Lipids And Cholesterol Quiz

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Lipids And Cholesterol Quiz - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    There are two main subcategories of lipids. They are lipids with fatty acids and lipids without fatty acids.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Lipids are organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They can be categorized into two main subcategories based on the presence or absence of fatty acids. Lipids with fatty acids include triglycerides, phospholipids, and waxes, while lipids without fatty acids include steroids and terpenes. Therefore, the statement that there are two main subcategories of lipids, one with fatty acids and one without, is true.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following are the main functions of lipids?

    • A.

      Library for hereditary material

    • B.

      Energy storage

    • C.

      Structural material

    • D.

      Energy transporter

    • E.

      Energy source

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Energy storage
    E. Energy source
    Explanation
    Lipids serve as a main source and storage of energy in the body. They can be broken down to release energy when needed, making them an important energy source. Additionally, lipids can also be stored in adipose tissue for long-term energy storage. Therefore, the main functions of lipids include energy storage and serving as an energy source.

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  • 3. 

    Lipids are polymers which are made up of many monomers.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Lipids are not polymers made up of many monomers like proteins or nucleic acids. Instead, lipids are a diverse group of molecules that are characterized by their hydrophobic nature. They are composed of fatty acids and other components, but they do not form long chains or repeating units like polymers do. Therefore, the statement that lipids are polymers made up of many monomers is false.

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  • 4. 

    A 5-year-old girl is presented with hepatosplenomegaly, abnormal bleeding, defects in long bone development, and neurological dysfunction. A liver biopsy reveals an accumulation of glucocerebroside. These symptoms indicate the child is suffering from:

    • A.

      Fabry's disease

    • B.

      Niemann-Pick disease

    • C.

      Krabbe's disease

    • D.

      Gaucher's disease

    • E.

      Hurler syndrome

    Correct Answer
    D. Gaucher's disease
    Explanation
    Gaucher’s disease, which comes in different degrees of severity, is caused by glucocerebrosidase deficiency.

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  • 5. 

    3-hydroxy, 3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) is not only the substrate for the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, but also an intermediate in the synthesis of:

    • A.

      Heme

    • B.

      Purines

    • C.

      Pyrimidines

    • D.

      Ketone bodies

    • E.

      Glutathione

    Correct Answer
    D. Ketone bodies
    Explanation
    HMG-CoA in the cytoplasm is a precursor for cholesterol. In the mitochondria it forms ketones.

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  • 6. 

    The alleles in the ABO blood group system code for:

    • A.

      Integral membrane proteins

    • B.

      Glycosyl transferases

    • C.

      Peripheral membrane proteins

    • D.

      Cytoskeletal proteins

    • E.

      Phosphoglyceride-synthesizing enzymes

    Correct Answer
    B. Glycosyl transferases
    Explanation
    The ABO antigens are oligosaccharide chains of membrane lipids. These oligosaccharides are synthesized by glycosyl transferases in the ER and Golgi.

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  • 7. 

    A pregnant woman mentions that 2 years ago, her first child died 2 weeks after birth because the newborn’s “lungs were immature” at birth. Since you are planning a C-section, you want to determine first whether there is a risk of respiratory problems for her current baby. Which of the following results from an analysis of her amniotic fluid would indicate a high risk?

    • A.

      A low ratio of free cholesterol/cholesterol esters

    • B.

      An elevated glucose level

    • C.

      A low lecithin/shingomyelin ratio

    • D.

      An elevated level of phosphatidylglycerol

    • E.

      A reduced level of platelet-activating factor

    Correct Answer
    C. A low lecithin/shingomyelin ratio
    Explanation
    “Lecithin” includes dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine, the major component of lung surfactant. Sphingomyelin is assessed to control for the overall lipid level.

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  • 8. 

    One in 30 Ashkenazi Jews carries a mutation for Tay-Sachs disease in the heterozygous state.  The heterozygotes can be identified by measuring one of the following enzymes in cultured leucocytes:

    • A.

