Pharm 1- Hematology Drugs

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Pharm 1- Hematology Drugs - Quiz

Review quiz based on pharmacology lecture on Hematology


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following does not contribute to thrombosis?

    • A.

      Blood flow abnormalities

    • B.

      Contact surface abnormalities

    • C.

      Complement abnormalities

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Complement abnormalities
    Explanation
    Virchow's Triad- contribute to thrombosis (blood flow/contact surface/clotting component abnormalities)

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  • 2. 

    Vrichow's Triad features 3 broad catergories of Factors that prevent thrombosis

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Virchow's triad contains factors contributing to thrombosis

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  • 3. 

    The non-living fluid matrix of blood is called

    • A.

      Formed elements

    • B.

      Connective tissue

    • C.

      Plasma

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Plasma
    Explanation
    Plasma is the correct answer because it is the non-living fluid matrix of blood. It makes up about 55% of the total blood volume and contains various components such as water, electrolytes, proteins, hormones, and waste products. Plasma plays a crucial role in transporting nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body, maintaining blood pressure, and regulating body temperature. The formed elements, which include red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, are suspended in the plasma. Connective tissue is a different type of tissue found in the body and is not specific to blood.

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  • 4. 

    Thrombocytes are a part of plasma

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    thrombocytes are formed elements suspended in plasma

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is not found dissolved in plasma

    • A.

      Proteins

    • B.

      Nutrients

    • C.

      Platelets

    • D.

      Waste products

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Platelets
    Explanation
    platelets are suspended in plasma

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  • 6. 

    Which plasma protein is converted to form the basic framework for a blood clot

    • A.

      Globulin

    • B.

      Fibrinogen

    • C.

      Albumin

    • D.

      Bilirubin

    Correct Answer
    B. Fibrinogen
    Explanation
    Fibrinogen is converted to fibrin to form framework for a clot

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  • 7. 

    Pt. presents with liver disorder, which of the following is least likely to result from this

    • A.

      Increased synthesis of vitamin K

    • B.

      Decreased synthesis of Fibrinogen

    • C.

      Clotting factor problems

    • D.

      Decreased plasma protein levels

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Increased synthesis of vitamin K
    Explanation
    decreased synthesis of vit. K with liver disorders leads to decreased activation of clotting factors

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  • 8. 

    When megakaryocytes shed their cytoplasm into small membrane enclosed packets these packets leave the bone marrow and enter the blood to become

    • A.

      Red blood cells

    • B.

      Platelets

    • C.

      Lymphocytes

    • D.

      Mast cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Platelets
    Explanation
    When megakaryocytes shed their cytoplasm into small membrane enclosed packets, these packets, known as platelets, leave the bone marrow and enter the blood. Platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting and wound healing. They form clumps and release chemicals to help stop bleeding by forming a plug at the site of injury. Therefore, the correct answer is platelets.

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  • 9. 

    Platelets aid in which one of the major functions of blood?

    • A.

      Regulation of pH & ion concentration of interstitial fluids

    • B.

      Defense against toxins and pathogens

    • C.

      Stabilization of body temperature

    • D.

      Transportation of nutrients hormones, wastes and dissolved gasses

    • E.

      Restriction of fluid losses at injury sites

    Correct Answer
    E. Restriction of fluid losses at injury sites
    Explanation
    Platelets aid in the restriction of fluid losses at injury sites. When there is a cut or injury, platelets form clumps and release chemicals that help in the formation of blood clots. These clots prevent excessive bleeding and help in the healing process. Platelets also release substances that constrict blood vessels, further reducing blood flow and preventing fluid loss. Therefore, platelets play a crucial role in restricting fluid losses at injury sites.

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  • 10. 

    The intrinsic pathway/ contact activation pathway and extrinsic pathway converge at the point of thrombin formation

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The intrinsic pathway and extrinsic pathway are two separate pathways that lead to the formation of thrombin, a key enzyme in the blood clotting process. The intrinsic pathway is initiated by factors within the blood vessel, while the extrinsic pathway is initiated by factors outside the blood vessel. Both pathways eventually converge at the point of thrombin formation, indicating that they are interconnected and work together to promote blood clotting. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following would affect hemostatis

    • A.

