A.P. Biology Chapter 4 (Carbon Chemistry)

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A.P. Biology Chapter 4 (Carbon Chemistry) - Quiz

This quiz is to test your knowledge on Chapter 4 of A. P. Biology. Chapter 4 will be included on Test #1, which will include Chapters 1-4. As such, you should also take the quizzes on Chapters 1-3 if you are studying for the test. Type your name in the box and click the green button to start.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What does it mean if a substance is organic?

    • A.

      The substance contains oxygen

    • B.

      The substance contains carbon

    • C.

      The substance is dead

    • D.

      The substance is living

    Correct Answer
    B. The substance contains carbon
    Explanation
    If a substance is organic, it means that the substance contains carbon. Carbon is the defining element of organic compounds, and the presence of carbon is what distinguishes organic substances from inorganic substances. Organic substances can be found in living organisms, such as plants and animals, as well as in non-living things like fossil fuels. Therefore, the correct answer is that the substance contains carbon.

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  • 2. 

    What is an isomer?

    • A.

      Carbon molecule with same number of atoms, but different arrangement

    • B.

      Carbon molecule with different number of atoms, but same arrangement

    • C.

      Oxygen molecule with same number of atoms, but different arrangement

    • D.

      Oxygen molecule with different number of atoms, but same arrangement

    Correct Answer
    A. Carbon molecule with same number of atoms, but different arrangement
    Explanation
    An isomer refers to a carbon molecule that has the same number of atoms as another molecule but a different arrangement. This means that the atoms are bonded together in a different way, resulting in a different chemical structure and potentially different properties. Isomers are important in organic chemistry as they can have different reactivity and biological activity despite having the same molecular formula.

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  • 3. 

    What is a structural isomer?

    • A.

      A single bonded isomer

    • B.

      A double bonded isomer

    • C.

      A mirror image

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. A single bonded isomer
    Explanation
    A structural isomer is a type of isomer where the atoms are connected in a different order. In this case, a single bonded isomer refers to a structural isomer where the atoms are connected by single bonds, as opposed to double bonds or any other type of bonding. Therefore, a single bonded isomer is a correct explanation for what a structural isomer is.

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  • 4. 

    What is a geometric isomer?

    • A.

      A single bonded isomer

    • B.

      A double bonded isomer

    • C.

      A mirror image

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. A double bonded isomer
    Explanation
    A geometric isomer refers to a type of isomerism where the atoms are arranged differently around a double bond. In this case, the correct answer is "A double bonded isomer" because geometric isomers are specifically related to compounds that have double bonds. This type of isomerism occurs when there is restricted rotation around the double bond, resulting in different spatial arrangements of the atoms.

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  • 5. 

    What is the difference between the cisform and transform of a geometric isomer?

    • A.

      In the cisform, atoms of the same elements are diagonal to each other, while in the transform, they are next to each other.

    • B.

      In the cisform, atoms of the same elements are next to each other, while in the transform, they are diagonal to each other.

    • C.

      None of the above

    • D.

      Both A and B

    Correct Answer
    B. In the cisform, atoms of the same elements are next to each other, while in the transform, they are diagonal to each other.
  • 6. 

    What is an enantiomer?

    • A.

      A single bonded isomer

    • B.

      A double bonded isomer

    • C.

      A mirror image

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. A mirror image
    Explanation
    An enantiomer is a molecule that is a mirror image of another molecule. It has the same chemical formula and connectivity of atoms, but the arrangement of atoms in space is different. This results in enantiomers having different physical properties, such as the ability to rotate plane-polarized light. Therefore, the correct answer is "A mirror image."

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  • 7. 

    What must you have in order to form an enantiomer?

    • A.

      A symmetric carbon (4 same things attached)

    • B.

      A symmetric carbon (4 different things attached)

    • C.

      An asymmetric carbon (4 same things attached)

    • D.

      An asymmetric carbon (4 different things attached)

    Correct Answer
    D. An asymmetric carbon (4 different things attached)
    Explanation
    To form an enantiomer, which is a stereoisomer that is a mirror image of the original molecule, you must have an asymmetric carbon with four different things attached. An asymmetric carbon, also known as a chiral carbon, is a carbon atom that is bonded to four unique substituents or groups. This arrangement creates non-superimposable mirror images, resulting in the formation of enantiomers. Having four different things attached to the asymmetric carbon ensures that the resulting molecules are mirror images of each other.

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  • 8. 

    What are the two types of isomers?

    • A.

      L and D

    • B.

      S and R

    • C.