      Glucocerebrosidase

    • B.

      Hexosaminidase A

    • C.

      Iduronate sulfatase

    • D.

      Ceramidase

    • E.

      B-galactosidase

    Correct Answer
    B. Hexosaminidase A
    Explanation
    Hexosaminidase A removes N-acetyl-galactosamine from ganglioside GM2.

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  • 9. 

    Excess cholesterol needs to be transported to the liver because it cannot be metabolized in most extrahepatic tissues. This 'reverse' transport of cholesterol requires a lipoprotein that is not required for other routes of cholesterol transport. This lipoprotein is:

    • A.

      IDL

    • B.

      LDL

    • C.

      HDL

    • D.

      VLDL

    • E.

      Lipoprotein(a)

    Correct Answer
    C. HDL
    Explanation
    HDL picks up free cholesterol from cells.

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  • 10. 

    Hypercholesterolemic patients taking HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) produce less cholesterol from endogenous synthesis. Lower intracellular cholesterol levels induce which of the following regulatory changes?

    • A.

      Enhanced VLDL formation in the liver

    • B.

      Down-regulation of HMG-CoA reductase

    • C.

      Higher lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity

    • D.

      Higher plasma chylomicron concentration

    • E.

      An increased number of LDL receptors

    Correct Answer
    E. An increased number of LDL receptors
    Explanation
    Cells acquire cholesterol according to their needs. If they cannot make it themselves, they have to get it from LDL. They do this by making more LDL receptors.

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  • 11. 

    Routine blood studies on an infant show turbid plasma with markedly elevated levels of triacylglycerol. A sample of plasma that has been left in the refrigerator overnight has cream-colored material floating on top. The underlying plasma is clear. Which type of hyperlipoproteinemia is most likely present in this infant?

    • A.

      Type I

    • B.

      Type III

    • C.

      Type IIb

    • D.

      Type IIa

    • E.

      Type IV

    Correct Answer
    A. Type I
    Explanation
    Chylomicrons but not VLDL rise to the surface on prolonged standing.

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  • 12. 

    You culture fibroblasts from a patient in the laboratory. In order to up-regulate the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in these cells you should:

    • A.

      Add cholesterol esters to the medium

    • B.

      Add excess LDL to the medium

    • C.

      Inhibit HMG-CoA reductase

    • D.

      Inhibit the activity of acyl-CoA-cholesterol-acyl transferase (ACAT)

    • E.

      Add cholestyramine

    Correct Answer
    C. Inhibit HMG-CoA reductase
    Explanation
    By inhibiting cholesterol synthesis, cellular free cholesterol is reduced and LDL receptors are upregulated.

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  • 13. 

    A 5-year-old boy develops severe stomach pain after eating a big piece of fatty cheesecake. Serum amylase is found to be mildly elevated. The plasma triglyceride level is 1200 mg/dL, and the total cholesterol is 220 mg/dL. The parents mention that the child does not like fatty foods at all, but this was the first time he tasted cheesecake. Which apolipoprotein might be deficient in this patient to account for his fat intolerance?

    • A.

      A-I

    • B.

      C-II

    • C.

      B-100

    • D.

      C-III

    • E.

      E

    Correct Answer
    B. C-II
    Explanation
    The boy has type I hyperlipoproteinemia. Some cases are caused by a deficiency of apoC-II, which is a required activator of lipoprotein lipase. Conditioned taste aversions are common in all metabolic diseases that lead to sickness after eating certain foods.

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  • 14. 

    A 33-year-old man is found to have tendon xanthomas. When questioned about his lifestyle he says that he exercises regularly, eats balanced meals and is not in any physical distress. A blood analysis reveals plasma total cholesterol of 350 mg/dL and triglycerides of 70 mg/dL. He is treated with cholestyramine and a statin and sent for further analysis. His hyperlipidemia is best classified as:

    • A.

      Type I

    • B.

      Type V

    • C.