      Vit. k synthesis

    • B.

      Clotting factors

    • C.

      Liver disorder

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the above options would affect hemostasis. Vitamin K synthesis is important for the production of clotting factors, which are essential for the formation of blood clots. A deficiency in vitamin K can lead to impaired clotting. Liver disorder can also impact hemostasis as the liver is responsible for producing many clotting factors. If the liver is not functioning properly, it can result in decreased production of clotting factors and therefore affect hemostasis.

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  • 12. 

    Normal clotting occurs in __________ minutes

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      6

    • C.

      12

    • D.

      15

    Correct Answer
    B. 6
    Explanation
    Normal clotting occurs in approximately 6 minutes.

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  • 13. 

    Extrinisc pathway  is activated by

    • A.

      Abnormal vessel wall in the absence of injury

    • B.

      tissue injury

    • C.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. tissue injury
    Explanation
    The extrinsic pathway is a part of the blood clotting process. It is activated when there is tissue injury. This pathway is not activated by an abnormal vessel wall in the absence of injury. Therefore, the correct answer is tissue injury.

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  • 14. 

    An abnormal vessel wall in the absense of injury may activate clotting through the _________ pathway

    • A.

      Intrinsic

    • B.

      Extrinsic

    • C.

      Contact activation

    • D.

      A & C

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. A & C
    Explanation
    In certain cases where there is no injury to the vessel wall, an abnormal vessel wall can still activate clotting. This can occur through the intrinsic pathway, which involves factors within the blood, and the contact activation pathway, which involves the activation of factor XII. Therefore, the correct answer is A & C.

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  • 15. 

    Hemostasis is the process that halts bleeding, which of its following phases are the last to occur

    • A.

      Coagulation

    • B.

      Vascular spasms

    • C.

      platelet plug formation

    Correct Answer
    A. Coagulation
    Explanation
    Coagulation is the correct answer because it is the final phase of hemostasis. Coagulation involves the formation of a blood clot to seal off the damaged blood vessel and prevent further bleeding. This process is initiated by a cascade of chemical reactions that result in the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin, forming a mesh-like network that traps blood cells and platelets to form a stable clot. Vascular spasms and platelet plug formation occur earlier in the hemostasis process to constrict the blood vessel and temporarily block the flow of blood, respectively.

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  • 16. 

    During the Vascular phase of Hemostasis serotonin causes

    • A.

      Platelets to pile up to form a platelet plug

    • B.

      Blood vessel to spasm

    • C.

      Complement activation

    • D.

      Drowsiness

    Correct Answer
    B. Blood vessel to spasm
    Explanation
    During the Vascular phase of Hemostasis, serotonin causes blood vessels to spasm. This is because serotonin is a vasoconstrictor, meaning it causes the smooth muscles in the blood vessel walls to contract, narrowing the blood vessels. This constriction helps to reduce blood flow and limit bleeding from the injured site. The spasm also helps to temporarily close off the injured blood vessel, allowing time for platelets to aggregate and form a platelet plug.

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  • 17. 

    The exposure of collagen fibers in a broken blood vessel initiate which stage of hemostasis

    • A.

      Vascular spasm

    • B.

      Platelet plug formation

    • C.

      Coagulation

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Platelet plug formation
    Explanation
    When a blood vessel is broken, the exposure of collagen fibers triggers the platelets to become sticky and adhere to the damaged area of the vessel wall. This process is known as platelet plug formation. The platelets then release chemicals that attract more platelets, leading to the formation of a plug that helps to temporarily seal the broken blood vessel. This is an important initial stage of hemostasis, which is the body's process of stopping bleeding.

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  • 18. 

    During the coagulation phase of hemostasis platelets release thromboplastin which combines with clotting factors and triggers the clotting cascade

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Thromboplastin is released by injured tissues around severed blood vessel

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  • 19. 

    Which is the correct chronological order of the clotting cascade

    • A.

