Pharmacology Of Hematopoiesis Quiz!

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| By Iyanna Peppers
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Iyanna Peppers
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Quizzes Created: 3 | Total Attempts: 1,699
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Pharmacology Of Hematopoiesis Quiz! - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Where is erythropoietin produced?

    • A.

      Proximal tubular cells of kidney

    • B.

      β islet cells of pancreas

    • C.

      Gallbladder

    • D.

      Hepatic cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Proximal tubular cells of kidney
    Explanation
    Erythropoietin is a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells. It is primarily produced in the proximal tubular cells of the kidney. These cells have specialized receptors that detect low oxygen levels in the blood and respond by producing and releasing erythropoietin. This hormone then travels to the bone marrow, where it stimulates the production of red blood cells. The other options mentioned, such as β islet cells of the pancreas, gallbladder, and hepatic cells, are not involved in the production of erythropoietin.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is not a function of erythropoietin?

    • A.

      CFU-E proliferation

    • B.

      Expansion of BFU-E cell population

    • C.

      Release reticulocytes into circulation

    • D.

      Regulates maturation of red cell blasts

    • E.

      Increase phagocytic and cytotoxic potential of mature granulocytes

    Correct Answer
    E. Increase phagocytic and cytotoxic potential of mature granulocytes
    Explanation
    Erythropoietin is a hormone produced by the kidneys that primarily regulates the production of red blood cells. It stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells, such as CFU-E and BFU-E, leading to the production of mature red blood cells. Erythropoietin also aids in the release of reticulocytes, which are immature red blood cells, into the circulation. Additionally, it plays a role in the maturation of red cell blasts. However, erythropoietin does not directly affect the phagocytic and cytotoxic potential of mature granulocytes, which are a type of white blood cell involved in immune responses.

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  • 3. 

    For patients with iron deficiency anemia who needs constant blood cell transfusions, a combination of what therapy would be beneficial?

    • A.

      Iron

    • B.

      Erythropoeitin

    • C.

      Folic acid

    • D.

      Vitamin D

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Iron
    B. Erythropoeitin
    Explanation
    Iron deficiency anemia is a condition characterized by low levels of iron in the body, leading to a decreased production of red blood cells. Blood cell transfusions are often required to replenish the red blood cell count in these patients. Iron therapy is essential as it helps to increase iron levels in the body and promote the production of red blood cells. Erythropoietin therapy, on the other hand, stimulates the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells. Therefore, the combination of iron and erythropoietin therapy would be beneficial in patients with iron deficiency anemia who require constant blood cell transfusions.

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  • 4. 

    Hypoxic conditions causes an increase in which intracellular molecule?

    • A.

      CAMP

    • B.

      GTP

    • C.

      Calcium ions

    • D.

      Cobalt

    Correct Answer
    A. CAMP
    Explanation
    Hypoxic conditions cause an increase in cAMP. Hypoxia refers to low oxygen levels in the body, which can trigger various cellular responses. One of these responses is the activation of the enzyme adenylate cyclase, which leads to an increase in the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). cAMP acts as a second messenger in many signaling pathways, regulating various cellular processes such as gene expression, metabolism, and cell proliferation. Therefore, under hypoxic conditions, the increase in cAMP helps to mediate adaptive cellular responses to low oxygen levels.

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  • 5. 

    Before erythropoietin can be released into circulation, what molecule has to be activated?

    • A.

      Protein kinase A

    • B.

      Procaspase 8

    • C.

      Methyltransferase

    • D.

      IP3 receptor

    Correct Answer
    A. Protein kinase A
    Explanation
    Protein kinase A is responsible for the activation of erythropoietin before it can be released into circulation. This enzyme phosphorylates and activates erythropoietin, allowing it to fulfill its role in stimulating red blood cell production. The other molecules listed (Procaspase 8, Methyltransferase, and IP3 receptor) do not play a role in the activation of erythropoietin.

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  • 6. 

    An increase in what molecule promotes erythropoietin production?

    • A.

      Hypoxanthine

    • B.

      ATP

    • C.

      Oxygen

    • D.

      GM-CSF

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypoxanthine
    Explanation
    Hypoxanthine is a molecule that promotes erythropoietin production. Erythropoietin is a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. When there is a decrease in oxygen levels in the body, hypoxanthine levels increase, leading to the release of erythropoietin. This hormone then stimulates the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells, which helps to increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Therefore, an increase in hypoxanthine promotes erythropoietin production.

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  • 7. 