      Left and Right

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above". Isomers are molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural arrangements. In this case, the question is asking about the types of isomers. L and D isomers refer to the different spatial arrangements of chiral molecules. S and R isomers refer to the different spatial arrangements of stereoisomers. Left and Right isomers can also be used to describe the spatial arrangements of molecules. Therefore, all three options mentioned in the question are types of isomers.

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  • 9. 

    In what case is the usage of enantiomers useful?

    • A.

      Pesticides

    • B.

      Plant Fertilizer

    • C.

      Prescription drugs

    • D.

      When you can't think of what to put as a choice for letter D

    Correct Answer
    C. Prescription drugs
    Explanation
    Enantiomers are useful in the case of prescription drugs. Enantiomers are mirror images of each other and have the same chemical formula but differ in the spatial arrangement of their atoms. This difference in arrangement can result in different pharmacological effects in the human body. By using enantiomers, pharmaceutical companies can develop drugs that target specific receptors or enzymes, leading to improved efficacy and reduced side effects. Therefore, the usage of enantiomers is particularly important in the development of prescription drugs to ensure optimal therapeutic outcomes.

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  • 10. 

    Name all 7 functional groups

    • A.

      Hydrogen, Carbon, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfer, Phosphorus, Methyl

    • B.

      Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydral, Phosphate, Methyl

    • C.

      Hydroxity, Carbonix, Carbonitrogen, Amino Acid, Sulfhydral, Phosphate, Methane

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydral, Phosphate, Methyl
    Explanation
    The answer is Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydral, Phosphate, Methyl. These are the seven functional groups commonly found in organic molecules. The hydroxyl group consists of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom, the carbonyl group consists of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom, the carboxyl group consists of a carbonyl group bonded to a hydroxyl group, the amino group consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms, the sulfhydryl group consists of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom, the phosphate group consists of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms, and the methyl group consists of a carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms.

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  • 11. 

    In a hydroxyl, what happens if you attach an OH?

    • A.

      It turns the substance into an a protein

    • B.

      It turns the substance into a metal

    • C.

      It turns the substance into a gel

    • D.

      It turns the substance into an alcohol

    Correct Answer
    D. It turns the substance into an alcohol
    Explanation
    When you attach an OH group to a molecule, it forms a hydroxyl group. This hydroxyl group is a characteristic functional group of alcohols. Therefore, attaching an OH group to a substance converts it into an alcohol.

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  • 12. 

    What is one quality of alcohol / hydroxyls?

    • A.

      Non-polar and dissolves in water

    • B.

      Polar and dissolves in water

    • C.

      Non-polar and expands in water

    • D.

      Polar and expands in water

    Correct Answer
    B. Polar and dissolves in water
    Explanation
    Alcohol/hydroxyls are polar molecules due to the presence of the hydroxyl group (-OH). Polar molecules have an uneven distribution of charge, with a positive and a negative end. This polarity allows alcohol/hydroxyls to form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, making them soluble in water. Hence, the correct answer is "Polar and dissolves in water."

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  • 13. 

    How is a carbonyl defined?

    • A.

      A carbon with a double bonded oxygen

    • B.

      A carbon with a single bonded oxygen

    • C.

      A carbon with a double bonded nitrogen

    • D.

      A carbon with a single bonded nitrogen

    Correct Answer
    A. A carbon with a double bonded oxygen
    Explanation
    A carbonyl is defined as a carbon atom that is double bonded to an oxygen atom. This double bond creates a highly polarized bond, making the carbon atom partially positive and the oxygen atom partially negative. This type of functional group is commonly found in aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters. It is important in various organic reactions and plays a significant role in the reactivity and properties of these compounds.

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  • 14. 

    What is a keytone?

    • A.

      A type of carbonyl in which the doubled bonded oxygen is at the end

    • B.

      A type of carbonyl in which the doubled bonded oxygen is in the middle

    • C.

      A type of carboxyl in which the doubled bonded oxygen is at the end

    • D.

      A type of carboxyl in which the double bonded oxygen is in the middle

    Correct Answer
    B. A type of carbonyl in which the doubled bonded oxygen is in the middle
    Explanation
    A ketone is a type of carbonyl compound in which the double bonded oxygen is located in the middle of the carbon chain. In a ketone, the carbon atom adjacent to the carbonyl group is bonded to two other carbon atoms. This distinguishes ketones from aldehydes, where the carbonyl group is located at the end of the carbon chain. Ketones are important functional groups in organic chemistry and have various applications in industry and biological systems.

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  • 15. 

    What is an example of an alcohol?

    • A.

      Ethanol

    • B.

      Acetone

    • C.

      Fermaldehyde

    • D.