      Type III

    • D.

      Type IV

    • E.

      Type IIa

    Correct Answer
    E. Type IIa
    Explanation
    This looks like familial hypercholesterolemia.

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  • 15. 

    Statins are the most important type of cholesterol-lowering drug, and they lower specifically LDL rather than HDL cholesterol. How do the statins lower LDL cholesterol?

    • A.

      By reducing the synthesis of apo B-100, the major structural protein of VLDL and LDL

    • B.

      By stimulating the conversion of excess cholesterol to bile acids in the liver, thereby depleting cholesterol for LDL synthesis

    • C.

      By stimulating the transfer of cholesterol esters from VLDL and LDL to HDL

    • D.

      By inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, thereby preventing cholesterol synthesis and forcing the cells to obtain their cholesterol from LDL

    • E.

      By stimulating the efflux of free cholesterol from cell membranes to HDL, thereby reducing the amount of cholesterol that is partitioned into LDL

    Correct Answer
    D. By inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, thereby preventing cholesterol synthesis and forcing the cells to obtain their cholesterol from LDL
    Explanation
    When the cells cannot make their own cholesterol, they have to snatch it from circulating LDL. To that end, they increase their synthesis of LDL receptors.

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  • 16. 

    On physical examination you notice that a patient has tendon xanthomas. A blood analysis reveals a total cholesterol level of 350 mg/dL, which is due mainly to raised levels of LDL, and normal levels of triglyceride. What other investigation would be helpful in this patient?

    • A.

      Look for eruptive xanthomas

    • B.

      Do a VLDL analysis

    • C.

      Isolate the patient's lymphocytes and look for the number of LDL receptors

    • D.

      Check for hyperthyroidism

    • E.

      Do a fasting blood glucose

    Correct Answer
    C. Isolate the patient's lymphocytes and look for the number of LDL receptors
    Explanation
    This looks like familial hypercholesterolemia. In that case you expect a reduction of functional LDL receptors to 50% of normal.

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  • 17. 

    Cholestyramine can be used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, either alone or in combination with a statin. Which enzyme is most immediately affected by cholestyramine tratment?

    • A.

      Cholesterol ester transfer protein

    • B.

      Acyl-CoA-cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT)

    • C.

      7a-hydroxylase

    • D.

      HMG-CoA reductase

    • E.

      Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT)

    Correct Answer
    C. 7a-hydroxylase
    Explanation
    Cholestyramine is a non-absorbed ion exchanger that binds bile acids in the small intestine, thus interrupting their enterohepatic circulation. 7a-hydroxylase is disinhibited by the lack of bile acids, and converts excess cholesterol to bile acids.

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  • 18. 

     What is this?

    • A.

      Disaccharide

    • B.

      Amino acid

    • C.

      Polypeptide

    • D.

      Monosaccharide

    Correct Answer
    B. Amino acid
    Explanation
    An amino acid is a molecule that is the building block of proteins. It contains an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a side chain. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, known as polypeptides. Disaccharides are carbohydrates composed of two monosaccharide units. Therefore, the correct answer is amino acid, as it is the only option that relates to proteins and their structure.

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  • 19. 

     What is this?

    • A.

      Polysaccharide

    • B.

      Polypeptide

    • C.

      Amino acid

    • D.

      Disaccharide

    Correct Answer
    D. Disaccharide
    Explanation
    A disaccharide is a type of carbohydrate composed of two sugar molecules joined together. It is formed through a process called dehydration synthesis, where a molecule of water is removed to form a covalent bond between the two sugar molecules. Examples of disaccharides include sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (found in grains). This answer is correct because it accurately identifies disaccharide as a type of molecule, distinct from polysaccharides (composed of many sugar molecules), polypeptides (chains of amino acids), and amino acids (the building blocks of proteins).

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  • 20. 

     What is this?

    • A.

      Unsaturated fatty acid

    • B.

      Saturated fatty acid

    • C.