    In a patient currently undergoing chemotherapy, which of the following would best alleviate the duration of severe neutropenia?

    • A.

      Myeloid growth factors

    • B.

      Erythropoietin

    • C.

      Methotrexate

    • D.

      NSAIDs

    Correct Answer
    A. Myeloid growth factors
    Explanation
    Myeloid growth factors are the best option for alleviating the duration of severe neutropenia in a patient undergoing chemotherapy. Neutropenia is a condition characterized by a low level of neutrophils, which are a type of white blood cell that helps fight infections. Myeloid growth factors stimulate the production of neutrophils in the bone marrow, helping to increase their levels and reduce the duration of neutropenia. Erythropoietin is responsible for stimulating the production of red blood cells and would not directly address the issue of neutropenia. Methotrexate is a chemotherapy drug that can actually cause neutropenia. NSAIDs, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, do not have a direct effect on neutrophil production.

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  • 8. 

    Administering myeloid growth factors can have dose-limiting toxicities. What does this mean?

    • A.

      Severe toxicities occur during the first cycle of therapy

    • B.

      Deep thickening of skin due to irritation

    • C.

      Appearance of local thrombophlebitis at infusion site

    • D.

      The increase in body temperature following certain medications, such as a blood transfusions

    Correct Answer
    A. Severe toxicities occur during the first cycle of therapy
    Explanation
    Administering myeloid growth factors can lead to severe toxicities during the initial cycle of therapy. This means that the use of these growth factors can cause significant adverse effects or side effects that can be potentially harmful or dangerous to the patient's health. These toxicities may manifest as severe symptoms or complications that require close monitoring and management during the first cycle of therapy.

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  • 9. 

    What is the common treatment for sickle cell disease?

    • A.

      Hydroxyurea

    • B.

      Myeloid growth factors

    • C.

      Pantothenic acid

    • D.

      Cryoprecipitate transfusion to restore clotting factors

    Correct Answer
    A. Hydroxyurea
    Explanation
    Hydroxyurea is a common treatment for sickle cell disease. It works by increasing the production of fetal hemoglobin, which can help prevent the sickling of red blood cells. This medication has been shown to reduce the frequency of pain crises, decrease the need for blood transfusions, and improve overall quality of life for individuals with sickle cell disease. It is considered a disease-modifying therapy and is often recommended for patients with moderate to severe symptoms. Myeloid growth factors, pantothenic acid, and cryoprecipitate transfusion are not commonly used as treatments for sickle cell disease.

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  • 10. 

    Over half of the body's iron is associated with:

    • A.

      Hemoglobin

    • B.

      Myoglobin

    • C.

      Ferritin

    • D.

      Transferrin

    Correct Answer
    A. Hemoglobin
    Explanation
    Hemoglobin is the correct answer because it is a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Iron is an essential component of hemoglobin, with each molecule containing four iron atoms. Therefore, over half of the body's iron is associated with hemoglobin. Myoglobin is a similar protein found in muscle cells that also contains iron, but it does not account for over half of the body's iron. Ferritin is a protein that stores iron, while transferrin is a protein that transports iron in the blood.

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  • 11. 

    What vitamin increases iron absorption?

    • A.

      Vitamin C

    • B.

      Vitamin D

    • C.

      Folic acid

    • D.

      Pyridoxine

    Correct Answer
    A. Vitamin C
    Explanation
    Vitamin C increases iron absorption in the body. Iron is an essential mineral required for the production of red blood cells and overall health. However, iron from plant-based sources (non-heme iron) is not as easily absorbed as iron from animal-based sources (heme iron). Vitamin C helps to convert non-heme iron into a form that is more easily absorbed by the body. This is why consuming foods rich in vitamin C, such as citrus fruits, strawberries, and bell peppers, along with iron-rich foods, can enhance iron absorption and prevent iron deficiency.

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  • 12. 

    Which two vitamins assist with methionine synthesis?

    • A.

      Vitamin B12

    • B.

      Vitamin B9

    • C.

      Vitamin B5

    • D.

      Vitamin B6

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Vitamin B12
    B. Vitamin B9
    Explanation
    Vitamin B12 and Vitamin B9 both assist with methionine synthesis. Methionine is an essential amino acid that plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including protein synthesis and DNA methylation. Vitamin B12 is required for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine, while Vitamin B9, also known as folate, is involved in the production of methyl groups needed for methionine synthesis. Therefore, both these vitamins are necessary for the proper synthesis of methionine in the body.

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  • 13. 

