive from others, while Self-Regard refers to the acceptance, love, and approval that we give ourselves. These needs are important in Rogers' humanistic theory, as they contribute to a person's self-esteem and overall well-being.

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  • 13. 

    Which Humanist's ideas developed from clinical experiences?

    • A.

      Raymond Cattell

    • B.

      Abraham Maslow

    • C.

      Carl Rogers

    • D.

      Gordon Allport

    Correct Answer
    C. Carl Rogers
    Explanation
    Carl Rogers developed his ideas from clinical experiences. He was a prominent humanistic psychologist who believed in the importance of empathy, unconditional positive regard, and genuineness in therapeutic relationships. Rogers emphasized the client's subjective experience and self-actualization, and his approach, known as client-centered therapy, was heavily influenced by his clinical work with individuals. He believed that individuals have the capacity to grow and change, and that a supportive and non-judgmental therapeutic environment is essential for this process.

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  • 14. 

    What is NOT part of the definition of the Self according to Rogers?

    • A.

      One's perception of oneself

    • B.

      Perception from one's experiences

    • C.

      Perception from another's point of view

    • D.

      Perception of one's experiences

    • E.

      Others' reactions

    Correct Answer
    C. Perception from another's point of view
    Explanation
    According to Rogers, perception from another's point of view is not part of the definition of the Self. The Self is defined by one's perception of oneself, perception from one's experiences, perception of one's experiences, and others' reactions. However, the perception from another's point of view is not included in Rogers' definition of the Self.

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  • 15. 

    Peak Experiences are all of the following EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Transient

    • B.

      Passive

    • C.

      Describable

    • D.

      Mystical

    • E.

      Ineffable

    Correct Answer
    C. Describable
    Explanation
    Peak experiences are intense moments of heightened awareness and euphoria, often described as transcendent or mystical. They are characterized by a sense of unity, awe, and a feeling of being connected to something greater than oneself. While peak experiences are often ineffable and difficult to put into words, they are not passive or describable. They are active and deeply personal experiences that cannot be fully conveyed through language alone.

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  • 16. 

    Who was the neuropsychiatrist who treated brain-injured soldiers? He believed that it was not possible to understand a person's symptoms in terms of the area and extent in brain damage; you have to understand the whole person.

    • A.

      Abraham Maslow

    • B.

      Kurt Goldstein

    • C.

      Carl Rogers

    • D.

      Kurt Lewin

    Correct Answer
    B. Kurt Goldstein
    Explanation
    Kurt Goldstein was the neuropsychiatrist who treated brain-injured soldiers. He believed that it was not possible to understand a person's symptoms solely based on the area and extent of brain damage. Instead, he emphasized the importance of understanding the whole person in order to fully comprehend their symptoms and provide appropriate treatment.

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  • 17. 

    With which of Rogers' conditions is Conditions of Worth associated?

    Correct Answer
    Conditional Positive Regard
    Explanation
    Conditions of Worth is associated with Conditional Positive Regard. In Carl Rogers' theory, Conditional Positive Regard refers to the acceptance and love that is given to an individual only when they meet certain conditions or expectations set by others. Conditions of Worth are the specific conditions or standards that individuals believe they must meet in order to receive this conditional acceptance and love. Therefore, the concept of Conditions of Worth is closely related to the idea of Conditional Positive Regard, as both involve the imposition of conditions on individuals for them to receive acceptance and love.

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  • 18. 

    The closer the ______ and _____________ concepts are, the healthier the person

    Correct Answer
    Self and Self-Ideal
    Self and Self Ideal
    Self and Ideal Self
    Explanation
    The closer the concepts of self and self-ideal are, the healthier the person. This means that when an individual's perception of themselves aligns closely with their ideal self, they are likely to have better mental and emotional well-being. When there is a large discrepancy between the two concepts, it can lead to feelings of dissatisfaction and lower self-esteem. Therefore, the more congruent the self and self-ideal are, the more positive and healthy the person's self-concept is likely to be.

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  • 19. 

    Rogers' Six Conditions Sufficient for Growth are usually summarized in which 3 terms of therapeutic qualities (or notions for exhibiting UPR)?

    • A.

      Genuineness, Warmth, Empathy

    • B.

      Empathy, Compassion, Warmth

    • C.

      Patience, Genuineness, Warmth

    • D.

