Hematology Quiz Questions And Answers!

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Hematology Quiz Questions And Answers! - Quiz

Hematology is a branch of medicine that is concerned with the study, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood. This hematology quiz is designed to check how well do you understand the basics. With this quiz, you will not only test your knowledge but also learn many things. If you are looking for a career in the hematology field, then you must take this quiz for any exam preparation. Your score in this quiz will give you clarity on your understanding of hematology. All the best for the quiz, and do share your result!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In high altitudes, the hemoglobin value is:

    • A.

      Higher

    • B.

      Lower

    • C.

      The same

    • D.

      Not altered

    Correct Answer
    A. Higher
    Explanation
    At high altitudes, the hemoglobin value is higher. This is because at higher altitudes, there is a decrease in the availability of oxygen in the atmosphere. In response to this, the body compensates by increasing the production of red blood cells and hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, so an increase in its value helps to ensure that an adequate amount of oxygen reaches the body's cells despite the lower oxygen levels at high altitudes.

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  • 2. 

    The hemoglobin types found in a normal adult are:

    • A.

      S, A, F

    • B.

      A, A2, C

    • C.

      A2, F

    • D.

      A, A2, F

    Correct Answer
    D. A, A2, F
    Explanation
    The correct answer is A, A2, F. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. In a normal adult, the most common types of hemoglobin are A, A2, and F. Hemoglobin A is the most abundant type, making up about 95-98% of total hemoglobin. Hemoglobin A2 is the second most common type, making up about 2-3% of total hemoglobin. Hemoglobin F is the least common type, making up less than 1% of total hemoglobin. These different types of hemoglobin play important roles in oxygen transport and maintaining the health of red blood cells.

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  • 3. 

    The polypeptide chains of hemoglobin A are composed of:

    • A.

      1 alpha, 3 beta

    • B.

      2 alpha

    • C.

      2 alpha, 2 beta

    • D.

      1 alpha, 2 beta, 1 delta

    Correct Answer
    C. 2 alpha, 2 beta
    Explanation
    The polypeptide chains of hemoglobin A are composed of 2 alpha chains and 2 beta chains. This composition is specific to hemoglobin A, which is the most common type of hemoglobin found in adults. The alpha and beta chains come together to form the quaternary structure of hemoglobin, allowing it to efficiently carry oxygen throughout the body.

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  • 4. 

    The heme portion of the hemoglobin molecule consists of:

    • A.

      Porphyrin ring with a molecule of Fe in the center.

    • B.

      A polypeptide chain containing Fe

    • C.

      A pyrole ring with four molecules of Fe in the center.

    • D.

      Four porphyrin rings, each containing a molecule of Fe in the center

    Correct Answer
    D. Four porphyrin rings, each containing a molecule of Fe in the center
    Explanation
    The correct answer is four porphyrin rings, each containing a molecule of Fe in the center. Heme is a complex molecule that is responsible for binding oxygen in hemoglobin. It consists of four porphyrin rings, which are flat, cyclic structures, with a molecule of iron (Fe) at the center of each ring. The iron atom is what allows heme to bind to oxygen and transport it throughout the body. Therefore, the correct answer accurately describes the composition of the heme portion of the hemoglobin molecule.

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  • 5. 

    In the breakdown of RBCs, bilirubin is:

    • A.

      Reused by new red cells

    • B.

      Oxidized to biliverdin

    • C.

      Returned to the pool

    • D.

      Excreted

    Correct Answer
    D. Excreted
    Explanation
    Bilirubin, a yellow pigment, is a byproduct of the breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs). It is released from the RBCs and transported to the liver, where it is conjugated and converted into a water-soluble form. This conjugated bilirubin is then excreted from the body through bile, which is ultimately eliminated in the feces. Therefore, bilirubin is excreted from the body as a waste product.

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  • 6. 

    An iron protein complex that combines with oxygen and carbon dioxide is:

    • A.

      Hematin

    • B.

      Hemosiderin

    • C.

      Hemoglobin

    • D.

