Chapter 6 Test - AP Biology

Approved & Edited by ProProfs Editorial Team
The editorial team at ProProfs Quizzes consists of a select group of subject experts, trivia writers, and quiz masters who have authored over 10,000 quizzes taken by more than 100 million users. This team includes our in-house seasoned quiz moderators and subject matter experts. Our editorial experts, spread across the world, are rigorously trained using our comprehensive guidelines to ensure that you receive the highest quality quizzes.
Learn about Our Editorial Process
| By Muitran
M
Muitran
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 18 | Total Attempts: 55,498
Questions: 54 | Attempts: 3,923

SettingsSettingsSettings
Chapter 6 Test - AP Biology - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following are prokaryotic cells?

    • A.

      Plants

    • B.

      Fungi

    • C.

      Bacteria

    • D.

      Animals

    Correct Answer
    C. Bacteria
    Explanation
    Prokaryotic cells are characterized by their lack of a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Plants, fungi, and animals are all eukaryotic cells, meaning they have a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Bacteria, on the other hand, are prokaryotic cells, as they lack a true nucleus and organelles. Therefore, the correct answer is bacteria.

    Rate this question:

  • 2. 

    All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell except

    • A.

      DNA.

    • B.

      A cell wall.

    • C.

      A plasma membrane.

    • D.

      Ribosomes.

    • E.

      An endoplasmic reticulum.

    Correct Answer
    E. An endoplasmic reticulum.
    Explanation
    Prokaryotic cells are simple cells that lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. They have DNA, which is the genetic material, a cell wall for protection, a plasma membrane for regulating the movement of substances, and ribosomes for protein synthesis. However, they do not have an endoplasmic reticulum, which is a complex network of membranes involved in various cellular processes such as protein synthesis and lipid metabolism.

    Rate this question:

  • 3. 

    The volume enclosed by the plasma membrane of plant cells is often much larger than the corresponding volume in animal cells. The most reasonable explanation for this observation is that

    • A.

      Plant cells are capable of having a much higher surface-to-volume ratio than animal cells.

    • B.

      Plant cells have a much more highly convoluted (folded) plasma membrane than animal cells. ) the basic functions of plant cells are very different from those of animal cells.

    • C.

      Plant cells contain a large vacuole that reduces the volume of the cytoplasm.

    • D.

      Animal cells are more spherical, while plant cells are elongated.

    • E.

      The basic functions of plant cells are very different from those of animal cells.

    Correct Answer
    C. Plant cells contain a large vacuole that reduces the volume of the cytoplasm.
    Explanation
    The most reasonable explanation for the observation that the volume enclosed by the plasma membrane of plant cells is often much larger than in animal cells is that plant cells contain a large vacuole that reduces the volume of the cytoplasm. The vacuole takes up a significant amount of space within the cell, allowing for a larger volume of the plasma membrane to enclose the remaining cytoplasm. This is in contrast to animal cells, which do not have such a large vacuole and therefore have a smaller volume enclosed by the plasma membrane.

    Rate this question:

  • 4. 

    Which of the following comparisons between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is incorrect?

    • A.

      The lack of organelles in prokaryotes means that they are structurally less complex than eukaryotes.

    • B.

      The lack of internal membranes means that prokaryotes cannot compartmentalize function to the same extent as eukaryotes.

    • C.

      All membrane function in prokaryotes is accomplished in the plasma membrane, while in eukaryotes, these functions are more distributed among the organelles.

    • D.

      The specialization of function in organelles suggests that eukaryotes will contain a wider variety of phospholipids than prokaryotes.

    • E.

      The lack of organelles in prokaryotes means that the basic cellular functions are different in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes.

    Correct Answer
    E. The lack of organelles in prokaryotes means that the basic cellular functions are different in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes.
    Explanation
    The comparison that is incorrect is "The lack of organelles in prokaryotes means that the basic cellular functions are different in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes." This statement is incorrect because while the lack of organelles in prokaryotes does result in some differences in cellular functions compared to eukaryotes, the basic cellular functions are still fundamentally similar in both types of cells. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes both carry out essential functions such as DNA replication, transcription, translation, and metabolism, although the specific mechanisms may differ.

    Rate this question:

  • 5. 

    For the following, choose the most inclusive category: plasma membrane

    • A.

      A feature of all cells

    • B.

      Found in prokaryotic cells only

    • C.

      Found in eukaryotic cells only

    • D.

      Found in plant cells only

    • E.

      Found in animal cells only

    Correct Answer
    A. A feature of all cells
    Explanation
    The plasma membrane is a feature of all cells. It is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds the cell and separates its internal environment from the external environment. It is found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including plant and animal cells. The plasma membrane is responsible for controlling the movement of substances in and out of the cell, maintaining cell shape, and providing protection.

    Rate this question:

  • 6. 

    For the following, choose the most inclusive category: tonoplast

    • A.

      A feature of all cells

    • B.