      Empathy, Genuineness, Patience

    Correct Answer
    A. Genuineness, Warmth, Empathy
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Genuineness, Warmth, Empathy. These three qualities are considered to be the essential conditions for growth in Rogers' theory of therapy. Genuineness refers to the therapist's ability to be authentic and transparent in their interactions with the client. Warmth refers to the therapist's ability to create a supportive and caring environment. Empathy refers to the therapist's ability to understand and share the client's feelings and experiences. These three qualities together create a therapeutic relationship that promotes personal growth and change.

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  • 20. 

    One's unique perceptions of the world and one's experiences is called:

    Correct Answer
    Phenomenal Field
    Explanation
    The term "Phenomenal Field" refers to an individual's unique perceptions of the world and their personal experiences. It encompasses the subjective reality that each person constructs based on their interactions with the environment, their emotions, beliefs, and cultural background. This concept recognizes that people interpret and make sense of the world in different ways, influenced by their own perspectives and past experiences. The phenomenal field is a key aspect of understanding human perception and how individuals shape their understanding of reality.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following leads to healthy development?

    • A.

      Conditional Positive Regard

    • B.

      Phenomenal Field

    • C.

      Unconditional Positive Regard

    • D.

      Self-Regard

    Correct Answer
    C. Unconditional Positive Regard
    Explanation
    Unconditional Positive Regard leads to healthy development. Unconditional Positive Regard refers to accepting and valuing others without any conditions or judgments, providing them with support, empathy, and understanding. This creates a safe and nurturing environment that allows individuals to freely express themselves, build self-esteem, and develop a positive self-concept. It fosters healthy relationships, promotes emotional well-being, and encourages personal growth and self-actualization.

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  • 22. 

    According to Rogers, psychological health is congruence between all but which of the following?

    • A.

      Self and Self-Ideal

    • B.

      Self-Ideal and Internal Reality

    • C.

      Self and Actual Experience

    • D.

      Phenomenal Field and External Reality

    Correct Answer
    B. Self-Ideal and Internal Reality
    Explanation
    Rogers believed that psychological health is achieved when there is congruence or alignment between various aspects of oneself. This includes the congruence between self and self-ideal, self and actual experience, and the phenomenal field (one's subjective experience) and external reality. However, the one aspect that is not included in the congruence for psychological health, according to Rogers, is self-ideal and internal reality. This means that a person's ideal self, or the person they aspire to be, does not necessarily have to align with their internal reality or their true thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.

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  • 23. 

    The method of testing the concepts of Self and Self-Ideal based on a set of traits is called what?

    Correct Answer
    Q-Sort Methodology
    Q Sort Methodology
    QSort Methodology
    Explanation
    The method of testing the concepts of Self and Self-Ideal based on a set of traits is called Q-Sort Methodology, Q Sort Methodology, or QSort Methodology. This approach involves sorting a set of statements or traits according to their relevance or importance to the individual's self-concept or self-ideal. By comparing the individual's sorting pattern to a predetermined template, researchers can gain insights into the individual's self-perception and ideal self.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following is Self and Self-Ideal discrepancy NOT related to?

    • A.

      Patient vs. Control Status

    • B.

      Pre- vs. Post-Therapy

    • C.

      Measures of Severity of Pathology

    • D.

      Measures of Personality

    • E.

      Measures of Duration of Pathology

    Correct Answer
    E. Measures of Duration of Pathology
    Explanation
    Self and Self-Ideal discrepancy is not related to Measures of Duration of Pathology. Self and Self-Ideal discrepancy refers to the difference between an individual's perception of their actual self and their ideal self. It is a concept related to self-perception and identity. On the other hand, Measures of Duration of Pathology refers to assessing the length of time a particular pathology or illness has been present in an individual. These two concepts are unrelated and do not overlap in their meaning or measurement.

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  • 25. 

    If your therapist says, “You need to improve your ability to physically relax when encountering some type of stressful situation,” s/he would be using:

    • A.

      Nondirective Therapy

    • B.

      Suggestive Therapy

    • C.

      Directive Therapy

    • D.