      Oxyhemoglobin

    Correct Answer
    C. Hemoglobin
    Explanation
    Hemoglobin is an iron protein complex that combines with oxygen and carbon dioxide. It is found in red blood cells and is responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and carrying carbon dioxide back to the lungs for exhalation. Hematin is a derivative of hemoglobin and is not directly involved in oxygen and carbon dioxide transport. Hemosiderin is an iron storage protein, and oxyhemoglobin is a form of hemoglobin that is bound to oxygen.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following contain or are erythrocytic inclusions of RNA and can be observed by staining with new methylene blue?

    • A.

      Howell-Jolly bodies

    • B.

      Heinz bodies

    • C.

      Pappenheimer bodies

    • D.

      Reticulocytes

    • E.

      Basophilic stippling

    Correct Answer
    D. Reticulocytes
    Explanation
    Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells that still contain RNA. When stained with new methylene blue, these cells can be observed due to the presence of erythrocytic inclusions of RNA. Howell-Jolly bodies are nuclear remnants, Heinz bodies are denatured hemoglobin, Pappenheimer bodies are iron granules, and basophilic stippling is the presence of aggregates of RNA and ribosomes. Therefore, the correct answer is reticulocytes, as they contain erythrocytic inclusions of RNA and can be observed with new methylene blue staining.

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  • 8. 

    The simplest method for detecting increased RBC production is:

    • A.

      Measure of the RBC survival

    • B.

      Ferrokinetics studies

    • C.

      Reticulocyte enumeration

    • D.

      Bone marrow biopsy

    Correct Answer
    C. Reticulocyte enumeration
    Explanation
    Reticulocyte enumeration is the simplest method for detecting increased RBC production. Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells that are released into the bloodstream before fully maturing into mature red blood cells. By counting the number of reticulocytes in a blood sample, it is possible to determine the rate of red blood cell production. An increased number of reticulocytes indicates an increase in RBC production, which can be a response to conditions such as anemia or blood loss. This method is simple and non-invasive compared to other options like measuring RBC survival or performing a bone marrow biopsy.

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  • 9. 

    The type of staining we use to stain reticulocytes is called

    • A.

      Supra-vital

    • B.

      Ultra-vital

    • C.

      Non-vital

    • D.

      Counterstaining

    Correct Answer
    A. Supra-vital
    Explanation
    The correct answer is supra-vital. Supra-vital staining refers to staining techniques that are performed on living cells. In the case of reticulocytes, which are immature red blood cells, supra-vital staining is used to visualize the presence of residual RNA in the cytoplasm. This staining method allows for the identification and quantification of reticulocytes, providing valuable information about the production and maturation of red blood cells in the body.

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  • 10. 

    A reticulocyte, when properly stained, exhibits:

    • A.

      A nucleus

    • B.

      Basophilic stippling

    • C.

      A network of granular filaments

    • D.

      Particles of Iron

    Correct Answer
    C. A network of granular filaments
    Explanation
    When a reticulocyte is properly stained, it shows a network of granular filaments. This refers to the appearance of granules arranged in a network-like pattern within the cell. This characteristic is important in identifying reticulocytes, as it indicates their immature state. Reticulocytes are young red blood cells that still contain remnants of ribosomal RNA, which appear as these granular filaments. As the reticulocytes mature, these granules disappear, and the cells become fully functional red blood cells without a nucleus.

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  • 11. 

    The dark blue staining of reticulum in the reticulocyte, with new methylene blue N stain, is due to:

    • A.

      Organelles

    • B.

      Ribosomes

    • C.

      RNA

    • D.

      DNA

    Correct Answer
    C. RNA
    Explanation
    The dark blue staining of reticulum in the reticulocyte with new methylene blue N stain is due to RNA. RNA is a molecule involved in protein synthesis and is abundant in the reticulocyte, which is a young red blood cell. The staining technique used specifically targets RNA, resulting in the dark blue coloration. Organelles, ribosomes, and DNA are not directly responsible for this staining.

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  • 12. 

    The chief function of the platelet is to:

    • A.

      Fight infection

    • B.