      Found in prokaryotic cells only

    • C.

      Found in eukaryotic cells only

    • D.

      Found in plant cells only

    • E.

      Found in animal cells only

    Correct Answer
    D. Found in plant cells only
    Explanation
    The tonoplast is a membrane found in plant cells only. It is a specialized vacuolar membrane that surrounds the plant cell's central vacuole. The tonoplast helps regulate the movement of ions, nutrients, and water in and out of the vacuole, maintaining its osmotic balance. This membrane is not present in prokaryotic cells, animal cells, or all eukaryotic cells, making "found in plant cells only" the most inclusive category.

    Rate this question:

  • 7. 

    For the following, choose the most inclusive category: nucleoid

    • A.

      A feature of all cells

    • B.

      Found in prokaryotic cells only

    • C.

      Found in eukaryotic cells only

    • D.

      Found in plant cells only

    • E.

      Found in animal cells only

    Correct Answer
    B. Found in prokaryotic cells only
    Explanation
    The term "nucleoid" refers to the region within a prokaryotic cell where the genetic material, such as DNA, is located. This structure is not present in eukaryotic cells, which have a distinct nucleus that houses the genetic material. Plant and animal cells are both types of eukaryotic cells and do not possess a nucleoid. Therefore, the most inclusive category for the term "nucleoid" is "found in prokaryotic cells only."

    Rate this question:

  • 8. 

    Which of the following does not contain functional ribosomes?

    • A.

      A prokaryotic cell

    • B.

      A plant mitochondrion

    • C.

      A chloroplast

    • D.

      An animal mitochondrion

    • E.

      A nucleolus

    Correct Answer
    E. A nucleolus
    Explanation
    The nucleolus is a region within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that is primarily involved in the production and assembly of ribosomes. It does not contain functional ribosomes itself, but rather serves as a site for ribosomal RNA synthesis and ribosome assembly. Prokaryotic cells, plant mitochondria, chloroplasts, and animal mitochondria all contain functional ribosomes that are responsible for protein synthesis. Therefore, the nucleolus is the only option that does not contain functional ribosomes.

    Rate this question:

  • 9. 

    Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules?

    • A.

      Lipids

    • B.

      Starches

    • C.

      Proteins

    • D.

      Steroids

    • E.

      Glucose

    Correct Answer
    C. Proteins
    Explanation
    Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing proteins. Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis, and cells that specialize in producing proteins, such as muscle cells or cells in the pancreas, require a high number of ribosomes to meet the demand for protein production. Lipids, starches, steroids, and glucose are not primarily produced by ribosomes, so they do not require a large number of ribosomes in specialized cells.

    Rate this question:

  • 10. 

    Which of the following compounds require the presence of the nuclear pores to move between the cytoplasm and the interior of the nucleus?

    • A.

      Ribosomal RNA

    • B.

      Messenger RNA

    • C.

      Proteins synthesized in the cytoplasm that are part of ribosomes

    • D.

      Ribosomal RNA and messenger RNA

    • E.

      Ribosomal RNA, messenger RNA, and proteins synthesized in the cytoplasm that are part of ribosomes

    Correct Answer
    E. Ribosomal RNA, messenger RNA, and proteins synthesized in the cytoplasm that are part of ribosomes
    Explanation
    Ribosomal RNA, messenger RNA, and proteins synthesized in the cytoplasm that are part of ribosomes require the presence of nuclear pores to move between the cytoplasm and the interior of the nucleus. The nuclear pores act as gateways, allowing these molecules to pass through the nuclear envelope and access the nucleus. Ribosomal RNA is necessary for the assembly of ribosomes, messenger RNA carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm for protein synthesis, and the proteins synthesized in the cytoplasm that are part of ribosomes are essential components of the protein synthesis machinery.

    Rate this question:

  • 11. 

    Which of the following incorrectly matches the type of cell, type of protein, and site of the protein's synthesis?

    • A.

      Prokaryote, cytoplasmic protein, free cytoplasmic ribosome

    • B.

      Eukaryote, plasma membrane protein, rough ER

    • C.

      Prokaryote, plasma membrane protein, ribosome bound to plasma membrane

    • D.

      Eukaryote, cytoplasmic protein, free cytoplasmic ribosome

    • E.

      Prokaryote, secreted protein, free cytoplasmic ribosome

    Correct Answer
    E. Prokaryote, secreted protein, free cytoplasmic ribosome
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is prokaryote, secreted protein, free cytoplasmic ribosome. This is because in prokaryotes, secreted proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm by free cytoplasmic ribosomes and then transported out of the cell.

    Rate this question:

  • 12. 

    Under which of the following conditions would you expect to find a cell with a predominance of free ribosomes?

    • A.

      A cell that is secreting proteins

    • B.

      A cell that is producing cytoplasmic enzymes

    • C.

      A cell that is constructing its cell wall or extracellular matrix

    • D.