      Restoration Therapy

    Correct Answer
    C. Directive Therapy
    Explanation
    Directive therapy is a form of therapy where the therapist takes an active role in guiding and instructing the client on how to improve their ability to physically relax in stressful situations. In this approach, the therapist provides specific techniques and strategies to help the client develop and enhance their relaxation skills. The therapist gives direct instructions and suggestions on what the client should do to achieve the desired outcome. This type of therapy focuses on providing clear guidance and direction to facilitate the client's progress and improvement.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following may discrepancy between Self and Self-Ideal lead to?

    • A.

      Anger, Depression, Incompetence

    • B.

      Depression, Discouragement, Anxiety

    • C.

      Depression, Anger, Anxiety

    • D.

      Anxiety, Incompetence, Anger

    Correct Answer
    C. Depression, Anger, Anxiety
    Explanation
    Discrepancy between Self and Self-Ideal may lead to depression, anger, and anxiety. When individuals perceive a significant difference between their actual selves and their ideal selves, they may experience feelings of sadness, frustration, and worry. This misalignment can create a sense of dissatisfaction and disappointment, leading to depressive symptoms. Additionally, the frustration and dissatisfaction can manifest as anger, while the worry and unease about not meeting one's own standards can contribute to feelings of anxiety.

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  • 27. 

    Which one of the following is NOT a Rogerian technique of Active Listening?

    • A.

      Reflection of Feeling

    • B.

      Open-ended questions

    • C.

      Paraphrasing

    • D.

      Eye-contact

    • E.

      Interpretation

    Correct Answer
    D. Eye-contact
    Explanation
    Eye-contact is not a Rogerian technique of Active Listening because it is a non-verbal communication skill rather than a specific technique used in the Rogerian approach. While maintaining eye contact can enhance communication and show attentiveness, it is not considered a distinct technique in the Rogerian model. The other options listed, such as reflection of feeling, open-ended questions, paraphrasing, and interpretation, are all examples of techniques commonly used in Rogerian active listening.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following is NOT a quality of a self-actualized person?

    • A.

      Live in existential fashion

    • B.

      Self-determined

    • C.

      Frustration from not attaining goals

    • D.

      Trusting of own experience

    Correct Answer
    C. Frustration from not attaining goals
    Explanation
    A self-actualized person is someone who has reached their full potential and is living a fulfilling life. They are self-determined, meaning they have a strong sense of autonomy and make decisions based on their own values and beliefs. They trust their own experiences and intuition, relying on their own judgment rather than seeking validation from others. However, they do not experience frustration from not attaining goals. Instead, they are able to set realistic and achievable goals for themselves and are content with their progress, regardless of whether they achieve every goal they set.

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  • 29. 

    What is the "active ingredient" in Rogerian therapy?

    • A.

      Self-Ideal

    • B.

      Unconditional Positive Regard

    • C.

      Self-actualization

    • D.

      Congruence

    Correct Answer
    B. Unconditional Positive Regard
    Explanation
    Unconditional Positive Regard is the active ingredient in Rogerian therapy. This therapeutic approach, developed by Carl Rogers, emphasizes the importance of providing non-judgmental acceptance and support to clients. Unconditional Positive Regard involves showing genuine empathy, respect, and understanding towards the client, regardless of their thoughts, feelings, or behaviors. It creates a safe and non-threatening environment for clients to explore their emotions and experiences, facilitating their personal growth and self-discovery. This core condition of Rogerian therapy helps clients develop a positive self-concept and build a stronger sense of self-worth.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following are Sheldon's Somatotypes?

    • A.

      Endomorph, Metamorph, Ectomorph

    • B.

      Mesomorph, Ectomorph, Endomorph

    • C.

      Metamorph, Mesomorph, Endomorph

    • D.

      Ectomorph, Mesomorph, Metamorph

    Correct Answer
    B. Mesomorph, Ectomorph, Endomorph
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Mesomorph, Ectomorph, Endomorph. Sheldon's somatotypes are a classification system that categorizes individuals into three body types based on their physical characteristics. Mesomorphs are characterized by a muscular and athletic build, Ectomorphs have a lean and slender physique, and Endomorphs tend to have a higher body fat percentage and a rounder shape.

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  • 31. 