      Aid in coagulation

    • C.

      Antibody formation

    • D.

      Carry oxygen

    Correct Answer
    B. Aid in coagulation
    Explanation
    Platelets play a crucial role in the process of coagulation, which is the formation of blood clots to prevent excessive bleeding. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets are activated and aggregate at the site of injury, forming a plug to stop the bleeding. They also release various substances that promote the formation of fibrin, a protein that strengthens the clot. Therefore, the correct answer is "aid in coagulation."

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  • 13. 

    Using the brilliant cresyl blue preparation for reticulocytes, they may be confused with:

    • A.

      Macrocytes

    • B.

      Dohle bodies

    • C.

      Heinz bodies

    • D.

      Auer bodies

    Correct Answer
    C. Heinz bodies
    Explanation
    Heinz bodies are small round inclusions within red blood cells that are composed of denatured hemoglobin. When using the brilliant cresyl blue preparation for reticulocytes, Heinz bodies may be confused with reticulocytes due to their similar appearance. This confusion can occur because both reticulocytes and Heinz bodies can appear as small, blue-staining structures within red blood cells. Therefore, it is important to carefully differentiate between reticulocytes and Heinz bodies when using this staining method.

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  • 14. 

    The precursor of the platelet is:

    • A.

      Myeloblast

    • B.

      Mega blast

    • C.

      Megakaryocyte

    • D.

      Plasmablast

    Correct Answer
    C. Megakaryocyte
    Explanation
    A megakaryocyte is the precursor of platelets. Megakaryocytes are large cells found in the bone marrow that undergo fragmentation to produce platelets. Platelets are small, disc-shaped cells that play a crucial role in blood clotting. They help to stop bleeding by forming clots at the site of injury. Therefore, the correct answer is megakaryocyte.

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  • 15. 

    The term thrombocytopenia indicates a/an:

    • A.

      Abnormally low number of thrombocytes

    • B.

      Abnormally high number of thrombocytes

    • C.

      Normal number of platelets

    • D.

      Abnormally low total white blood count

    Correct Answer
    A. Abnormally low number of thrombocytes
    Explanation
    Thrombocytopenia refers to a condition characterized by an abnormally low number of thrombocytes, which are also known as platelets. Platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting, so a decrease in their count can lead to an increased risk of bleeding and difficulty in clotting. Therefore, the correct answer is "abnormally low number of thrombocytes."

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  • 16. 

    The normal number of thrombocytes per ul is:

    • A.

      5,000 - 10,000

    • B.

      125,000 - 150,000

    • C.

      150,000 - 450,000

    • D.

      500,000 - 1,000,000

    Correct Answer
    C. 150,000 - 450,000
    Explanation
    The normal number of thrombocytes per ul is between 150,000 and 450,000. Thrombocytes, also known as platelets, are important for blood clotting. This range is considered normal because it allows for adequate clotting ability without an increased risk of bleeding or clotting disorders. A lower count may indicate a condition called thrombocytopenia, which can lead to excessive bleeding, while a higher count may indicate a condition called thrombocytosis, which can increase the risk of blood clots.

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  • 17. 

    In allergic conditions, we commonly find an increase of:

    • A.

      Red cells

    • B.

      Lymphocytes

    • C.

      Neutrophils

    • D.

      Eosinophils

    Correct Answer
    D. Eosinophils
    Explanation
    In allergic conditions, eosinophils are commonly increased. Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play a role in the immune response to parasites and allergic reactions. They are especially involved in the response to allergies such as asthma, hay fever, and eczema. Eosinophils release chemicals that help to control and limit the inflammatory response. Therefore, an increase in eosinophils is often seen in allergic conditions as they are recruited to the affected tissues to help combat the allergic reaction.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is not a characteristic of platelets?

    • A.

      The presence of a nucleus

    • B.

      Size of 2 to 4 um

    • C.

      Cytoplasm a light blue with red-purple granules

    • D.