      Disaccharide

    • D.

      Ester bond

    Correct Answer
    B. Saturated fatty acid
    Explanation
    A saturated fatty acid is a type of fatty acid that contains only single bonds between carbon atoms, meaning that it is "saturated" with hydrogen atoms. This type of fatty acid is typically solid at room temperature and is commonly found in animal fats and tropical oils. It is called a saturated fatty acid because it is saturated with hydrogen atoms and does not contain any double bonds between carbon atoms.

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  • 21. 

    There are two main subcategories of lipids. They are lipids with fatty acids and lipids without fatty acids.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because lipids can be classified into two main subcategories based on the presence or absence of fatty acids. Lipids with fatty acids include triglycerides, phospholipids, and waxes, while lipids without fatty acids include steroids and prostaglandins. This classification helps in understanding the different structures and functions of lipids in living organisms.

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  • 22. 

    Lipids are polymers which are made up of many monomers.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Lipids are not polymers made up of many monomers. Instead, they are macromolecules composed of fatty acids and glycerol. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 23. 

    Most of your blood cholesterol is produced by:

    • A.

      Your Liver

    • B.

      Your Pancreas

    • C.

      Food Consumption

    • D.

      Your Kidneys

    Correct Answer
    A. Your Liver
    Explanation
    Your liver produces about 1,000mg of cholesterol daily, pretty much all your body needs. Approximately 200 – 500mg more comes from the foods we consume.

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  • 24. 

    Only adults need to have their cholesterol checked. Children can't have high cholesterol.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    False – Studies have shown the buildup of fatty plaque in the arteries can start at an early age. Hereditary health issues can contribute to this as well. And considering the poor eating habits and how overweight many of today’s children are, don’t take anything for granted.

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  • 25. 

    High cholesterol levels put me at risk for:

    • A.

      Obesity

    • B.

      High blood pressure

    • C.

      Atherosclerosis

    • D.

      Diabetes

    Correct Answer
    C. Atherosclerosis
    Explanation
    Atherosclerosis – High cholesterol levels can put you at risk for plaque buildup in the arterial walls which indicates an increased risk of heart attack and stroke.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke?

    • A.

      High blood pressure

    • B.

      Smoking

    • C.

      Family history of heart disease

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the above – This was your easy question!

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  • 27. 

    What is Hypercholesterolemia?

    • A.

      Low fats in the blood

    • B.

      Low blood sugar

    • C.

      High amounts of sugar in the blood

    • D.

      High cholesterol in the blood

    Correct Answer
    D. High cholesterol in the blood
    Explanation
    Hypercholesterolemia refers to the condition of having high levels of cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is found in the body and is necessary for various bodily functions. However, when there is an excessive amount of cholesterol in the blood, it can lead to the formation of plaque in the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and other cardiovascular problems. Therefore, high cholesterol in the blood is the correct answer as it accurately describes the condition of hypercholesterolemia.

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  • 28. 

    The hardening of arteries due to a build up of plaque is called

    • A.

      Atherosclerosis

    • B.

      Sickle Cell Anemia

    • C.

      High blood pressure

    • D.

      Hypercholesterolemia

    Correct Answer
    A. Atherosclerosis
    Explanation
    Atherosclerosis is the correct answer because it refers to the hardening of arteries caused by the accumulation of plaque. This condition occurs when fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin build up in the inner lining of the arteries, forming plaques. Over time, these plaques can narrow and harden the arteries, leading to reduced blood flow and potential complications such as heart attacks or strokes. Sickle Cell Anemia, High blood pressure, and Hypercholesterolemia are unrelated conditions and not specifically related to the hardening of arteries due to plaque build-up.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following is TRUE about saturated fats?

    • A.

      They have double bonds

    • B.

      They help lower the risk of heart disease

    • C.

      Considered a 'bad' fat

    • D.