      Prothrombin activator -> thrombin -> prothrombin-> fibrinogen-> fibrin-> meshwork

    • B.

      Meshwork-> thrombin->prothrombin activator-> prothrombin->fibrin-> fibrinogen

    • C.

      Prothrombin activator-> Prothrombin-> Thrombin-> Fibrinogen-> Fibrin-> Meshwork

    • D.

      Fibrin-> fibrinogen-> Prothrombin->thrombin-> Meshwork

    Correct Answer
    C. Prothrombin activator-> Prothrombin-> Thrombin-> Fibrinogen-> Fibrin-> Meshwork
    Explanation
    The correct chronological order of the clotting cascade is as follows: Prothrombin activator activates Prothrombin, which then converts into Thrombin. Thrombin then acts on Fibrinogen to convert it into Fibrin. Finally, Fibrin forms the meshwork to create a blood clot.

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  • 20. 

    Coagulation lab studies include all of the following except

    • A.

      Platelet count

    • B.

      INR

    • C.

      PT

    • D.

      PTT

    • E.

      PPD

    Correct Answer
    E. PPD
    Explanation
    ppd is for TB

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  • 21. 

    Lab tests reveal patient does not have enough platelets and tiny blood clots are "eating" platelets. This patient is suffering from

    • A.

      Sickle Cell Anemia

    • B.

      Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    • C.

      Idiopathic thrombocytopenia

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
    Explanation
    Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) is the correct answer because it is a rare blood disorder characterized by the formation of blood clots in small blood vessels throughout the body. These blood clots can lead to a decrease in platelet count, causing thrombocytopenia. The "eating" of platelets mentioned in the question refers to the formation of these blood clots that can consume platelets. Sickle Cell Anemia is a genetic disorder affecting red blood cells, and Idiopathic thrombocytopenia is a condition where the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys platelets.

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  • 22. 

    Lab studies reveal the patient's platelets are being coated with IgG and are not being recognized as self. As a result, macrohpages are destroying the platelets. This is dx as ________

    • A.

      Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

    • B.

      Idiopathic thrombocytopenia

    • C.

      Disseminated intravascular coagulation

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Idiopathic thrombocytopenia
    Explanation
    The given correct answer, "Idiopathic thrombocytopenia," is the most appropriate diagnosis based on the information provided. The lab studies show that the patient's platelets are being coated with IgG, which is causing them to not be recognized as self. This leads to macrophages destroying the platelets. Idiopathic thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by a low platelet count due to the destruction of platelets by the immune system.

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  • 23. 

    Lab tests reveal that your patient is experiencing pathological activation of the clotting cascade and there are multiple little blood clots all through out the vasculature this consumption of clotting factors and platelets will lead to

    • A.

      Disseminated intravascular coagulation

    • B.

      TTP

    • C.

      Bleeding

    • D.

      A & C

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. A & C
    Explanation
    The correct answer is A & C. Pathological activation of the clotting cascade and the presence of multiple little blood clots throughout the vasculature indicate a condition called disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). DIC is characterized by the consumption of clotting factors and platelets, leading to both clotting and bleeding. Therefore, both DIC and bleeding are possible outcomes in this case.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following is correct

    • A.

      Von Willebrand's Disease - Factor IX deficient

    • B.

      Hemophilia B (Christmas Disease) - Factor VII deficient

    • C.

      Hemophilia A - Factor IX deficient

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
    Explanation
    Hemophilia A ( VIII deficient) / Hemophilia B (IX deficient) / Von Willebrand's Disease - ( vWF deficient)

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  • 25. 

    Hemophilia and Von Willebrand's disease are hereditary

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hemophilia and Von Willebrand's disease are both genetic disorders that are passed down from parents to their children. These conditions are caused by mutations in specific genes that affect the body's ability to clot blood. Hemophilia is characterized by a deficiency in clotting factors, while Von Willebrand's disease is caused by a deficiency or dysfunction of a protein called von Willebrand factor. Since these disorders are inherited, they can be traced through family histories and are more likely to occur in individuals who have family members with the same condition. Therefore, the statement that Hemophilia and Von Willebrand's disease are hereditary is true.