      A discoid shape as an inactive cell

    Correct Answer
    A. The presence of a nucleus
    Explanation
    Platelets are small, irregularly shaped cell fragments that are involved in blood clotting. They are derived from megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and do not possess a nucleus. This lack of a nucleus allows platelets to be more flexible and adaptable in their function. They also have a size of 2 to 4 um, cytoplasm that is light blue with red-purple granules, and a discoid shape when inactive. Therefore, the presence of a nucleus is not a characteristic of platelets.

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  • 19. 

    The nucleus of a cell consists primarily of

    • A.

      DNA

    • B.

      RNA

    • C.

      Golgi bodies

    • D.

      Ribosomes

    Correct Answer
    A. DNA
    Explanation
    The nucleus of a cell consists primarily of DNA because DNA is the genetic material that carries the instructions for the development, functioning, and reproduction of all living organisms. It is located within the nucleus, which is the control center of the cell. DNA is organized into structures called chromosomes, which contain the genes that determine an organism's traits. RNA, Golgi bodies, and ribosomes are also important components of the cell, but they are not the primary component of the nucleus.

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  • 20. 

    RBC production is initiated by the hormone:

    • A.

      Luteinizing (LH)

    • B.

      Interstitial cell stimulating (ICSH)

    • C.

      Parathyroid Hormone

    • D.

      Erythropoietin

    Correct Answer
    D. Erythropoietin
    Explanation
    Erythropoietin is the hormone responsible for initiating the production of red blood cells (RBCs). It is produced and released by the kidneys in response to low oxygen levels in the body. Erythropoietin stimulates the bone marrow to produce more RBCs, which helps to increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. This hormone plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance of RBC production and is essential for the body's overall oxygenation.

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  • 21. 

    The five types of leukocytes found in normal peripheral blood are:

    • A.

      Lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, and lymphoblast

    • B.

      Lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, myeloblasts, and eosinophils

    • C.

      Lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils

    Correct Answer
    C. Lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils
    Explanation
    The answer "lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils" is correct because these are the five types of leukocytes commonly found in normal peripheral blood. Lymphocytes are responsible for immune responses, neutrophils are the most abundant type and are involved in fighting bacterial infections, monocytes are involved in immune responses and can differentiate into macrophages, eosinophils are involved in allergic reactions and fighting parasitic infections, and basophils are involved in allergic reactions and releasing histamine.

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  • 22. 

    An increase of total leukocytes over the normal is called:

    • A.

      Leukemia

    • B.

      Leukopenia

    • C.

      Leukocytosis

    • D.

      Pancytopenia

    Correct Answer
    C. Leukocytosis
    Explanation
    Leukocytosis is the correct answer because it refers to an increase in the total number of leukocytes (white blood cells) in the body. This can be a normal response to infection, inflammation, or other conditions. Leukemia, on the other hand, is a type of cancer that causes an abnormal increase in white blood cells. Leukopenia is a decrease in white blood cells, and pancytopenia is a decrease in all types of blood cells.

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  • 23. 

    The cell that functions in the defensive mechanism of the body during infection is:

    • A.

      Neutrophil

    • B.

      Reticulocyte

    • C.

      Platelet

    • D.

      Eosinophil

    Correct Answer
    A. Neutrophil
    Explanation
    Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that play a crucial role in the body's immune response against infection. They are the first cells to arrive at the site of infection and are responsible for engulfing and destroying bacteria and other pathogens. Neutrophils release enzymes and chemicals that help to kill the invading microorganisms. They also play a role in inflammation by releasing cytokines that attract other immune cells to the site of infection. Therefore, neutrophils are the primary cell that functions in the defensive mechanism of the body during infection.

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  • 24. 

    The cell that functions as a plug at the site of bleeding is the:

    • A.

      Eosinophil

    • B.

      Red cell

    • C.

      Platelet

    • D.

      Neutrophil

    Correct Answer
    C. Platelet
    Explanation
    Platelets are small, irregularly shaped cell fragments that play a crucial role in blood clotting. When there is a site of bleeding, platelets are activated and form a plug to stop the bleeding. They adhere to the damaged blood vessel walls and aggregate together, forming a clot. This clot acts as a temporary seal, preventing further blood loss and allowing the process of wound healing to begin. Therefore, platelets are the cells that function as a plug at the site of bleeding.

