A. between the double layers of the dura mater
B. in the subdural space
C. in the subarachnoid space
D. through the arachnoid villi
A. left hemisphere
B. right hemisphere
A. loss of hearing in both ears
B. inability to understand what is heard
C. loss of hearing in the left ear
D. inability to determine the source of the sound
A. It is an ascending tract.
B. The nerve fibers conduct sensory impulses.
C. It is an extrapyramidal tract.
D. It is a pyramidal tract for efferent impulses.
A. overall control of fluid balance
B. required for logical thinking, reason, and decision making
C. determines emotional responses
D. responsible for artistic and musical talents
A. bronchiolar walls
B. arteriolar walls
C. cardiac muscle
D. glands of the intestinal tract
A. depression of the RAS and inability to initiate action
B. loss of awareness and intellectual function but continued brainstem function
C. continuing intellectual function but inability to communicate or move
D. disorientation and confusion with decreased responsiveness
A. no activity on EEG
B. absence of all reflexes
C. no spontaneous respirations
D. presence of any head injury
A. the inability to comprehend or express language appropriately
B. difficulty swallowing
C. loss of the visual field contralateral to the area of damage
D. the inability to articulate words clearly
B. bilateral fixed dilated pupils
C. decreasing responsiveness
D. rapid heart rate
A. chemoreceptors responding to changes in the blood
B. pressure extending to spinal nerves
C. pressure on the emetic center in the medulla
D. stimuli to the hypothalamic center for hunger and thirst
A. increasing diastolic pressure
B. decreasing systolic pressure
C. systolic and diastolic pressures decreasing proportionately
D. increasing pulse pressure
A. causes ischemic pain in the brain
B. stretches the meninges and blood vessel walls
C. erodes the skull
D. compresses sensory fibers in cranial nerves
A. increased pressure of CSF at the optic disc
B. increased intraocular pressure
C. pressure on the oculomotor nerve
D. pressure on the optic chiasm
A. increased heart rate and systemic vasodilation
B. low blood pressure and irregular heart and respiratory rates
C. systemic vasoconstriction and slower heart rate
D. immediate depression of the cardiac control centers
A. optic nerve
B. PNS fibers in cranial nerve III
C. SNS nerve to the eye
D. occipital lobe
A. cloudy and pale yellow color
B. presence of erythrocytes
C. presence of numerous leukocytes
D. clear and colorless fluid
A. Most brain tumors arise from malignant neurons.
B. Primary brain tumors rarely metastasize outside the CNS.
C. The blood-brain barrier prevents secondary brain tumors.
D. Brainstem tumors do not manifest signs until they are quite large.
A. numbness in the right leg
B. weakness in the right side of the face
C. paralysis in the left leg
D. dizziness and loss of balance
A. Surrounding inflammation stimulates neurons to discharge spontaneously.
B. Malignant tumors cause alkalosis, exciting the CNS.
C. Systemic effects of the brain tumor may cause seizures.
D. Metabolic effects of cancer change blood chemistry to trigger seizures.
A. They usually cause necrosis and permanent brain damage.
B. Rupture of an aneurysm or damaged artery may cause a TIA.
C. They usually indicate systemic hypertension.
D. They often warn of potential cerebrovascular accidents.
A. right ventricle of the heart
B. femoral vein
C. common carotid artery
D. pulmonary artery
A. rupture of a cerebral artery
B. an embolus
C. development of an atheroma
D. vasospasm in the cerebral circulation
A. the common cause is an atheroma with thrombus
B. maximum necrosis and infarction develop within several hours of onset
C. warning signs may appear with partial obstruction of the artery
D. increasing neurologic deficits usually develop during the first few days
A. some visual loss
B. sensory deficit involving the upper body
D. contralateral weakness in the leg, impaired spatial relationships