      A cell that is digesting food particles

    • E.

      A cell that is enlarging its vacuole

    Correct Answer
    B. A cell that is producing cytoplasmic enzymes
    Explanation
    A cell that is producing cytoplasmic enzymes would be expected to have a predominance of free ribosomes. This is because cytoplasmic enzymes are synthesized in the cytoplasm and do not need to be transported to specific organelles or secreted out of the cell. Free ribosomes are responsible for synthesizing proteins that function within the cytoplasm, so a cell that is producing cytoplasmic enzymes would have a higher concentration of free ribosomes to meet the demand for protein synthesis.

    Rate this question:

  • 13. 

    Which type of organelle is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids?

    • A.

      Ribosome

    • B.

      Lysosome

    • C.

      Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

    • D.

      Mitochondrion

    • E.

      Contractile vacuole

    Correct Answer
    C. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    Explanation
    The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids. This organelle lacks ribosomes on its surface, unlike the rough endoplasmic reticulum which is involved in protein synthesis. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum plays a key role in lipid metabolism and detoxification processes in the cell. It is responsible for the synthesis of lipids such as oils, phospholipids, and steroids, which are important components of cell membranes and play various roles in cellular functions.

    Rate this question:

  • 14. 

    Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell?

    • A.

      Rough ER

    • B.

      Lysosomes

    • C.

      Plasmodesmata

    • D.

      Golgi vesicles

    • E.

      Tight junctions

    Correct Answer
    A. Rough ER
    Explanation
    The rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of protein synthesis in the cell. It contains ribosomes on its surface, which are responsible for protein production. Proteins synthesized in the rough ER may be exported from the cell to be used in other locations or for secretion. The other options, lysosomes, plasmodesmata, Golgi vesicles, and tight junctions, are not directly involved in protein synthesis or export.

    Rate this question:

  • 15. 

    Which of the following structures is most directly associated with the secretion of compounds that will become part of the plant cell wall?

    • A.

      Smooth ER

    • B.

      Rough ER

    • C.

      Plasmodesmata

    • D.

      Golgi-derived vesicles

    • E.

      Golgi apparatus

    Correct Answer
    D. Golgi-derived vesicles
    Explanation
    Golgi-derived vesicles are most directly associated with the secretion of compounds that will become part of the plant cell wall. The Golgi apparatus is responsible for modifying, sorting, and packaging proteins and lipids into vesicles. These vesicles then transport the compounds to the cell membrane for secretion. In the case of plant cells, some of these compounds are destined to become part of the cell wall, such as cellulose and other polysaccharides. Therefore, Golgi-derived vesicles play a crucial role in the synthesis and secretion of cell wall components.

    Rate this question:

  • 16. 

    The Golgi apparatus has a polarity or sidedness to its structure and function. Which of the following statements correctly describes this polarity?

    • A.

      Transport vesicles fuse with one side of the Golgi and leave from the opposite side.

    • B.

      Proteins in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.

    • C.

      Lipids in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.

    • D.

      Soluble proteins in the cisternae (interior) of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.

    • E.

      All of the other statements listed correctly describe polar characteristics of the Golgi function.

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the other statements listed correctly describe polar characteristics of the Golgi function.
    Explanation
    The Golgi apparatus has a polarized structure and function, meaning that different processes occur on different sides of the Golgi. Transport vesicles fuse with one side of the Golgi and leave from the opposite side. Proteins and lipids in the Golgi membrane may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other. Soluble proteins in the cisternae of the Golgi may also be sorted and modified as they move from one side to the other. Therefore, all of the other statements accurately describe the polar characteristics of the Golgi function.

    Rate this question:

  • 17. 

    Of the following, which is probably the most common route for membrane flow in the endomembrane system?

    • A.

      Golgi → lysosome → ER → plasma membrane

    • B.

      Tonoplast → plasma membrane → nuclear envelope → smooth ER

    • C.

      Nuclear envelope → lysosome → Golgi → plasma membrane

    • D.

      Rough ER → vesicles → Golgi → plasma membrane

    • E.

      ER → chloroplasts → mitochondrion → cell membrane

    Correct Answer
    D. Rough ER → vesicles → Golgi → plasma membrane
  • 18. 

    Which of the following cell components is not directly involved in synthesis or secretion?

    • A.

      Ribosome

    • B.

      Rough endoplasmic reticulum

    • C.

      Golgi body

    • D.

      Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

    • E.

      Lysosome

    Correct Answer
    E. Lysosome
    Explanation
    The lysosome is not directly involved in synthesis or secretion. It is an organelle responsible for the breakdown of waste materials and cellular debris through the process of digestion. It contains digestive enzymes that break down macromolecules into smaller components. In contrast, the other options listed (ribosome, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum) are all involved in the synthesis, modification, and transportation of proteins and lipids within the cell.

    Rate this question:

  • 19. 

    The fact that the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope has bound ribosomes allows one to most reliably  conclude that

    • A.