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  • 25. 

    The smallest % of normal cells in a differential count is:

    • A.

      Metamyelocytes

    • B.

      Basophils

    • C.

      Eosinophils

    • D.

      Monocytes

    Correct Answer
    B. Basophils
    Explanation
    Basophils are the least common type of white blood cells found in the body, making up only a small percentage of the total white blood cell count. They are responsible for releasing chemicals such as histamine during allergic reactions and play a role in the body's immune response. Metamyelocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes are all more common than basophils in a differential count of white blood cells. Therefore, basophils have the smallest percentage among these options.

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  • 26. 

    Polychromatopohilic erythrocytes are also called:

    • A.

      Ovalocytes

    • B.

      Left shift

    • C.

      Nucleated red blood cells

    • D.

      Reticulocytes

    Correct Answer
    D. Reticulocytes
    Explanation
    Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells that still contain remnants of their nucleus. They are called polychromatophilic erythrocytes because they have a bluish tint due to the presence of ribosomes in their cytoplasm. Reticulocytes are released into the bloodstream from the bone marrow and eventually mature into fully functional red blood cells.

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  • 27. 

    Compared with adults, a one-year-old child should show a relatively increased proportion of the following in the peripheral blood.

    • A.

      Eosinophils

    • B.

      Monocytes

    • C.

      Lymphocytes

    • D.

      Basophils

    • E.

      Neutrophils

    Correct Answer
    C. Lymphocytes
    Explanation
    In a one-year-old child, the proportion of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood should be relatively increased compared to adults. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that play a crucial role in the immune system, particularly in the response to infections and diseases. As children are still developing their immune system, they tend to have a higher proportion of lymphocytes in their blood compared to adults. This increased proportion helps to provide adequate immune defense and protection against various pathogens.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following becomes a tissue macrophage after a brief stay in the blood?

    • A.

      Monocyte

    • B.

      Lymphocyte

    • C.

      Neutrophil

    • D.

      Plasma cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Monocyte
    Explanation
    Monocytes are white blood cells that circulate in the blood for a short period before migrating to the tissues, where they differentiate into tissue macrophages. These macrophages play a crucial role in the immune response by engulfing and digesting pathogens and cellular debris. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell involved in specific immune responses, while neutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cell and are primarily responsible for fighting bacterial infections. Plasma cells are differentiated B cells that produce antibodies.

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  • 29. 

    As red cells mature, the nucleus becomes:

    • A.

      More condensed

    • B.

      Less condensed

    • C.

      More acidophilic

    • D.

      Less dense

    Correct Answer
    A. More condensed
    Explanation
    As red cells mature, the nucleus becomes more condensed. This means that the genetic material inside the nucleus becomes tightly packed and organized. This condensation allows for more efficient storage of genetic material and also helps the red cells to function properly. The more condensed nucleus is a characteristic of mature red cells and is necessary for their proper functioning in carrying oxygen throughout the body.

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  • 30. 

    As red blood cells mature, the cytoplasm becomes more:

    • A.

      Reticular

    • B.

      Acidophilic

    • C.

      Basophilic

    • D.

      Polychromatophilic

    Correct Answer
    D. Polychromatophilic
    Explanation
    As red blood cells mature, the cytoplasm becomes more polychromatophilic. This means that the cytoplasm of the red blood cells takes on a bluish-gray color due to the presence of both acidophilic (pink/red) and basophilic (blue/purple) components. This change in cytoplasmic coloration is a characteristic feature of maturing red blood cells.

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  • 31. 

    A synonym for metarubricyte is

    • A.

      Pronormoblast

    • B.

      Basophilic normoblast

    • C.

      Polychromatophilic normoblast

    • D.

      Orthochromatic normoblast

    Correct Answer
    D. Orthochromatic normoblast
    Explanation
    An orthochromatic normoblast is a synonym for metarubricyte. This term refers to a stage in the development of red blood cells where the nucleus is condensed and pushed to one side of the cell. It is the last stage before the cell becomes a mature red blood cell. The other options, pronormoblast, basophilic normoblast, and polychromatophilic normoblast, refer to earlier stages in the development of red blood cells.

