Pathology I Final Exam

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Pathology I Final Exam - Quiz

Practice quiz for the final


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Metaplasia is an irreversible process

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Metaplasia is a reversible process in which one type of mature cell is replaced by another type of mature cell. It occurs in response to chronic irritation or inflammation and is a protective mechanism. The cells undergo a change in their structure and function to better withstand the stressful environment. If the stimulus is removed, the cells can revert back to their original type. Therefore, metaplasia is not an irreversible process.

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  • 2. 

    Cellular Hypertrophy is an increase in cell number

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Cellular hypertrophy is actually an increase in cell size, not an increase in cell number. This process occurs when cells adapt to increased demand or stress by enlarging their size. This allows them to perform their functions more efficiently. In contrast, an increase in cell number is known as cellular hyperplasia.

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  • 3. 

    Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death associated with cellmembrane rupture and inflammation

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death, but it is not associated with cell membrane rupture and inflammation. Instead, apoptosis is a controlled and orderly process where cells shrink, condense their DNA, and break into small membrane-bound fragments that are then engulfed by other cells. This process helps to maintain tissue homeostasis and eliminate unwanted or damaged cells without causing inflammation. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 4. 

    Gangrene is a term applied to large area of necrotic tissue

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Gangrene is a medical condition characterized by the death and decay of body tissue, usually as a result of infection or lack of blood supply. It can affect a large area of tissue, leading to its necrosis. Therefore, the statement that gangrene is a term applied to a large area of necrotic tissue is true.

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  • 5. 

    Some resident microoganisms help prevent infection

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Resident microorganisms refer to the normal flora or bacteria that naturally inhabit the human body, such as those found in the gut, skin, and respiratory tract. These microorganisms play a crucial role in preventing infection by competing with harmful pathogens for resources and space, producing antimicrobial substances, and stimulating the immune system. Therefore, it is true that some resident microorganisms help prevent infection.

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  • 6. 

    Opportunistic infection are more likely to occur in immune-compromised hosts

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Opportunistic infections are more likely to occur in immune-compromised hosts because their weakened immune system is unable to effectively fight off pathogens. In a healthy individual, the immune system can recognize and eliminate potential threats, but in immune-compromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS or undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, the immune response is impaired. This allows opportunistic pathogens, which are normally harmless or kept in check by a healthy immune system, to take advantage of the weakened defenses and cause infection. Therefore, it is true that opportunistic infections are more likely to occur in immune-compromised hosts.

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  • 7. 

    Opportunistic infections occur when:

    • A.

      Pathogen infect the host

    • B.

      Resident flora cause infectious disease

    • C.

      Bacteria are spread by poor hand washing

    • D.

      Transient bacteria spread among hopitalized patients

    Correct Answer
    B. Resident flora cause infectious disease
    Explanation
    Resident flora cause infectious disease because resident flora refers to the microorganisms that are normally present on or in our bodies without causing harm. However, under certain circumstances such as a weakened immune system or disruption of the normal balance of flora, these microorganisms can become opportunistic pathogens and cause infections. This can happen when the normal flora overgrows or invades tissues that it usually does not affect, leading to infectious diseases.

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  • 8. 

    Hydropic swelling results from

    • A.

      Membrane rupture

    • B.

      ATP accumulation

    • C.

      Oncogene activation

    • D.

      Na+/K+ pump dysfunction

    Correct Answer
    D. Na+/K+ pump dysfunction
    Explanation
    Hydropic swelling occurs due to Na+/K+ pump dysfunction. The Na+/K+ pump is responsible for maintaining the balance of sodium and potassium ions inside and outside the cell. When this pump is dysfunctional, it leads to an imbalance of these ions, causing an increase in intracellular sodium and a decrease in intracellular potassium. This disrupts the osmotic balance, leading to an influx of water into the cell and subsequent swelling.

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  • 9. 

    An increase in cardiac size and function due to increased workload is termed

    • A.

      Atrophy

    • B.