      At least some of the proteins that function in the nuclear envelope are made by the ribosomes on the nuclear envelope.

    • B.

      The nuclear envelope is not part of the endomembrane system.

    • C.

      The nuclear envelope is physically continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum.

    • D.

      Small vesicles from the Golgi fuse with the nuclear envelope.

    • E.

      Nuclear pore complexes contain proteins.

    Correct Answer
    A. At least some of the proteins that function in the nuclear envelope are made by the ribosomes on the nuclear envelope.
    Explanation
    The presence of bound ribosomes on the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope suggests that proteins are being synthesized on these ribosomes. Since the proteins are made on the nuclear envelope, it can be inferred that at least some of the proteins that function in the nuclear envelope are made by these ribosomes.

    Rate this question:

  • 20. 

    The difference in lipid and protein composition between the membranes of the endomembrane system is largely determined by

    • A.

      The physical separation of most membranes from each other.

    • B.

      The transportation of membrane among the endomembrane system by small membrane vesicles.

    • C.

      The function of the Golgi apparatus in sorting membrane components.

    • D.

      The modification of the membrane components once they reach their final destination.

    • E.

      The synthesis of lipids and proteins in each of the organelles of the endomembrane system.

    Correct Answer
    C. The function of the Golgi apparatus in sorting membrane components.
    Explanation
    The Golgi apparatus plays a crucial role in the sorting of membrane components within the endomembrane system. It receives lipids and proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and modifies them before directing them to their final destinations. The Golgi apparatus acts as a sorting center, ensuring that lipids and proteins are correctly targeted to specific organelles or secreted outside the cell. This process helps maintain the distinct lipid and protein composition of each membrane within the endomembrane system. Therefore, the function of the Golgi apparatus in sorting membrane components is the most likely explanation for the difference in lipid and protein composition between the membranes.

    Rate this question:

  • 21. 

    In animal cells, hydrolytic enzymes are packaged to prevent general destruction of cellular components. Which of the following organelles functions in this compartmentalization?

    • A.

      Chloroplast

    • B.

      Lysosome

    • C.

      Central vacuole

    • D.

      Peroxisome

    • E.

      Glyoxysome

    Correct Answer
    B. Lysosome
    Explanation
    Lysosomes function in the compartmentalization of hydrolytic enzymes in animal cells. These organelles contain a variety of hydrolytic enzymes that are responsible for breaking down waste materials, cellular debris, and foreign substances. By packaging these enzymes within lysosomes, the cell can prevent the general destruction of cellular components and maintain the integrity of other organelles. Lysosomes also play a role in processes such as autophagy, where they digest and recycle damaged organelles or proteins.

    Rate this question:

  • 22. 

    Which of the following statements correctly describes some aspect of protein excretion in prokaryotic cells?

    • A.

      Prokaryotes are unlikely to be able to excrete proteins because they lack an endomembrane system.

    • B.

      The mechanism of protein excretion in prokaryotes is probably the same as that in eukaryotes.

    • C.

      Proteins that are excreted by prokaryotes are synthesized on ribosomes that are bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane.

    • D.

      In prokaryotes, the ribosomes that are used for the synthesis of secreted proteins are located outside of the cell.

    • E.

      Prokaryotes contain large pores in their plasma membrane that permit the movement of proteins out of the cell.

    Correct Answer
    C. Proteins that are excreted by prokaryotes are synthesized on ribosomes that are bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane.
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that proteins excreted by prokaryotes are synthesized on ribosomes that are bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane. This means that the process of protein synthesis and excretion in prokaryotes is different from eukaryotes, as they lack an endomembrane system. The ribosomes on the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane play a crucial role in synthesizing the proteins that will be excreted by prokaryotic cells. This explanation provides a clear understanding of the mechanism of protein excretion in prokaryotes.

    Rate this question:

  • 23. 

    Choose the most appropriate term for the following: produces and modifies polysaccharides that will be secreted

    • A.

      Lysosome

    • B.

      Vacuole

    • C.

      Mitochondrion

    • D.

      Golgi apparatus

    • E.

      Peroxisome

    Correct Answer
    D. Golgi apparatus
    Explanation
    The Golgi apparatus is responsible for producing and modifying polysaccharides that will be secreted. It receives proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum and modifies them before packaging them into vesicles for transport to their final destination. This includes the modification of polysaccharides, such as adding or removing sugar molecules, to create glycoproteins or other glycolipids. Therefore, the Golgi apparatus is the most appropriate term for the given statement.

    Rate this question:

  • 24. 

    Choose the most appropriate term for the following: contains hydrolytic enzymes  

    • A.

      Lysosome

    • B.

      Vacuole

    • C.

      Mitochondrion

    • D.

      Golgi apparatus

    • E.