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  • 26. 

    Inhibits specific clotting factors and interfere with the clotting cascade and thrombin formation

    • A.

      Anticoagulants

    • B.

      Antiplatelet agents

    • C.

      Thrombolytics

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Anticoagulants
    Explanation
    Anticoagulants are medications that inhibit specific clotting factors and interfere with the clotting cascade and thrombin formation. They work by preventing the formation of blood clots and are commonly used to treat conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation. Unlike antiplatelet agents, which primarily prevent platelets from sticking together, anticoagulants target the coagulation factors involved in the clotting process. Thrombolytics, on the other hand, are used to dissolve existing blood clots rather than preventing their formation. Therefore, the correct answer is anticoagulants.

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  • 27. 

    Anti-platelet agents interfere with the clotting cascade at the point of

    • A.

      Thrombin formation

    • B.

      Formation of the platelet plug

    • C.

      Steps leading to fibrin formation

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Formation of the platelet plug
    Explanation
    Anti-platelet agents interfere with the formation of the platelet plug. Platelet plug formation is one of the initial steps in the clotting cascade, where platelets aggregate at the site of injury to form a plug. By inhibiting this process, anti-platelet agents prevent the formation of the plug and reduce the risk of excessive clot formation. This is different from the formation of thrombin, which is involved in the later stages of the clotting cascade, and the steps leading to fibrin formation, which occur after thrombin is formed. Therefore, the correct answer is formation of the platelet plug.

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  • 28. 

    Which is not a drug for coagulation disorders

    • A.

      Anticoagulants

    • B.

      Antiplatelets

    • C.

      Thrombolytics

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "none of the above" because all the options listed (anticoagulants, antiplatelets, and thrombolytics) are drugs used for coagulation disorders. Therefore, none of the options are not drugs for coagulation disorders.

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  • 29. 

    Anticoagulants directly or indirectly inhibit thrombin formation

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Anticoagulants are medications that prevent blood clot formation. Thrombin is a key enzyme in the blood clotting process. By inhibiting thrombin formation, anticoagulants directly or indirectly prevent the formation of blood clots. Therefore, the statement "Anticoagulants directly or indirectly inhibit thrombin formation" is true.

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  • 30. 

    Anticoagulants inhibit specific clotting factors and interfere with steps leading to fibrin formation

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Anticoagulants are medications that prevent blood clot formation. They work by inhibiting specific clotting factors in the blood, which disrupts the normal steps involved in the formation of fibrin, a protein that helps in clot formation. By interfering with these steps, anticoagulants help to prevent the formation of blood clots and reduce the risk of conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and stroke. Therefore, the statement "Anticoagulants inhibit specific clotting factors and interfere with steps leading to fibrin formation" is true.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following is true about anticoagulants

    • A.

      They only directly inhibit thrombin formation

    • B.

      Inhibit all clotting factors that lead to fibrin formation

    • C.

      Prevent formation of new clots or enlargement of existing ones

    • D.

      Dissolve existing clots

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Prevent formation of new clots or enlargement of existing ones
    Explanation
    Anticoagulants are medications that prevent the formation of new blood clots or the enlargement of existing ones. They do not directly inhibit thrombin formation or dissolve existing clots. Instead, they work by inhibiting specific clotting factors that are involved in the formation of fibrin, a protein that forms the structure of blood clots. By inhibiting these clotting factors, anticoagulants help to prevent the formation of new clots or the enlargement of existing ones, reducing the risk of complications such as strokes or deep vein thrombosis. Therefore, the correct answer is "prevent formation of new clots or enlargement of existing ones."

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  • 32. 

    Promotes formation of new clots

    • A.

      Thrombolytics

    • B.

      Anticoagulants

    • C.

      Hemostatics

    • D.

      Antiplatelet

    Correct Answer
    C. Hemostatics
    Explanation
    Hemostatics promote the formation of new clots. They are substances that help control bleeding by promoting the coagulation process. They work by activating clotting factors and enhancing the formation of fibrin, which is essential for clot formation. By promoting clot formation, hemostatics help stop bleeding and prevent excessive blood loss. This is in contrast to thrombolytics, anticoagulants, and antiplatelet medications, which have different mechanisms of action and do not promote clot formation.