      Typically liquid at room temperature

    Correct Answer
    C. Considered a 'bad' fat
    Explanation
    Saturated fats are considered a 'bad' fat because they are known to raise levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood, which can increase the risk of heart disease. Unlike unsaturated fats, saturated fats do not have double bonds in their chemical structure. Additionally, saturated fats are typically solid at room temperature, unlike unsaturated fats which are liquid.

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  • 30. 

    Which best describes Linoleic acid?

    • A.

      Solid at room temperature

    • B.

      A polyunsaturated fat

    • C.

      A saturated fat

    • D.

      A monounsaturated fat

    Correct Answer
    B. A polyunsaturated fat
    Explanation
    Linoleic acid is classified as a polyunsaturated fat because it contains multiple double bonds in its chemical structure. This means that it has more than one unsaturated carbon-carbon bond. Polyunsaturated fats are typically liquid at room temperature and are considered to be healthier than saturated fats. They are found in various plant-based oils and have been associated with several health benefits, including reducing the risk of heart disease.

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  • 31. 

    What does PCR stand for?

    • A.

      Polyunsaturated Cream Rinse

    • B.

      Predicable Cholesterol Range

    • C.

      Polymerase Continuous Reaction

    • D.

      Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Correct Answer
    D. Polymerase Chain Reaction
    Explanation
    PCR stands for Polymerase Chain Reaction. It is a laboratory technique used to amplify a specific DNA sequence. The process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to denature, anneal, and extend the DNA strands. This allows for the production of multiple copies of the targeted DNA region, which can then be analyzed and studied further. PCR is widely used in various fields of research, diagnostics, forensic analysis, and genetic testing.

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  • 32. 

    Which best describes the purpose of PCR?

    • A.

      Synthesize large amounts of DNA

    • B.

      To analyze DNA fragment similarities on a gel

    • C.

      To assess the level of cholesterol in a person's blood

    • D.

      To produce fertility tests for couples

    Correct Answer
    A. Synthesize large amounts of DNA
    Explanation
    PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is a laboratory technique used to amplify small amounts of DNA into large quantities. It involves a series of temperature changes that allow DNA replication to occur in a test tube. By using specific primers and DNA polymerase, PCR can synthesize large amounts of DNA from a small starting sample. This technique is widely used in various fields of research, diagnostics, and forensic science to study and analyze DNA sequences, detect genetic diseases, identify pathogens, and perform genetic fingerprinting. Therefore, synthesizing large amounts of DNA accurately describes the purpose of PCR.

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  • 33. 

    If a PCR reaction started with 2 strands of DNA, how many strands of DNA would be created after 30 cycles. Assume one cycle completes each minute.

    • A.

      60

    • B.

      6,000,233

    • C.

      36,000,565

    • D.

      2,147,483,648

    Correct Answer
    D. 2,147,483,648
    Explanation
    During each cycle of PCR, the DNA strands undergo a process of denaturation, annealing, and extension. In the denaturation step, the double-stranded DNA is separated into two single strands. In the annealing step, primers bind to the single strands. In the extension step, DNA polymerase synthesizes new DNA strands using the primers as a template. After each cycle, the number of DNA strands doubles. Therefore, after 30 cycles, the number of DNA strands would be 2^30, which equals 2,147,483,648.

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  • 34. 

    Which type of cholesterol is considered 'bad'?

    • A.

      HDL

    • B.

      LDL

    • C.

      Triglycerides

    Correct Answer
    B. LDL
    Explanation
    LDL cholesterol is considered 'bad' because it can build up in the walls of the arteries, leading to the formation of plaque. This plaque can narrow the arteries and restrict blood flow, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. High levels of LDL cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular problems, while low levels of LDL cholesterol are generally considered beneficial for heart health. HDL cholesterol, on the other hand, is considered 'good' because it helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream, reducing the risk of plaque buildup. Triglycerides are another type of fat found in the blood, and high levels can also contribute to heart disease.

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  • 35. 

    What is the normal (or optimal) range for 'good' cholesterol?

    • A.