      Peroxisome

    Correct Answer
    A. Lysosome
    Explanation
    A lysosome is the most appropriate term for the given description because it is an organelle that contains hydrolytic enzymes. These enzymes are responsible for breaking down various molecules, including proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Lysosomes play a crucial role in cellular digestion and waste removal, as they break down and recycle cellular components, foreign particles, and damaged organelles.

    Rate this question:

  • 25. 

    Choose the most appropriate term for the following: helps to recycle the cell's organic material

    • A.

      Lysosome

    • B.

      Vacuole

    • C.

      Mitochondrion

    • D.

      Golgi apparatus

    • E.

      Peroxisome

    Correct Answer
    A. Lysosome
    Explanation
    Lysosomes are responsible for recycling the cell's organic material. They contain enzymes that break down waste materials, cellular debris, and foreign substances. This process, known as autophagy, helps to maintain the cell's health and prevent the accumulation of harmful substances. Lysosomes also play a role in the digestion of nutrients and the recycling of damaged organelles. Therefore, lysosome is the most appropriate term for the given description.

    Rate this question:

  • 26. 

    Choose the most appropriate term for the following: one of the main energy transformers of cells

    • A.

      Lysosome

    • B.

      Vacuole

    • C.

      Mitochondrion

    • D.

      Golgi apparatus

    • E.

      Peroxisome

    Correct Answer
    C. Mitochondrion
    Explanation
    The mitochondrion is the most appropriate term for the given question because it is known as the "powerhouse" of the cell and is responsible for generating energy in the form of ATP through cellular respiration. It plays a crucial role in converting nutrients into usable energy for the cell's various functions. The other options, such as lysosome, vacuole, Golgi apparatus, and peroxisome, are not directly involved in energy transformation.

    Rate this question:

  • 27. 

    Choose the most appropriate term for the following: contains its own DNA and ribosomes

    • A.

      Lysosome

    • B.

      Vacuole

    • C.

      Mitochhondrion

    • D.

      Golgi apparatus

    • E.

      Peroxisome

    Correct Answer
    C. Mitochhondrion
    Explanation
    The correct answer is mitochondrion. Mitochondria are organelles found in cells that have their own DNA and ribosomes. They are responsible for producing energy in the form of ATP through cellular respiration. Mitochondria are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell due to their role in energy production.

    Rate this question:

  • 28. 

    Choose the most appropriate term for the following: a compartment that often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell

    • A.

      Lysosome

    • B.

      Vacuole

    • C.

      Mitochondrion

    • D.

      Golgi apparatus

    • E.

      Peroxisome

    Correct Answer
    B. Vacuole
    Explanation
    The vacuole is a compartment that often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell. It is a membrane-bound organelle that stores water, nutrients, and waste products. The vacuole helps maintain the shape and structure of the cell, regulates the cell's internal environment, and plays a role in the storage and breakdown of molecules. It is particularly important in plant cells for providing turgor pressure, which helps support the cell and maintain its rigidity.

    Rate this question:

  • 29. 

    Choose the most appropriate term for the following: contains enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen

    • A.

      Lysosome

    • B.

      Mitochondrion

    • C.

      Vacuole

    • D.

      Golgi apparatus

    • E.

      Peroxisome

    Correct Answer
    E. Peroxisome
    Explanation
    A peroxisome is a cell organelle that contains enzymes capable of transferring hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen. This process is known as oxidation and it helps in the breakdown of fatty acids and the detoxification of harmful substances in the cell. Peroxisomes are involved in various metabolic processes and are particularly abundant in liver and kidney cells. They play a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and overall cell health.

    Rate this question:

  • 30. 

    Choose the most appropriate term for the following: a versatile plant compartment that may hold reserves of organic compounds or inorganic ions

    • A.

      Lysosome

    • B.

      Vacuole

    • C.

      Mitochondrion

    • D.

      Golgi apparatus

    • E.

      Peroxisome

    Correct Answer
    B. Vacuole
    Explanation
    A vacuole is a versatile plant compartment that can store reserves of organic compounds or inorganic ions. It is a membrane-bound organelle found in plant cells that plays a crucial role in maintaining the cell's turgor pressure, storing nutrients, and regulating waste products. Vacuoles can vary in size and function depending on the type of cell and its requirements. They can store water, sugars, pigments, toxins, and other substances. Therefore, vacuole is the most appropriate term for the given description.

    Rate this question:

  • 31. 

    Of the following, what do both mitochondria and chloroplasts have in common?

    • A.

      ATP is produced.

    • B.

      DNA is present.

    • C.

      Ribosomes are present.

    • D.

      DNA and ribosomes are present.

    • E.

      ATP is produced, DNA and ribosomes are present.

    Correct Answer
    E. ATP is produced, DNA and ribosomes are present.
    Explanation
    Both mitochondria and chloroplasts have in common the production of ATP, the presence of DNA, and the presence of ribosomes.

    Rate this question:

  • 32. 

    Grana, thylakoids, and stroma are all components found in 

    • A.

      Vacuoles.