      DNA

    Correct Answer
    A. Ethanol
    Explanation
    Ethanol is an example of an alcohol because it is a type of organic compound that contains a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group attached to a carbon atom. It is commonly found in alcoholic beverages and is produced through the fermentation of sugars by yeast. Ethanol is a volatile and flammable liquid that is used as a solvent, fuel, and in the production of various products such as hand sanitizers and disinfectants. Acetone and formaldehyde are not alcohols, while DNA is a nucleic acid and not an alcohol.

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  • 16. 

    What is an example of a keytone?

    • A.

      Ethanol

    • B.

      Acetone

    • C.

      Fermaldehyde

    • D.

      DNA

    Correct Answer
    B. Acetone
    Explanation
    Acetone is an example of a keytone because it is a simple organic compound that contains a carbonyl group (C=O) bonded to two other carbon atoms. Keytones are characterized by this carbonyl group, which is located in the middle of the carbon chain. Acetone specifically has a carbonyl group attached to two methyl groups (CH3), making it a keytone. It is commonly used as a solvent and is found in many household products such as nail polish remover.

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  • 17. 

    What is an example of an aldehyde?

    • A.

      Ethanol

    • B.

      Acetone

    • C.

      Fermaldehyde

    • D.

      DNA

    Correct Answer
    C. Fermaldehyde
    Explanation
    Formaldehyde is an example of an aldehyde. Aldehydes are a class of organic compounds that contain a carbonyl group bonded to at least one hydrogen atom. Formaldehyde has the chemical formula CH2O and is the simplest aldehyde. It is a colorless gas with a pungent odor and is commonly used in various industries, such as in the production of resins, plastics, and textiles.

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  • 18. 

    What is an acetone?

    • A.

      A type of carbonyl in which a bonded oxygen is at the end

    • B.

      A type of carbonyl in which the triple bonded oxygen is in the middle

    • C.

      A type of carboxyl in which the doubled bonded oxygen is at the end

    • D.

      A type of carboxyl in which the double bonded oxygen is in the middle

    Correct Answer
    D. A type of carboxyl in which the double bonded oxygen is in the middle
    Explanation
    An acetone is a type of carbonyl in which the doubled bonded oxygen is in the middle. Acetone is a common organic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2CO. It is a ketone, and in its molecular structure, the carbonyl group (C=O) is located in the middle of the molecule between two carbon atoms. Acetone is a colorless liquid that is commonly used as a solvent and is also produced in small amounts in the human body as a byproduct of metabolism.

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  • 19. 

    What is a carboxyl?

    • A.

      A type of keytone

    • B.

      The combination of a hydroxyl and a carbonyl

    • C.

      A doubled bonded oxygen as well as a single bonded hydroxide

    • D.

      Both B and C

    Correct Answer
    D. Both B and C
    Explanation
    A carboxyl is a functional group that consists of a hydroxyl (-OH) and a carbonyl (C=O) group. This combination is found in carboxylic acids and is responsible for their acidic properties. In addition, a carboxyl group can also be represented as a double bonded oxygen (C=O) and a single bonded hydroxide (-OH). Therefore, the correct answer is both B and C.

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  • 20. 

    What happens with OH leaves a carboxyl?

    • A.

      It forms carboxylic acid, a weak organic acid

    • B.

      It forms carboxylic acid, a strong organic acid

    • C.

      It creates water

    • D.

      It separates the molecule

    Correct Answer
    A. It forms carboxylic acid, a weak organic acid
    Explanation
    When OH leaves a carboxyl, it forms carboxylic acid, a weak organic acid. This is because carboxylic acids are formed when a hydroxyl group (OH) is removed from a carboxyl group (COOH). Carboxylic acids are generally weak acids as they do not completely dissociate in water, meaning they only partially ionize and release hydrogen ions. This is in contrast to strong organic acids which completely dissociate and release all of their hydrogen ions in water.

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  • 21. 

    Generally, around what pH are most organic acids?

    • A.

      0 (Very Strong acid)

    • B.

      2 (Somewhat Strong acid)

    • C.

      4 (Moderate acid)

    • D.

      6 (Weak acid)

    Correct Answer
    D. 6 (Weak acid)
    Explanation
    Most organic acids are weak acids, meaning they do not completely dissociate in water and only partially release hydrogen ions. This results in a pH value greater than 7, indicating a weakly acidic solution. Therefore, most organic acids would have a pH around 6, making option 6 the correct answer.

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  • 22. 

    What is the amino group?

    • A.

      NH

    • B.

      NH2

    • C.

      H20

    • D.