      100-129 mg/dL

    • B.

      Below 150 mg/dL

    • C.

      60 or above mg/dL

    • D.

      150-199 mg/dL

    Correct Answer
    C. 60 or above mg/dL
    Explanation
    The normal or optimal range for 'good' cholesterol is 60 mg/dL or above. This means that having a level of 'good' cholesterol equal to or above 60 mg/dL is considered healthy. It is important to maintain a sufficient level of 'good' cholesterol as it helps to remove harmful cholesterol from the bloodstream and reduce the risk of heart disease.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following is FALSE about triglycerides?

    • A.

      Triglycerides are not considered when assessing cholesterol levels

    • B.

      As triglycerides amounts rise, HDL amounts falls

    • C.

      Optimal range is below 150 mg/dL

    • D.

      Some one is considered to have high cholesterol if they have high amounts of triglycerides along with other factors

    Correct Answer
    A. Triglycerides are not considered when assessing cholesterol levels
    Explanation
    Triglycerides are indeed considered when assessing cholesterol levels. Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood, and they are often measured along with other cholesterol levels during a lipid profile test. High levels of triglycerides are associated with increased risk of heart disease and can contribute to the development of high cholesterol. Therefore, it is important to assess triglyceride levels when evaluating overall cholesterol levels.

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  • 37. 

    Which direction will DNA travel on an electrophoresis gel?

    • A.

      Negative to negative

    • B.

      Positive to positive

    • C.

      Negative to positive

    • D.

      Positive to negative

    Correct Answer
    C. Negative to positive
    Explanation
    DNA will travel from the negative electrode (cathode) to the positive electrode (anode) on an electrophoresis gel. This is because DNA is negatively charged due to the phosphate groups in its backbone. When an electric current is applied, the negatively charged DNA molecules are attracted towards the positive electrode and move towards it through the gel matrix.

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  • 38. 

    Use the gel above, which samples seem most related? A is the size standard or 'ladder'.

    • A.

      B and C

    • B.

      B and D

    • C.

      C and D

    • D.

      A and D

    Correct Answer
    A. B and C
    Explanation
    The gel above shows multiple samples, including a size standard or 'ladder' labeled as A. The question asks which samples are most related to each other. Based on the gel, it can be observed that samples B and C have similar band patterns, indicating a high degree of similarity. Therefore, the most related samples are B and C.

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  • 39. 

    Using the gel, what is the estimated base pair length of the shortest fragment from sample D?

    • A.

      10,000

    • B.

      18,500

    • C.

      36,000

    • D.

      54,000

    Correct Answer
    B. 18,500
    Explanation
    The estimated base pair length of the shortest fragment from sample D is 18,500. This means that the smallest fragment of DNA in sample D is approximately 18,500 base pairs long when visualized using the gel.

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  • 40. 

    The kink or bend that a double bond causes in a fats results in what phase at room temperature?

    • A.

      Solid

    • B.

      Liquid

    • C.

      Gas

    • D.

      Fog

    Correct Answer
    B. Liquid
    Explanation
    The kink or bend in a double bond prevents the fat molecules from packing closely together, resulting in a less ordered arrangement. This leads to a weaker intermolecular force and a lower melting point, causing the fat to be in a liquid phase at room temperature.

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  • 41. 

    Why are trans fats considered "double trouble"?

    • A.

      They raise LDL cholesterol in the blood

    • B.

      The lower LDL cholesterol in the blood

    • C.

      They lower the body's ability to make liver cells

    • D.

      They are extra sticky in the walls of arteries

    Correct Answer
    A. They raise LDL cholesterol in the blood
    Explanation
    Trans fats are considered "double trouble" because they raise LDL cholesterol in the blood. LDL cholesterol is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol because high levels of it can lead to the buildup of plaque in the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. Therefore, trans fats, which raise LDL cholesterol, pose a significant risk to cardiovascular health.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 09, 2015
    Quiz Created by
    Lveal
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