    • B.

      Chloroplasts.

    • C.

      Mitochondria.

    • D.

      Lysosomes.

    • E.

      Nuclei.

    Correct Answer
    B. Chloroplasts.
    Explanation
    Grana, thylakoids, and stroma are all components found in chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells that are responsible for photosynthesis. Grana are stacks of thylakoids, which are membrane structures that contain chlorophyll and other pigments necessary for capturing light energy. Stroma is the fluid-filled space surrounding the thylakoids where the Calvin cycle, a series of reactions that convert carbon dioxide into glucose, takes place. Therefore, the correct answer is chloroplasts.

    Rate this question:

  • 33. 

    Organelles other than the nucleus that contain DNA include

    • A.

      Ribosomes.

    • B.

      Mitochondria.

    • C.

      Chloroplasts.

    • D.

      Mitochondria and chloroplasts.

    • E.

      Ribosomes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts.

    Correct Answer
    D. Mitochondria and chloroplasts.
    Explanation
    Mitochondria and chloroplasts are organelles found in eukaryotic cells that contain their own DNA. Mitochondria are responsible for energy production through cellular respiration, while chloroplasts are involved in photosynthesis. Both organelles have their own genetic material, separate from the DNA in the nucleus. This allows them to carry out their specific functions and reproduce independently within the cell. Therefore, the correct answer is mitochondria and chloroplasts.

    Rate this question:

  • 34. 

    Which of the following statements incorrectly describes common structural features of an animal secretory cell and a photosynthetic plant cell?

    • A.

      Both cells have Golgi apparatus.

    • B.

      Both cells have mitochondria.

    • C.

      Both cells have chloroplasts.

    • D.

      Both cells have a plasma membrane.

    • E.

      Both cells have a nucleus.

    Correct Answer
    C. Both cells have chloroplasts.
  • 35. 

    The chemical reactions involved in respiration are virtually identical between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In eukaryotic cells, ATP is synthesized primarily on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Where are the corresponding reactions likely to occur in prokaryotic respiration?

    • A.

      In the cytoplasm

    • B.

      On the inner mitochondrial membrane

    • C.

      On the endoplasmic reticulum

    • D.

      On the plasma membrane

    • E.

      On the nuclear envelope

    Correct Answer
    D. On the plasma membrane
    Explanation
    In prokaryotic respiration, the corresponding reactions to ATP synthesis are likely to occur on the plasma membrane. This is because prokaryotic cells lack mitochondria, which is where ATP synthesis primarily occurs in eukaryotic cells. The plasma membrane of prokaryotic cells serves as the site for various metabolic reactions, including the synthesis of ATP through the process of respiration. Therefore, the chemical reactions involved in respiration in prokaryotic cells are likely to take place on the plasma membrane.

    Rate this question:

  • 36. 

    A biologist ground up some plant leaf cells and then centrifuged the mixture to fractionate the organelles. Organelles in one of the heavier fractions could produce ATP in the light, while organelles in the lighter fraction could produce ATP in the dark. The heavier and lighter fractions are most likely to contain, respectively,

    • A.

      Mitochondria and chloroplasts.

    • B.

      Chloroplasts and peroxisomes.

    • C.

      Peroxisomes and chloroplasts.

    • D.

      Chloroplasts and mitochondria.

    • E.

      Mitochondria and peroxisomes.

    Correct Answer
    D. Chloroplasts and mitochondria.
    Explanation
    The heavier fraction is likely to contain mitochondria because mitochondria are responsible for producing ATP in cells. The lighter fraction is likely to contain chloroplasts because chloroplasts are responsible for producing ATP in the presence of light through photosynthesis. Therefore, the correct answer is chloroplasts and mitochondria.

    Rate this question:

  • 37. 

    Which of the following is a place where both DNA and ribosomes are unlikely  to be found in any type of cell?

    • A.

      Stroma of chloroplasts

    • B.

      Mitochondrial matrix

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Cytoplasm

    • E.

      Golgi apparatus

    Correct Answer
    E. Golgi apparatus
    Explanation
    The Golgi apparatus is a cellular organelle involved in the processing and packaging of proteins. It receives proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum and modifies them before sending them to their final destination. While the Golgi apparatus is involved in protein processing, it does not contain DNA or ribosomes. DNA is typically found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, while ribosomes can be found in the cytoplasm, on the endoplasmic reticulum, or in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Therefore, the Golgi apparatus is unlikely to contain both DNA and ribosomes.

    Rate this question:

  • 38. 

    All of the following are correct matches of the location of a protein and the location of its synthesis except

    • A.

      Plasma membrane protein-rough ER.

    • B.

      Mitochondrial membrane protein-free cytoplasmic ribosomes.

    • C.

      Cytoplasmic proteins-free cytoplasmic ribosomes.

    • D.

      Chloroplast stromal protein-chloroplast ribosomes.

    • E.

      Mitochondrial matrix protein-rough ER.