    Name one limitation of Rogers's theory of incongruence as mentioned in class

    Correct Answer
    Incongruence may not be linearly related to abnormality
    Incongruence may result from factors other than abnormality
    Greater congruence over therapy may occur from lowered Self-Ideal rather than improved Self
    Modern personality questionnaires are more practical than Q-Sorts
    Explanation
    Rogers's theory of incongruence suggests that incongruence, or the discrepancy between one's self-concept and their actual experience, is not necessarily indicative of abnormality. Incongruence can arise from various factors other than abnormality, such as environmental influences or personal growth. Additionally, greater congruence achieved during therapy may be a result of lowering one's self-ideal rather than improving their actual self. Lastly, modern personality questionnaires are considered more practical and efficient tools for assessing incongruence compared to Q-Sorts, which are time-consuming and subject to bias.

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  • 32. 

    Who developed scales to measure genuineness, warmth, and empathy?

    Correct Answer
    Truax and Carkhuff
    Truax and Carkuff
    Truax & Carkhuff
    Truax & Carkuff
    Explanation
    Truax and Carkhuff developed scales to measure genuineness, warmth, and empathy.

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  • 33. 

    Which of Sheldon's Somatotypes is characterized as thin and frail with an anxious and introverted personality?

    Correct Answer
    Ectomorph
    Explanation
    Ectomorph is characterized as thin and frail with an anxious and introverted personality. This somatotype is typically associated with individuals who have a lean and slender body structure, often struggling to gain weight or muscle mass. They tend to be more introverted and may exhibit traits of anxiety or shyness. Ectomorphs are often described as having a fast metabolism, making it difficult for them to put on weight or build muscle.

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  • 34. 

    Which of Allport's traits did he find the most important?

    • A.

      Personal

    • B.

      Common

    • C.

      Central

    • D.

      Secondary

    Correct Answer
    A. Personal
    Explanation
    Allport found personal traits to be the most important. Personal traits are unique characteristics that define an individual's personality, such as their values, beliefs, and attitudes. These traits are specific to each person and play a significant role in shaping their behavior and interactions with others. Allport believed that understanding and studying these personal traits is crucial for understanding human personality as a whole.

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  • 35. 

    True or False: Allport preferred to be called a trait theorist rather than a Humanist.

    Correct Answer
    False
    F
    Explanation
    Allport did not prefer to be called a trait theorist rather than a Humanist. He is actually considered to be one of the founders of the Humanistic approach to psychology. Allport emphasized the importance of understanding the uniqueness and individuality of each person, and he focused on the study of personal traits and characteristics. Therefore, it would be incorrect to say that Allport preferred to be called a trait theorist instead of a Humanist.

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  • 36. 

    True or False: Allport is well-known today for his theory of personality.

    Correct Answer
    False
    F
    Explanation
    Allport is not well-known today for his theory of personality. While Allport made significant contributions to the field of psychology, particularly in the area of personality, his theories are not as widely recognized or influential as those of other prominent psychologists such as Sigmund Freud or Carl Jung. Therefore, it would be incorrect to say that Allport is well-known today for his theory of personality.

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  • 37. 

    Which of Sheldon's Somatotypes is characterized by being soft and round with a love of pleasure and comfort?

    Correct Answer
    Endomorph
    Explanation
    Endomorph is the correct answer because it refers to a somatotype characterized by soft and round body shape, with a tendency to store fat easily. People with this somatotype usually have a love for pleasure and comfort, which aligns with the description given in the question.

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  • 38. 

    Which of Sheldon's Somatotypes is characterized as hard and strong with an aggressive personality?

    Correct Answer
    Mesomorph
    Explanation
    A mesomorph is characterized as hard and strong with an aggressive personality. This somatotype typically has a muscular build, broad shoulders, and a low body fat percentage. They tend to excel in physical activities and sports due to their strength and power. Their aggressive personality traits may stem from their high levels of testosterone, which can contribute to assertiveness and competitiveness. Overall, the mesomorph somatotype aligns with the description provided in the question.

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  • 39. 

    True or False: Sheldon's somatotypes are meant to be mutually exclusive

    Correct Answer
    True
    T
    Explanation
    Sheldon's somatotypes are meant to be mutually exclusive, meaning that an individual can only fall into one of the three categories: ectomorph, mesomorph, or endomorph. This means that a person cannot exhibit characteristics of more than one somatotype simultaneously. Therefore, the statement "Sheldon's somatotypes are meant to be mutually exclusive" is true. The answer "True,T" confirms this statement.

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  • 40. 

    What are Allport's 3 Types of Traits?