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  • 32. 

    In the erythrocyte series, a committed stem cell will differentiate into a

    • A.

      Rubriblast

    • B.

      Prorubricyte

    • C.

      Rubricyte

    • D.

      Metrarubricyte

    Correct Answer
    A. Rubriblast
    Explanation
    A committed stem cell in the erythrocyte series will differentiate into a rubriblast. This is the first stage of erythrocyte development, where the cell is large with a round nucleus and contains basophilic cytoplasm. It is the precursor to the prorubricyte, which then differentiates into a rubricyte, and finally into a metarubricyte. Therefore, the correct answer is rubriblast.

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  • 33. 

    Red blood cells which are larger than 8.1 microns are called:

    • A.

      Anisocytes

    • B.

      Macrocytes

    • C.

      Microcytes

    • D.

      Normocytes

    Correct Answer
    B. Macrocytes
    Explanation
    Red blood cells that are larger than 8.1 microns are called macrocytes. This term is used to describe abnormally large red blood cells. Anisocytes refers to red blood cells that vary in size, microcytes refers to red blood cells that are smaller than normal, and normocytes refers to red blood cells that are of normal size. However, in this case, the correct term to describe red blood cells larger than 8.1 microns is macrocytes.

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  • 34. 

    Which red cell is not a biconcave disc?

    • A.

      Anisocyte

    • B.

      Microcyte

    • C.

      Hypochromic red cells

    • D.

      Spherocyte

    Correct Answer
    D. Spherocyte
    Explanation
    A spherocyte is not a biconcave disc because it lacks the typical concave shape of a red blood cell. Instead, it appears more spherical or round in shape. This abnormal shape can be caused by various factors such as a genetic disorder or an immune response. Spherocytes are often associated with conditions like hereditary spherocytosis or autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

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  • 35. 

    Cells with oval or slit-like central pallor are called:

    • A.

      Spherocytes

    • B.

      Stomatocytes

    • C.

      Drapanocytes

    • D.

      Schistocyte

    Correct Answer
    B. Stomatocytes
    Explanation
    Stomatocytes are cells with an oval or slit-like central pallor. This central pallor gives the cell a mouth-like appearance, hence the name "stomatocyte" which means "mouth cell". Stomatocytes can be seen in certain conditions such as hereditary stomatocytosis or after exposure to certain drugs or toxins. These cells have an altered shape and can affect the cell's ability to carry out its normal functions.

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  • 36. 

    Fragments of red blood cells are called:

    • A.

      Burr

    • B.

      Acanthocytes

    • C.

      Sickle

    • D.

      Schistocytes

    Correct Answer
    D. Schistocytes
    Explanation
    Schistocytes are fragments of red blood cells that are formed when the cells are damaged or destroyed. They often have an irregular shape and can be seen in conditions such as disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolytic anemia, or mechanical heart valve damage. The presence of schistocytes in the blood can indicate a problem with the body's ability to maintain healthy red blood cells, leading to potential complications such as anemia or clotting disorders.

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  • 37. 

    The predominant cell observed in Hemoglobin C disease is:

    • A.

      Sickle

    • B.

      Target

    • C.

      Schistocyte

    • D.

      Burr

    Correct Answer
    B. Target
    Explanation
    In Hemoglobin C disease, the predominant cell observed is the target cell. Target cells have a central round area of hemoglobin surrounded by a clear ring, giving them a target-like appearance. This is due to the abnormal shape and function of hemoglobin in this disease. Target cells are commonly seen in conditions such as liver disease, thalassemia, and hemoglobinopathies.

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  • 38. 

    Round, purple staining nuclear fragments in the red cell are called:

    • A.

      Basophilic stippling

    • B.

      Auer rods

    • C.

      Howell-jolly bodies

    • D.