    Methyl groups from which vitamins are donated to Vitamin B12 for methionine synthesis?

    • A.

      Vitamin B9

    • B.

      Vitamin C

    • C.

      Vitamin B6

    • D.

      Vitamin K

    Correct Answer
    A. Vitamin B9
    Explanation
    Methyl groups from Vitamin B9 are donated to Vitamin B12 for methionine synthesis. Methionine is an essential amino acid that is involved in various biochemical processes in the body. Vitamin B12 acts as a coenzyme in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine, and this reaction requires the transfer of a methyl group. Vitamin B9, also known as folate or folic acid, plays a crucial role in providing methyl groups for this reaction. Therefore, Vitamin B9 is the correct answer.

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  • 14. 

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 causes megaloblastic anemia due to:

    • A.

      Decreased methionine synthesis interferes with protein synthesis, compromising production of new cells

    • B.

      Decreased ability to donate methyl groups to proteins that are needed for DNA replication, such as DNA polymerase I

    • C.

      Increased ability to replicate DNA, leading to increase in cell size

    • D.

      No cobalamin binding to its receptor on bone marrow tissue, signaling the release of red cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Decreased methionine synthesis interferes with protein synthesis, compromising production of new cells
    Explanation
    Deficiency of vitamin B12 causes megaloblastic anemia because it leads to decreased methionine synthesis, which in turn interferes with protein synthesis. This interference compromises the production of new cells, including red blood cells. Methionine is an essential amino acid that is required for the synthesis of proteins. Without sufficient levels of vitamin B12, the body is unable to produce adequate amounts of methionine, which hinders protein synthesis and ultimately affects the production of new cells.

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  • 15. 

    With what protein is vitamin B12 absorbed in the small intestine?

    • A.

      Intrinsic factor

    • B.

      Methyltransferase

    • C.

      Albumin carrier protein

    • D.

      IL-3

    Correct Answer
    A. Intrinsic factor
    Explanation
    Intrinsic factor is a protein that is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine. It is produced by the parietal cells of the stomach and binds to vitamin B12, allowing it to be absorbed into the bloodstream. Without intrinsic factor, vitamin B12 cannot be effectively absorbed and can lead to a deficiency. Therefore, intrinsic factor plays a crucial role in the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine.

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  • 16. 

    Is there a carrier protein for vitamin B12?

    • A.

      Yes, transcobalamin II

    • B.

      Yes, albumin carrier protein

    • C.

      No

    • D.

      Yes, intrinsic factor

    Correct Answer
    A. Yes, transcobalamin II
    Explanation
    Transcobalamin II is a carrier protein for vitamin B12. It binds to vitamin B12 in the blood and transports it to cells where it is needed. This protein plays a crucial role in the absorption and utilization of vitamin B12 in the body. It helps protect the vitamin from degradation and ensures its delivery to tissues and organs that require it for various physiological processes.

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  • 17. 

    What protein is necessary for the metabolism of folic acid?

    • A.

      Pteroyl-γ-glutamyl carboxypeptidase

    • B.

      Pancreatic lipase

    • C.

      Trypsin

    • D.

      Pepsin

    Correct Answer
    A. Pteroyl-γ-glutamyl carboxypeptidase
    Explanation
    Pteroyl-γ-glutamyl carboxypeptidase is necessary for the metabolism of folic acid. Folic acid is a B-vitamin that is essential for various cellular functions, including DNA synthesis and repair. Pteroyl-γ-glutamyl carboxypeptidase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in converting folic acid into its active form, which can then be utilized by the body. Without this enzyme, folic acid cannot be properly metabolized and its functions would be impaired. Therefore, Pteroyl-γ-glutamyl carboxypeptidase is necessary for the metabolism of folic acid.

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  • 18. 

    Menke's disease is characterized by:

    • A.

      Granulocytopenia and anemia

    • B.

      Increased activity of copper dependent enzymes

    • C.

      Megaloblastic anemia

    • D.

      Spontaneous red cell aplasia

    Correct Answer
    A. Granulocytopenia and anemia
    Explanation
    Menke's disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects copper metabolism in the body. It is caused by a mutation in the ATP7A gene, which leads to impaired copper absorption and transport. This results in a deficiency of copper-dependent enzymes, leading to various symptoms. One of the main characteristics of Menke's disease is granulocytopenia, which refers to a decrease in the number of granulocytes, a type of white blood cell involved in fighting infections. Additionally, Menke's disease also causes anemia, a condition characterized by a decrease in the number of red blood cells or hemoglobin.

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