    Correct Answer
    E. Mitochondrial matrix protein-rough ER.
    Explanation
    This question is testing knowledge of protein synthesis and the location where different proteins are synthesized. Proteins that are destined to be located in the plasma membrane are synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Mitochondrial membrane proteins are synthesized by free cytoplasmic ribosomes. Cytoplasmic proteins are also synthesized by free cytoplasmic ribosomes. Chloroplast stromal proteins are synthesized by chloroplast ribosomes. The only incorrect match is the synthesis of mitochondrial matrix protein in the rough ER.

    Rate this question:

  • 39. 

    Which of the following are capable of converting light energy to chemical energy?

    • A.

      Chloroplasts

    • B.

      Mitochondria

    • C.

      Leucoplasts

    • D.

      Peroxisomes

    • E.

      Golgi bodies

    Correct Answer
    A. Chloroplasts
    Explanation
    Chloroplasts are capable of converting light energy to chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. They contain chlorophyll, a pigment that absorbs light energy from the sun. This energy is then used to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. The glucose produced serves as a source of chemical energy for the plant, while oxygen is released as a byproduct. Mitochondria, on the other hand, are responsible for converting chemical energy stored in glucose into a form that cells can use, but they do not convert light energy to chemical energy. Leucoplasts, peroxisomes, and Golgi bodies are not involved in the conversion of light energy to chemical energy.

    Rate this question:

  • 40. 

    A cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from

    • A.

      A bacterium.

    • B.

      An animal, but not a plant.

    • C.

      A plant, but not an animal.

    • D.

      A plant or an animal.

    • E.

      Any kind of organism.

    Correct Answer
    D. A plant or an animal.
    Explanation
    The presence of enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria indicates that the cell is capable of performing various metabolic processes, protein synthesis, energy production, and genetic replication. These characteristics are found in both plant and animal cells, suggesting that the cell could be from either a plant or an animal.

    Rate this question:

  • 41. 

    In eukaryotic cells, the first step in protein synthesis is the

    • A.

      Translation of an RNA nucleotide sequence into a sequence of amino acids.

    • B.

      Linking of nucleotides to form a polypeptide.

    • C.

      Translation of a DNA nucleotide sequence into a sequence of amino acids.

    • D.

      Transferring of information from DNA to messenger RNA

    • E.

      Removal of introns from RNA and the stitching together of exons

    Correct Answer
    D. Transferring of information from DNA to messenger RNA
    Explanation
    The correct answer is transferring of information from DNA to messenger RNA. This is the first step in protein synthesis, where the genetic information stored in DNA is transferred to messenger RNA (mRNA) through a process called transcription. During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to a specific region of DNA called the promoter and synthesizes a complementary mRNA molecule using one strand of the DNA as a template. This mRNA molecule carries the genetic code from the DNA to the ribosomes, where it is translated into a sequence of amino acids to form a protein.

    Rate this question:

  • 42. 

    ________ is composed of DNA and protein. 

    • A.

      A mitochondrion

    • B.

      A flagellum

    • C.

      A centriole

    • D.

      Chromatin

    • E.

      A ribosome

    Correct Answer
    D. Chromatin
    Explanation
    Chromatin is composed of DNA and protein. It is the material that makes up the chromosomes within the nucleus of a cell. It consists of DNA molecules that are tightly coiled around proteins called histones. This coiling helps to condense the DNA and allows it to fit within the nucleus. Chromatin plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression and controlling the activities of the cell.

    Rate this question:

  • 43. 

    Where is calcium stored?

    • A.

      Mitochondria

    • B.

      Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

    • C.

      Centrioles

    • D.

      Rough endoplasmic reticulum

    • E.

      Microtubules

    Correct Answer
    B. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    Explanation
    Calcium is stored in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This organelle is responsible for various functions, including the regulation of calcium levels within the cell. It acts as a calcium reservoir, storing and releasing calcium ions as needed for cellular processes such as muscle contraction, cell signaling, and enzyme activation. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum contains specialized proteins and channels that allow for the storage and controlled release of calcium ions, making it the correct answer for where calcium is stored.

    Rate this question:

  • 44. 

    Which of these structures is unique to plant cells?

    • A.

      Mitochondrion

    • B.

      Peroxisome

    • C.

      Flagellum

    • D.

      Central vacuole

    • E.

      Nucleoid region

    Correct Answer
    D. Central vacuole
    Explanation
    The central vacuole is unique to plant cells. It is a large, membrane-bound organelle that occupies a significant portion of the cell's volume. The central vacuole plays a crucial role in maintaining the cell's turgor pressure, storing water, nutrients, and waste products, and regulating cell growth and development. While mitochondria, peroxisomes, and flagella are present in both plant and animal cells, the central vacuole is specific to plant cells, making it the correct answer. The nucleoid region, on the other hand, is found in prokaryotic cells, not plant cells.