      Papenheimer bodies

    Correct Answer
    C. Howell-jolly bodies
    Explanation
    Howell-Jolly bodies are round, purple staining nuclear fragments that can be seen in red blood cells. They are remnants of the nucleus that should have been removed during the maturation process of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Their presence in circulating red blood cells can indicate various conditions such as asplenia, splenectomy, or other disorders affecting the bone marrow.

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  • 39. 

    Red cells which exhibit punctuate iron are called:

    • A.

      Howell-jolly bodies

    • B.

      Pappenheimer bodies

    • C.

      Basophilic stippling

    • D.

      Siderocyte

    Correct Answer
    D. Siderocyte
    Explanation
    A siderocyte is a red blood cell that contains iron granules. These iron granules appear as punctuate or dot-like structures within the red blood cell. The other options mentioned in the question, such as howell-jolly bodies, pappenheimer bodies, and basophilic stippling, refer to different types of abnormalities or inclusions in red blood cells, but they do not specifically involve iron granules. Therefore, the correct answer is siderocyte.

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  • 40. 

    In a Wright's stain, essentially mature red cells with RNA are called:

    • A.

      Polychromatophilic

    • B.

      Hypochromic

    • C.

      Reticulocytes

    • D.

      Nucleated red blood cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Polychromatophilic
    Explanation
    Polychromatophilic cells are essentially mature red cells that still contain RNA. These cells have a bluish tint when stained with Wright's stain due to the presence of both hemoglobin and RNA. Hypochromic cells, on the other hand, have a decreased amount of hemoglobin and appear pale in color. Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells that still contain remnants of RNA and appear blue when stained. Nucleated red blood cells are immature cells that still have a nucleus and are not normally present in the peripheral blood of healthy individuals.

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  • 41. 

    Formation of granulocytic cells takes place in the:

    • A.

      Liver

    • B.

      Spleen

    • C.

      Thymus

    • D.

      Bone marrow

    Correct Answer
    D. Bone marrow
    Explanation
    Granulocytic cells, also known as granulocytes, are a type of white blood cell that are responsible for fighting off infections. The formation of these cells occurs in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is a soft, spongy tissue found inside the bones, where blood cells are produced. It contains stem cells that can differentiate into different types of blood cells, including granulocytes. Therefore, the correct answer is bone marrow.

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  • 42. 

    The first cell affected by an increase in % in a "shift to the left" is:

    • A.

      Band neutrophil

    • B.

      Metamyelocyte

    • C.

      Myelocyte

    • D.

      Promyelocyte

    Correct Answer
    A. Band neutrophil
    Explanation
    When there is a "shift to the left" in the context of cell differentiation, it means that there is an increase in the number of immature cells in the blood. In this case, the correct answer is "band neutrophil" because it is the earliest stage of neutrophil development. An increase in the percentage of band neutrophils indicates that there is an increased production of immature neutrophils, which can be a sign of infection or inflammation. The other cell types listed (metamyelocyte, myelocyte, promyelocyte) are more mature stages of neutrophil development and would not be the first cells affected in a "shift to the left".

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  • 43. 

    Mast cells found in the tissues resemble:

    • A.

      Eosinophils

    • B.

      Basophils

    • C.

      Neutrophils

    • D.

      Monocytes

    Correct Answer
    B. Basophils
    Explanation
    Mast cells found in the tissues resemble basophils because both cell types are involved in allergic reactions and release histamine. They have similar granules in their cytoplasm and play a role in the immune response.

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  • 44. 

    The immediate precursor of the metamyelocyte is a:

    • A.

      Band neutrophil

    • B.

      Neutrophil

    • C.

      Myelocyte

    • D.

      Promyelocyte

    Correct Answer
    C. Myelocyte
    Explanation
    The immediate precursor of the metamyelocyte is a myelocyte. This is because myelocytes are the stage of development that comes before the metamyelocyte in the maturation process of neutrophils. The myelocyte is characterized by having a round nucleus and a more condensed chromatin compared to earlier stages. As the neutrophil matures further, it progresses from the myelocyte stage to the metamyelocyte stage, where the nucleus becomes indented or kidney-shaped. Therefore, the myelocyte is the correct answer as it is the direct precursor of the metamyelocyte.