    • A.

      Cardinal, Primary, Secondary

    • B.

      Primary, Central, Secondary

    • C.

      Cardinal, Primary, Central

    • D.

      Cardinal, Central, Secondary

    Correct Answer
    D. Cardinal, Central, Secondary
    Explanation
    Allport's 3 Types of Traits are Cardinal, Central, and Secondary. Cardinal traits are dominant and pervasive, shaping an individual's behavior and personality. Central traits are the core characteristics that influence behavior across various situations. Secondary traits are less consistent and less influential, only appearing in specific situations or contexts.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following is NOT one of Cattell's trait classifications?

    • A.

      Surface vs. Source

    • B.

      Interpretation vs. Evaluation

    • C.

      Common vs. Unique

    • D.

      Temperament vs. Ability vs. Dynamic

    Correct Answer
    B. Interpretation vs. Evaluation
    Explanation
    Cattell's trait classifications include surface vs. source, common vs. unique, and temperament vs. ability vs. dynamic. However, interpretation vs. evaluation is not one of his trait classifications.

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  • 42. 

    Factor Analysis is all but which of the following:

    • A.

      Used to identify underlying factors/dimensions

    • B.

      Provides an accurate prediction of test item correlation

    • C.

      An advanced, multivariate statistical method

    • D.

      Analyzes interrelationships among test items

    • E.

      Identifies sets of items that seem to be related

    Correct Answer
    B. Provides an accurate prediction of test item correlation
    Explanation
    Factor Analysis is a statistical method used to identify underlying factors or dimensions in a set of variables. It analyzes the interrelationships among test items and identifies sets of items that seem to be related. However, it does not provide an accurate prediction of test item correlation.

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  • 43. 

    How many stages are there in Allport's Stages of Development?

    Correct Answer
    8
    eight
    Explanation
    Allport's Stages of Development consist of eight stages. These stages represent the different phases of an individual's development, focusing on the development of personality traits and characteristics. Each stage builds upon the previous one and plays a crucial role in shaping one's personality. Therefore, the correct answer is 8 or eight.

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  • 44. 

    Who are the Study of Values Scale (SOV) and Personal Structure Analysis associated with?

    • A.

      Maslow

    • B.

      Rogers

    • C.

      Allport

    • D.

      Cattell

    Correct Answer
    C. Allport
    Explanation
    The Study of Values Scale (SOV) and Personal Structure Analysis are associated with Allport. Allport was a prominent psychologist who focused on the study of personality and individual differences. He developed the Study of Values Scale to measure the importance of different values to individuals. Additionally, Allport also developed the Personal Structure Analysis, which aimed to understand the structure and organization of a person's personality. Therefore, Allport is the correct answer for this question.

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  • 45. 

    Name Allport's last 4 stages of development in order, separated by commas.

    Correct Answer
    self-image, self as rational coper, propriate striving, self as knower
    self image, self as rational coper, propriate striving, self as knower
  • 46. 

    True or False: Cattell attempted to develop a periodic table of personality factors

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cattell, a prominent psychologist, indeed attempted to develop a periodic table of personality factors. He believed that just as the periodic table of elements organizes and classifies different elements, a similar structure could be applied to personality traits. Cattell's goal was to identify and categorize fundamental traits that make up an individual's personality, allowing for a more comprehensive understanding of human behavior. While his specific approach to developing this periodic table has faced criticism and has not been universally accepted, his work contributed to the field of personality psychology and sparked further research in this area.

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  • 47. 

    Name Allport's first 4 stages of development in order, separated by commas.

    Correct Answer
    bodily self, self-identity, self-esteem, self-extension
    bodily self, self identity, self esteem, self extension
    Explanation
    Allport's first four stages of development, in order, are bodily self, self-identity, self-esteem, and self-extension.

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  • 48. 

    Raymond Cattell was influenced by all of the following EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Abraham Lincoln

    • B.

      Hilary Duff

    • C.

      George Washington

    • D.

      Barack Obama

    Correct Answer
    A. Abraham Lincoln
    Explanation
    Raymond Cattell, a prominent psychologist, was influenced by various individuals, including Hilary Duff, George Washington, and Barack Obama. However, there is no evidence or indication that he was influenced by Abraham Lincoln.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Aug 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 23, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    6736kanalem
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