    Rate this question:

  • 45. 

    The symptoms of a certain inherited disorder in humans include breathing problems and, in males, sterility. Which of the following is a reasonable hypothesis for the molecular basis of this disorder?

    • A.

      A defective enzyme in the mitochondria

    • B.

      Defective actin molecules in cellular microfilaments

    • C.

      Defective dynein molecules in cilia and flagella

    • D.

      Abnormal hydrolytic enzymes in the lysosomes

    • E.

      Defective ribosome assembly in the nucleolus

    Correct Answer
    C. Defective dynein molecules in cilia and flagella
    Explanation
    A reasonable hypothesis for the molecular basis of the disorder is that there are defective dynein molecules in cilia and flagella. This is because cilia and flagella are responsible for various cellular movements, including the movement of sperm in males. Dynein is a motor protein that plays a crucial role in the movement of cilia and flagella. If the dynein molecules are defective, it can lead to breathing problems and sterility, which are the symptoms of the inherited disorder.

    Rate this question:

  • 46. 

    Choose the statement that correctly characterizes bound ribosomes.

    • A.

      Bound ribosomes are enclosed in their own membrane.

    • B.

      Bound and free ribosomes are structurally different.

    • C.

      Bound ribosomes generally synthesize membrane proteins and secretory proteins.

    • D.

      The most common location for bound ribosomes is the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane.

    Correct Answer
    C. Bound ribosomes generally synthesize membrane proteins and secretory proteins.
    Explanation
    Bound ribosomes are ribosomes that are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. They are not enclosed in their own membrane, as they are attached to the ER membrane. Bound and free ribosomes are structurally the same, with the only difference being their location. Bound ribosomes are responsible for synthesizing proteins that are destined for insertion into the membrane or for secretion outside of the cell. This makes the statement "Bound ribosomes generally synthesize membrane proteins and secretory proteins" the correct characterization of bound ribosomes.

    Rate this question:

  • 47. 

    Which of the following is not considered part of the endomembrane system?

    • A.

      Nuclear envelope

    • B.

      Chloroplast

    • C.

      Golgi apparatus

    • D.

      Plasma membrane

    • E.

      ER

    Correct Answer
    B. Chloroplast
    Explanation
    The endomembrane system is a network of membranes within a eukaryotic cell that is involved in the transport of proteins and lipids. It includes the nuclear envelope, Golgi apparatus, plasma membrane, and ER. However, chloroplasts are not considered part of the endomembrane system. Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells that are responsible for photosynthesis, and they have their own unique membrane system separate from the endomembrane system.

    Rate this question:

  • 48. 

    Cells of the pancreas will incorporate radioactively labeled amino acids into proteins. This "tagging" of newly synthesized proteins enables a researcher to track the location of these proteins in a cell. In this case, we are tracking an enzyme that is eventually secreted by pancreatic cells. Which of the following is the most likely pathway for movement of this protein in the cell?

    • A.

      ER → Golgi → nucleus

    • B.

      Golgi → ER → lysosome

    • C.

      Nucleus → ER → Golgi

    • D.

      ER → Golgi → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane

    • E.

      ER → lysosomes → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane

    Correct Answer
    D. ER → Golgi → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
    Explanation
    The correct answer is ER → Golgi → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane. This is the most likely pathway for movement of the protein in the cell because newly synthesized proteins are typically synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), then transported to the Golgi apparatus for modification and sorting. From the Golgi apparatus, the protein is packaged into vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane, allowing for secretion of the protein outside of the cell. The other options do not follow the typical pathway for protein secretion in cells.

    Rate this question:

  • 49. 

    Which of the following structures is common to plant and animal cells?

    • A.

      Chloroplast

    • B.

      Wall made of cellulose

    • C.

      Tonoplast

    • D.

      Mitochondrion

    • E.

      Centriole

    Correct Answer
    D. Mitochondrion
    Explanation
    Mitochondria are the correct answer because they are found in both plant and animal cells. Mitochondria are responsible for energy production through cellular respiration, which is a vital process for all living organisms. While chloroplasts are only found in plant cells and are responsible for photosynthesis, the wall made of cellulose is also specific to plant cells. Tonoplast is a membrane found in plant cells that surrounds the vacuole, and centrioles are only found in animal cells and are involved in cell division.

    Rate this question:

  • 50. 

    Which of the following is present in a prokaryotic cell?

    • A.

      Mitochondrion

    • B.

      Ribosome

    • C.

      Nuclear envelope

    • D.

      Chloroplast

    • E.

      ER

    Correct Answer
    B. Ribosome
    Explanation
    Ribosomes are present in prokaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are simple cells that lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, and the endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis and can be found freely floating in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells. Therefore, the presence of ribosomes is a characteristic feature of prokaryotic cells.

    Rate this question:

Back to Top Back to top
Advertisement
×

Wait!
Here's an interesting quiz for you.

We have other quizzes matching your interest.