      Hypertrophy

    • C.

      Hyperplasia

    • D.

      Necrosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypertrophy
    Explanation
    Hypertrophy refers to an increase in the size and function of the heart muscle due to increased workload. This can occur in response to conditions such as high blood pressure or heart valve disease, where the heart has to pump harder to meet the body's demands. The increased workload causes the heart muscle cells to grow in size, allowing the heart to pump more blood with each contraction. This adaptive response helps to maintain cardiac function and meet the body's needs. Atrophy refers to a decrease in size and function, hyperplasia refers to an increase in the number of cells, and necrosis refers to cell death, none of which accurately describe the increase in cardiac size and function due to increased workload.

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  • 10. 

    Coagulative necrosis:

    • A.

      Resemble crumbly cheese

    • B.

      Can result from interrupted blood supply

    • C.

      Is reversible if promptly and aggressively managed

    • D.

      Remains functional for 5-7 days

    Correct Answer
    B. Can result from interrupted blood supply
    Explanation
    Coagulative necrosis is a type of cell death that occurs when there is interrupted blood supply to a tissue. This interruption leads to the denaturation of proteins, resulting in the tissue appearing firm and crumbly, resembling cheese. Unlike other forms of necrosis, coagulative necrosis is reversible if promptly and aggressively managed, as the tissue can regain its function within 5-7 days.

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  • 11. 

    Apoptosis is a process that results in:

    • A.

      Cellular atrophy

    • B.

      Cellular death

    • C.

      Cellular proliferation

    • D.

      Cellular mutation

    Correct Answer
    B. Cellular death
    Explanation
    Apoptosis is a process that leads to cellular death. It is a programmed cell death mechanism that occurs naturally in multicellular organisms. During apoptosis, cells undergo a series of controlled events that ultimately lead to their own death. This process is crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, removing damaged or unnecessary cells, and regulating cell populations. Apoptosis is characterized by specific morphological changes in the cell, such as cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Therefore, the correct answer is cellular death.

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  • 12. 

    Necrotic death of brain tissue usually produces what type of necrosis?

    • A.

      Coagulative

    • B.

      Caseous

    • C.

      Liquefactive

    • D.

      Fat

    Correct Answer
    C. Liquefactive
    Explanation
    Necrotic death of brain tissue usually produces liquefactive necrosis. Liquefactive necrosis is characterized by the rapid dissolution of dead tissue, resulting in the formation of a liquid-filled space. In the brain, this type of necrosis occurs due to the high content of hydrolytic enzymes in the tissue, which leads to the liquefaction of the affected area. Coagulative necrosis involves the denaturation of proteins, while caseous necrosis is characterized by a cheesy, granular appearance. Fat necrosis occurs specifically in adipose tissue.

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  • 13. 

    Glandular tissue normally responds to increased functional demand by:

    • A.

      Hypertrophy

    • B.

      Hyperplasia

    • C.

      Metaplasia

    • D.

      Neoplasia

    Correct Answer
    B. Hyperplasia
    Explanation
    Glandular tissue normally responds to increased functional demand by hyperplasia, which is the increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue. This allows the glandular tissue to produce and secrete more of its specific product to meet the increased demand. Hypertrophy refers to the increase in the size of cells, not the number, and is not typically seen in glandular tissue. Metaplasia refers to the transformation of one type of tissue into another, which is not a normal response to increased functional demand. Neoplasia refers to the abnormal growth of cells, often leading to the formation of a tumor, and is not a normal response either.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following cellular responses is indicative of injury due to faulty metabolism?

    • A.

      Hydropic swelling

    • B.

      Lactate production

    • C.

      Metaplasia

    • D.

      Intracellular accumulations

    Correct Answer
    D. Intracellular accumulations
    Explanation
    Intracellular accumulations are indicative of injury due to faulty metabolism. This occurs when there is an abnormal buildup of substances within cells, such as lipids, proteins, or glycogen. These accumulations can disrupt normal cellular function and lead to cell injury or death. Hydropic swelling, lactate production, and metaplasia are not specifically associated with faulty metabolism and may be indicative of other cellular responses or conditions.