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  • 33. 

    Thrombolytics break down an existing thrombus by stimulating the _________system

    • A.

      Fibrin

    • B.

      Plasmin

    • C.

      Thrombin

    • D.

      Complement

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Plasmin
    Explanation
    Thrombolytics are medications that break down blood clots (thrombus). They do so by stimulating the plasmin system. Plasmin is an enzyme that breaks down fibrin, the protein that forms the structure of blood clots. By activating the plasmin system, thrombolytics promote the breakdown of the existing thrombus, helping to restore blood flow. Thrombin is a clotting factor that helps in the formation of blood clots, so it is not the correct answer. Complement is a part of the immune system and is not directly involved in breaking down blood clots.

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  • 34. 

    Efficacy of the extrinsic pathway is evaluated by

    • A.

      PT

    • B.

      PTT

    • C.

      INR

    • D.

      A & C

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. A & C
    Explanation
    The efficacy of the extrinsic pathway is evaluated by measuring PT (prothrombin time) and INR (international normalized ratio). PT measures the time it takes for blood to clot, specifically measuring the activity of factors involved in the extrinsic pathway. INR is a standardized method of reporting PT results, allowing for comparison across different laboratories. PTT (partial thromboplastin time) is not used to evaluate the efficacy of the extrinsic pathway, as it primarily assesses the intrinsic pathway. Therefore, the correct answer is A & C, which includes PT and INR.

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  • 35. 

    Evaluates the efficacy of both intrinsic and common pathways

    • A.

      PT

    • B.

      PTT

    • C.

      INR

    • D.

      A & C

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. PTT
    Explanation
    The correct answer is PTT because it is a test that evaluates the efficacy of the intrinsic pathway of blood clotting. The intrinsic pathway is one of the two main pathways involved in the formation of blood clots. The PT test evaluates the efficacy of the extrinsic pathway, while the INR is a calculation that standardizes the PT test results. Option A & C is incorrect because it only includes the PT and INR tests, while "all of the above" is incorrect because it includes the PT and INR tests, which do not evaluate the efficacy of both intrinsic and common pathways.

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  • 36. 

    Measures time needed to form clot after addition of TF (factor III)

    • A.

      PT

    • B.

      PTT

    • C.

      INR

    • D.

      A & C

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. PT
    Explanation
    PT stands for Prothrombin Time, which is a laboratory test that measures the time it takes for blood to clot after the addition of Tissue Factor (TF), also known as Factor III. This test is commonly used to assess the function of the extrinsic pathway of the coagulation cascade. It is used to diagnose and monitor conditions such as liver disease, vitamin K deficiency, and the effectiveness of anticoagulant therapy. Therefore, PT is the correct answer as it specifically measures the time needed to form a clot after the addition of TF.

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  • 37. 

    Used to standardize PT results due to variations in manufacturer's TF

    • A.

      PT

    • B.

      PTT

    • C.

      INR

    • D.

      A & C

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. INR
    Explanation
    INR (International Normalized Ratio) is used to standardize PT (Prothrombin Time) results due to variations in manufacturer's Thromboplastin Factor (TF). PT measures the time it takes for blood to clot, and variations in TF can lead to inconsistent results. INR is a calculation that compares a patient's PT result to a standardized reference value, allowing for accurate interpretation of clotting time across different laboratories and reagents. Therefore, INR is the correct answer as it addresses the need for standardization in PT results.

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  • 38. 

    PTT is essentially the same as PT but without TF added

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is explaining that PTT is the same as PT, but without TF added. This means that PTT does not have the TF component that PT has. Therefore, the correct answer is True, indicating that the statement is accurate and PTT does not include TF.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following is not an Anticoagulant

    • A.

      Warfarin

    • B.

      Dalteparin (Sub Q)

    • C.

      Heparin

    • D.

      Ticlopidine (Ticlid) (PO)

    • E.