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  • 45. 

    The most mature white cell to undergo mitosis is:

    • A.

      Promyelocyte

    • B.

      Myelocyte

    • C.

      Metamyelocyte

    • D.

      Band neutrophil

    Correct Answer
    B. Myelocyte
    Explanation
    A myelocyte is the most mature white blood cell that undergoes mitosis. It is formed from a promyelocyte, which is an immature cell. As the cell matures, it goes through several stages, including myelocyte, metamyelocyte, and band neutrophil. Among these stages, the myelocyte is the most mature and is capable of undergoing mitosis.

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  • 46. 

    The white cell that contains digestive enzymes most effective at destroying bacteria is the:

    • A.

      Neutrophil

    • B.

      Lymphocyte

    • C.

      Eosinophil

    • D.

      Monocyte

    Correct Answer
    A. Neutrophil
    Explanation
    Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that are highly effective at destroying bacteria. They contain digestive enzymes, such as lysozyme and proteases, which can break down the bacterial cell wall and proteins, leading to the destruction of bacteria. Neutrophils are the first responders to infection and play a crucial role in the immune response against bacterial pathogens. They are able to migrate to the site of infection, engulf bacteria through a process called phagocytosis, and release their enzymes to destroy the bacteria.

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  • 47. 

    Which cell is not easily distinguishable from a lymphoblast?

    • A.

      Mature lymphocyte

    • B.

      Monocyte

    • C.

      Myelocyte

    • D.

      Myeloblast

    Correct Answer
    D. Myeloblast
    Explanation
    A myeloblast is a type of precursor cell in the bone marrow that gives rise to granulocytes, which are a type of white blood cell. It closely resembles a lymphoblast, which is a precursor cell of lymphocytes. Both cells are immature and have similar characteristics, making them difficult to distinguish from each other. However, a mature lymphocyte is a fully developed white blood cell that has undergone maturation and differentiation, making it easily distinguishable from a lymphoblast. Similarly, a monocyte is a type of white blood cell that has a distinct appearance and function, further differentiating it from a lymphoblast.

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  • 48. 

    A white cell with non-specific granules is a

    • A.

      Lymphocyte

    • B.

      Metamyelocyte

    • C.

      Band neutrophil

    • D.

      Myeloblast

    Correct Answer
    A. Lymphocyte
    Explanation
    A white cell with non-specific granules is a lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that play a crucial role in the immune system. They are responsible for recognizing and attacking foreign substances in the body, such as bacteria or viruses. Unlike other white blood cells, lymphocytes do not contain specific granules that are involved in the digestion of pathogens. Instead, they rely on their ability to produce antibodies and coordinate immune responses to protect the body against infections and diseases.

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  • 49. 

    A white cell with lysosomes containing histamine, peroxidase, and acid hydrolases is a/an:

    • A.

      Neutrophil

    • B.

      Eosinophil

    • C.

      Basophil

    • D.

      Monocyte

    Correct Answer
    B. Eosinophil
    Explanation
    An eosinophil is a type of white blood cell that contains lysosomes with histamine, peroxidase, and acid hydrolases. These components play a role in the immune response, particularly in allergic reactions and defense against parasitic infections. Eosinophils are characterized by their bilobed nucleus and cytoplasmic granules that stain red-orange with eosin dye. They are typically involved in the regulation of inflammation and the destruction of foreign substances in the body.

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  • 50. 

    White cells woods granules contain heparin, histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine are a/an:

    • A.

      Neutrophil

    • B.

      Eosinophil

    • C.

      Basophil

    • D.

      Band neutrophil

    Correct Answer
    C. Basophil
    Explanation
    Basophils are a type of white blood cell that contain heparin, histamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (also known as serotonin). These granules are released by basophils during an immune response and play a role in inflammation and allergic reactions. Neutrophils, eosinophils, and band neutrophils are other types of white blood cells, but they do not contain these specific granules. Therefore, the correct answer is basophil.

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