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  • 15. 

    A high serum lactate level (lactic acidosis) usually indicates the presence of :

    • A.

      Liver failure

    • B.

      Hypoglycemia

    • C.

      Immunologic injury

    • D.

      Cellular hypoxia

    Correct Answer
    D. Cellular hypoxia
    Explanation
    A high serum lactate level (lactic acidosis) usually indicates the presence of cellular hypoxia. Lactic acid is produced as a byproduct when the cells do not receive enough oxygen to produce energy through aerobic respiration. This can occur in conditions such as inadequate blood flow, low oxygen levels, or impaired oxygen utilization by the cells. Lactic acidosis is commonly seen in conditions like sepsis, shock, heart failure, or respiratory failure where there is insufficient oxygen supply to the tissues.

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  • 16. 

    Metaplasia is:

    • A.

      The replacement of one differentiated cell type with another

    • B.

      The transformation of a cell type to malignancy

    • C.

      An irreversible cellular adaptation

    • D.

      The disorganization of cells inot various sizes, shape and arrangement

    Correct Answer
    A. The replacement of one differentiated cell type with another
    Explanation
    Metaplasia refers to the process in which one type of differentiated cell is replaced by another type of differentiated cell. This can occur in response to chronic irritation or inflammation, and is a reversible cellular adaptation. It is not the transformation of a cell type to malignancy, nor does it involve the disorganization of cells into various sizes, shapes, and arrangements.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following cellular changes is considered to be pre-cancerous

    • A.

      Anaplasis

    • B.

      Dysplasia

    • C.

      Metaplasia

    • D.

      Hyperplasia

    Correct Answer
    B. Dysplasia
    Explanation
    Dysplasia is considered to be a pre-cancerous cellular change. Dysplasia refers to the abnormal growth and development of cells, where they become disorganized and lose their normal structure and function. This condition can progress to cancer if left untreated. Anaplasis, Metaplasia, and Hyperplasia are cellular changes that may or may not be associated with an increased risk of cancer, but Dysplasia specifically indicates a higher likelihood of developing cancer.

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  • 18. 

    Ischemic death of tissue in viseral organs, such as the heart, typically produces:

    • A.

      Coagulative necrosis

    • B.

      Liquefactive necrosis

    • C.

      Caseous necrosis

    • D.

      Fat necrosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Coagulative necrosis
    Explanation
    When tissue in visceral organs, such as the heart, experiences ischemic death, it typically results in coagulative necrosis. Coagulative necrosis is characterized by the preservation of tissue architecture, with the affected area appearing pale and firm. This type of necrosis occurs due to the denaturation of proteins, leading to the formation of a firm, coagulated mass.

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  • 19. 

    All of the following are potentially reversivble cellular responses except:

    • A.

      Necrosis

    • B.

      Metaplasia

    • C.

      Atrophy

    • D.

      Hyperplasia

    Correct Answer
    A. Necrosis
    Explanation
    Necrosis is not a potentially reversible cellular response because it involves the death of cells due to injury or disease. Unlike the other options listed, which are adaptive responses aimed at maintaining or restoring cellular function, necrosis is an irreversible process that leads to cell death and tissue damage.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is not a reversible cellulalr adaptation?

    • A.

      Atrophy

    • B.

      Hypertrophy

    • C.

      Hyperplasia

    • D.

      Necrosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Necrosis
    Explanation
    Necrosis is not a reversible cellular adaptation because it involves cell death and irreversible damage to the affected tissue. Atrophy, hypertrophy, and hyperplasia are all reversible adaptations that occur in response to changes in cellular environment or functional demands. Atrophy refers to the shrinkage of cells or tissue due to decreased workload or nutrition, hypertrophy is the enlargement of cells or tissue in response to increased workload, and hyperplasia is the increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ.

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