      Antithrombin (IV)

    Correct Answer
    D. Ticlopidine (Ticlid) (PO)
    Explanation
    Ticlopidine is an anti-platelet drug

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following is not  a Sub Q anticoagulant

    • A.

      Dalteparin

    • B.

      Fondapirinux

    • C.

      Heparin Sodium

    • D.

      Warfarin

    • E.

      Enoxaparin (Lovenox)

    Correct Answer
    D. Warfarin
    Explanation
    Warfarin is not a Sub Q anticoagulant because it is administered orally rather than subcutaneously. Sub Q anticoagulants are medications that are injected into the fatty tissue under the skin. Dalteparin, Fondapirinux, Heparin Sodium, and Enoxaparin are all examples of Sub Q anticoagulants.

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  • 41. 

    Used in conjunction with ASA to prevent blood clots during transluminal coronary angioplasty

    • A.

      Argatroban

    • B.

      Antithrombin ( Thrombate III)

    • C.

      Bivalrudin ( angiomax)

    • D.

      Fondapirinux (Arixta)

    Correct Answer
    C. Bivalrudin ( angiomax)
    Explanation
    Bivalrudin (angiomax) is used in conjunction with ASA to prevent blood clots during transluminal coronary angioplasty. It is a direct thrombin inhibitor that prevents the formation of blood clots by inhibiting the activity of thrombin, an enzyme involved in the clotting process. By inhibiting thrombin, bivalrudin helps to prevent the formation of blood clots in the coronary arteries during angioplasty, reducing the risk of complications such as heart attack or stroke.

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  • 42. 

    Used to prevent thrombosis in heparin induced thrombocytopenia

    • A.

      Bivalrudin (Angiomax)

    • B.

      Argatroban

    • C.

      Antithrombin

    • D.

      Dalterparin (Fragmin)

    Correct Answer
    B. Argatroban
    Explanation
    Argatroban is the correct answer because it is a direct thrombin inhibitor that is used to prevent thrombosis in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). HIT is a condition where the use of heparin, a commonly used anticoagulant, leads to a decrease in platelet count and an increased risk of thrombosis. Argatroban works by inhibiting the activity of thrombin, a key enzyme in the clotting process. This helps to prevent the formation of blood clots in patients with HIT. Bivalrudin (Angiomax), Antithrombin, and Dalterparin (Fragmin) are not specifically indicated for the treatment of HIT.

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  • 43. 

    Used to treat HIT and other thromboembolic disorders

    • A.

      Lepirudin ( Refludan)

    • B.

      Fondapirinux (Arixtra)

    • C.

      Bivalrudin (angiomax)

    • D.

      Antrithrombin ( thrombate III)

    Correct Answer
    A. Lepirudin ( Refludan)
    Explanation
    Lepirudin (Refludan) is used to treat heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and other thromboembolic disorders. HIT is a condition where the body's immune system produces antibodies against heparin, leading to a decrease in platelet count and an increased risk of blood clot formation. Lepirudin is a direct thrombin inhibitor that helps prevent the formation of blood clots by inhibiting the action of thrombin, an enzyme involved in blood clotting. It is administered intravenously and is effective in managing HIT and preventing further thromboembolic events.

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  • 44. 

    Indicated for DVT prophylaxis in surgical patients

    • A.

      Dalteparin (Fragmin)

    • B.

      Argatroban

    • C.

      Antithrombin (Thrombate III)

    • D.

      Fondapirinux (Arixtra)

    Correct Answer
    D. Fondapirinux (Arixtra)
    Explanation
    Fondaparinux (Arixtra) is the correct answer because it is indicated for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis in surgical patients. DVT prophylaxis is the prevention of blood clot formation in the veins, which can occur after surgery. Fondaparinux is an anticoagulant that works by inhibiting the formation of blood clots. It is commonly used in surgical patients to reduce the risk of DVT and its complications. The other options, Dalteparin (Fragmin), Argatroban, and Antithrombin (Thrombate III), do not have the specific indication for DVT prophylaxis in surgical patients.

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  • 45. 

    Low molecular weight heparin

    • A.

      Warfarin ( Coumadin)

    • B.