      H202

    Correct Answer
    B. NH2
    Explanation
    The amino group is represented by NH2. It is a functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms. This group is commonly found in amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, and plays a crucial role in their structure and function. The amino group is also involved in the formation of peptide bonds, which link amino acids together to form proteins.

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  • 23. 

    What happens if you ad an H+ to the amino group?

    • A.

      It acts as a hose

    • B.

      It acts as a guide

    • C.

      It absorbs the other H atoms

    • D.

      Nothing

    Correct Answer
    A. It acts as a hose
    Explanation
    Adding an H+ to the amino group can cause it to act as a hose. This means that it can facilitate the transfer of protons or hydrogen ions between molecules or within a molecule. The addition of the H+ can change the charge of the amino group, making it more acidic and increasing its ability to donate protons. This can be important in various biological processes, such as enzyme catalysis and protein folding.

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  • 24. 

    What makes an amino acid?

    • A.

      Amino + Hydrochloric Acid

    • B.

      Amino + Sulfuric Acid

    • C.

      Amino + Phosphoric Acid

    • D.

      Amino + Carboxylic Acid

    Correct Answer
    D. Amino + Carboxylic Acid
    Explanation
    An amino acid is made up of two functional groups: an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxylic acid group (-COOH). These two groups combine to form an amino acid molecule. The amino group provides the basic properties, while the carboxylic acid group provides the acidic properties of the amino acid. Therefore, the correct answer is "Amino + Carboxylic Acid".

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  • 25. 

    What is the sulfhydral group?

    • A.

      SH

    • B.

      SO

    • C.

      SN

    • D.

      This is the correct answer...maybe.

    Correct Answer
    A. SH
    Explanation
    The sulfhydral group, represented by SH, is a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom. It is commonly found in organic compounds, such as amino acids and proteins, and plays an important role in various biochemical processes. The other options, SO and SN, do not represent the sulfhydral group and are not correct answers.

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  • 26. 

    What is a disulfide bridge?

    • A.

      A linkage involving 1 sulfur

    • B.

      A linkage involving 2 sulfur

    • C.

      A linkage involving 1 oxygen

    • D.

      A linkage involving 2 oxygens

    Correct Answer
    B. A linkage involving 2 sulfur
    Explanation
    A disulfide bridge is a linkage involving 2 sulfur atoms. This type of bond is formed when two cysteine amino acids come close together and the sulfur atoms from each cysteine form a covalent bond. Disulfide bridges are important for stabilizing the structure of proteins and are commonly found in proteins that need to maintain a specific shape or conformation.

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  • 27. 

    What do disulfide bridges link?

    • A.

      Glycerol and Fatty Acids

    • B.

      2 Monosaccharides

    • C.

      2 Primary (1 degree) Proteins

    • D.

      2 Quarternary (4 degree) Proteins

    Correct Answer
    D. 2 Quarternary (4 degree) Proteins
    Explanation
    Disulfide bridges are covalent bonds formed between the sulfur atoms of two cysteine residues in proteins. These bridges are important for stabilizing the structure of proteins, particularly in the case of quaternary proteins which consist of two or more polypeptide chains. Therefore, the correct answer is 2 Quarternary (4 degree) Proteins.

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  • 28. 

    What is Phosphate? (P with a circle around it)

    • A.

      PO -3

    • B.

      PO2 -3

    • C.

      PO3 -3

    • D.

      PO4 -3

    Correct Answer
    D. PO4 -3
    Explanation
    Phosphate (PO4 -3) is a chemical compound that consists of one phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms. The -3 charge indicates that it has gained three electrons, making it negatively charged. Phosphate is an essential component of DNA, RNA, and ATP, which are all important molecules involved in cellular processes. It also plays a crucial role in bone formation and energy metabolism.

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  • 29. 

    What is the methyl group?

    • A.

      CH2

    • B.

      CH3

    • C.

      CO2

    • D.

      CO3

    Correct Answer
    B. CH3
    Explanation
    The methyl group is represented by CH3. It is a functional group consisting of three hydrogen atoms bonded to a carbon atom. Methyl groups are commonly found in organic compounds and play a crucial role in various chemical reactions and biological processes.

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  • 30. 

    What does the methyl group do?

    • A.

      Helps to regulate body temperature

    • B.

      Forms proteins

    • C.

      Attaches to DNA to turn genes on/off

    • D.

      Links glycerol with fatty acids

    Correct Answer
    C. Attaches to DNA to turn genes on/off
    Explanation
    The methyl group attaches to DNA to turn genes on/off. Methylation is a process where a methyl group is added to DNA molecules, which can affect gene expression. Methylation can either activate or silence genes, playing a crucial role in regulating gene activity and controlling various cellular processes.

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  • Sep 06, 2023
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