      Heparin Sodium

    • C.

      Dalteparin (Fragmin)

    • D.

      Alteplase (Activase)

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Dalteparin (Fragmin)
    Explanation
    Dalteparin (Fragmin) is the correct answer because it is a low molecular weight heparin. Heparin is a type of anticoagulant medication that prevents blood clotting. Low molecular weight heparin refers to a specific form of heparin that has been modified to have a smaller molecular size, allowing for more predictable and consistent dosing. Warfarin and Heparin Sodium are not low molecular weight heparins, and Alteplase is a different type of medication used to dissolve blood clots. Therefore, the correct answer is Dalteparin (Fragmin).

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  • 46. 

    Interferes with hepatic synthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors

    • A.

      Heparin Sodium

    • B.

      Warfarin (Coumadin)

    • C.

      Urokinase ( Abbokinase

    • D.

      Alteplase (Activase)

    Correct Answer
    B. Warfarin (Coumadin)
    Explanation
    Warfarin (Coumadin) interferes with hepatic synthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Vitamin K is necessary for the production of clotting factors in the liver, and warfarin inhibits the enzyme that activates vitamin K. By inhibiting this enzyme, warfarin reduces the production of clotting factors, leading to anticoagulant effects. This makes warfarin an effective medication for preventing blood clots. Heparin Sodium, Urokinase, and Alteplase are not known to interfere with hepatic synthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors and therefore are not the correct answer.

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  • 47. 

    Warfarin (Coumadin)  is contraindicated during pregnancy, and the PT and INR values of patients taking warfarin should be monitored

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Warfarin (Coumadin) is a medication that is used as a blood thinner to prevent blood clots. However, it is contraindicated during pregnancy because it can cross the placenta and potentially harm the developing fetus. Therefore, pregnant women should not take warfarin. Additionally, patients taking warfarin should have their PT (prothrombin time) and INR (international normalized ratio) values monitored regularly to ensure that their blood is clotting properly and to adjust the dosage if necessary. Therefore, the statement that warfarin is contraindicated during pregnancy and the PT and INR values should be monitored is true.

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  • 48. 

    Has multiple drug/drug interactions and may cause tissue necrosis

    • A.

      Heparin Sodium

    • B.

      Enoxaparin (Lovenox)

    • C.

      Warfarin (Coumadin)

    • D.

      Alteplase (Activase)

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Warfarin (Coumadin)
    Explanation
    Warfarin (Coumadin) is the correct answer because it has multiple drug/drug interactions and may cause tissue necrosis. Warfarin is an anticoagulant medication that works by interfering with the body's blood clotting process. However, it can interact with many other drugs, including prescription medications, over-the-counter drugs, and herbal supplements, leading to potentially dangerous interactions. Additionally, warfarin can cause a rare but serious side effect called tissue necrosis, which is the death of cells in a specific area of the body. This occurs when blood flow to the area is blocked, often due to a clot formation.

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  • 49. 

    Inhibits conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin

    • A.

      Heparin

    • B.

      Alteplase (Activase)

    • C.

      Tirofiban (aggrastat)

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Heparin
    Explanation
    Heparin inhibits the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. Fibrinogen is a protein that is converted into fibrin during the process of blood clotting. By inhibiting this conversion, heparin prevents the formation of blood clots. Alteplase (Activase) is a thrombolytic medication that dissolves blood clots, while Tirofiban (Aggrastat) is an antiplatelet medication that prevents platelets from sticking together and forming clots. Therefore, the correct answer is Heparin.

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  • 50. 

    During pregnancy LMW Heparin is the better choice of UF heparin

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    LMW (Low Molecular Weight) Heparin is indeed a better choice than UF (Unfractionated) Heparin during pregnancy. This is because LMW Heparin has a lower risk of causing adverse effects on the fetus compared to UF Heparin. LMW Heparin has a more predictable anticoagulant effect, lower risk of bleeding, and does not cross the placenta as easily as UF Heparin. Therefore, it is considered safer for use in pregnant women who require anticoagulation therapy.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 29, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Chinedua
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