# APHUG Test 6

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• 1.

### Analysis of the charts in this chapter indicates that in the world population,

• A.

More than half of the people are nonreligious

• B.

Less than one-fifth of the people are non-religious

• C.

More than half of the people are Christian

• D.

About half of the people are Muslim

• E.

About two-thirds of the people are Christian

B. Less than one-fifth of the people are non-religious
Explanation
The correct answer is "less than one-fifth of the people are non-religious". This is based on the analysis of the charts in the chapter, which indicate that the majority of the world population is religious. However, less than one-fifth of the people are non-religious, suggesting that a significant portion of the population does not identify with any particular religion.

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• 2.

### Analysis of this map indicates that in Scotland,

• A.

Catholics are the majority in the north, while Protestants are the majority in the south

• B.

Protestants are the majority

• C.

The majority of the people are nonreligious

• D.

Protestants account for the majority in the south, while Catholics are the majority in the north and west

• E.

The population is roughly divided between Protestants and Catholics

B. Protestants are the majority
Explanation
The correct answer is Protestants are the majority. This is based on the analysis of the map which indicates that in Scotland, Protestants are the majority in the south.

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• 3.

### Almost 90 percent of people in the Western Hemisphere claim adherence to

• A.

Christianity.

• B.

Roman Catholicism

• C.

Protestantism

• D.

Eastern Orthodoxy

• E.

Fundamentalist and nondenominational Christian churches

A. Christianity.
Explanation
The given correct answer is "Christianity" because it encompasses all the mentioned denominations - Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Eastern Orthodoxy, as well as fundamentalist and nondenominational Christian churches. Christianity is the overarching religion that includes these different branches and is followed by the majority of people in the Western Hemisphere.

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• 4.

### Lutheranism is an example of a Christian

• A.

Branch

• B.

Denomination

• C.

Religion

• D.

Sect

• E.

Family.

B. Denomination
Explanation
Lutheranism is considered a denomination within Christianity because it is a distinct branch or subgroup that shares common beliefs and practices. While all Lutherans are Christians, not all Christians are Lutherans. Denominations within Christianity can have different interpretations of scripture, worship styles, and organizational structures. Lutheranism, founded by Martin Luther in the 16th century, emphasizes the doctrine of justification by faith alone and places importance on the authority of scripture. Therefore, Lutheranism is an example of a Christian denomination.

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• 5.

### The dominant branch of Islam in Iran is

• A.

Medina

• B.

Eastern Orthodoxy

• C.

Mecca

• D.

Sunni

• E.

Shiite

E. Shiite
Explanation
The dominant branch of Islam in Iran is Shiite. This is because Iran has a majority Shiite population, with approximately 90-95% of Iranians identifying as Shiite Muslims. Shiite Islam originated from a disagreement over the rightful successor to Prophet Muhammad. Shiites believe that leadership should have remained within the family of the Prophet, while Sunnis believe that leadership should be elected by the community. Iran has a long history of Shiite rule, with the establishment of the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century solidifying Shiite Islam as the state religion.

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• 6.

### Which is not an ethnic Asian religion?

• A.

Buddhism

• B.

Confucianism

• C.

Shintoism

• D.

Daoism

• E.

Hinduism

A. Buddhism
Explanation
Buddhism is not considered an ethnic Asian religion because it originated in India, not in East Asia where most ethnic Asian religions originate from. Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama in the 5th century BCE in India and later spread to other parts of Asia, including East Asia. Therefore, while Buddhism is widely practiced in many Asian countries, it is not exclusive to the ethnic Asian religions that originated in East Asia.

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• 7.

### Hinduism's caste system

• A.

Assigns everyone to a distinct class

• B.

Decrees the pilgrimages which should be taken

• C.

Is a substitute for the lack of a holy book

• D.

Identifies a family's important deities

• E.

Is the basis for seasonal celebrations

A. Assigns everyone to a distinct class
Explanation
The caste system in Hinduism is a social structure that assigns individuals to specific social classes based on their birth. It categorizes people into distinct classes, known as castes, which determine their social status, occupation, and even their social interactions. This system has been a significant aspect of Hindu society for centuries, influencing various aspects of people's lives, including marriage, education, and economic opportunities.

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• 8.

### An ethnic religion is

• A.

Based on only one language

• B.

Appealing mostly to one group of people in one place

• C.

Based on belief in one particular spiritual leader

• D.

Younger than a universalizing religion

• E.

More peaceful than a universalizing religion

B. Appealing mostly to one group of people in one place
Explanation
An ethnic religion is appealing mostly to one group of people in one place. This means that it is primarily practiced and followed by a specific ethnic or cultural group in a particular geographic location. Unlike universalizing religions, which aim to spread their beliefs and attract followers from different backgrounds and locations, ethnic religions are more localized and tied to the traditions and customs of a specific community. They often reflect the cultural identity and heritage of the group they belong to, making them more exclusive and less focused on conversion or expansion.

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• 9.

### Which of the following is currently the most important religion in the homeland of the man who founded it?

• A.

Buddhism

• B.

Christianity

• C.

Hinduism

• D.

Islam

• E.

Shintoism

D. Islam
Explanation
Islam is currently the most important religion in the homeland of the man who founded it. This can be attributed to the fact that Islam was founded by Prophet Muhammad in the Arabian Peninsula, which is predominantly Muslim. Islam is deeply rooted in the culture and society of countries like Saudi Arabia, where Mecca and Medina, the two holiest cities in Islam, are located. The influence of Islam is evident in various aspects of life, including politics, law, and social norms, making it the most significant religion in its homeland.

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• 10.

### Unlike other universalizing religions, Buddhism

• A.

Remained primarily concentrated in one region of the world

• B.

Was not begun by an individual founder and then diffused elsewhere

• C.

Was founded in China

• D.

Worships more than one god

• E.

Diffused primarily by colonization

A. Remained primarily concentrated in one region of the world
Explanation
Buddhism remained primarily concentrated in one region of the world because it originated in ancient India and spread mainly throughout Asia. Unlike other universalizing religions such as Christianity or Islam, which have a global presence, Buddhism did not experience significant diffusion beyond its original region. The teachings of Buddha were primarily embraced and practiced by people in countries like India, Nepal, Tibet, China, Japan, and Southeast Asian nations. This regional concentration is one of the distinguishing characteristics of Buddhism compared to other major religions.

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• 11.

### Which of the following would be more characteristic of a universalizing religion?

• A.

Several priests build temples at the tops of the world's highest volcanoes

• B.

Several priests travel across the world to establish missions on remote islands

• C.

A religious leader proclaims that you cannot join her church unless your mother was previously a member of that church

• D.

Priests follow a calendar of religious services based largely on seasonal changes

• E.

Priests and adherents of a particular church pledge that they will not support warfare in any form

B. Several priests travel across the world to establish missions on remote islands
Explanation
A universalizing religion seeks to spread its beliefs and practices to all people regardless of their background or location. The act of priests traveling across the world to establish missions on remote islands aligns with this goal. By reaching out to remote areas, the religion aims to reach as many people as possible and convert them to its faith. This demonstrates the inclusive and expansive nature of a universalizing religion.

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• 12.

### Roman Catholics are clustered in the U.S. southwest primarily because of migration of

• A.

Roman Catholics from Latin America

• B.

Roman Catholics from the northeastern United States

• C.

Roman Catholics from Ireland

• D.

Protestants to the north

• E.

Protestants to the east

A. Roman Catholics from Latin America
Explanation
The correct answer is Roman Catholics from Latin America. This is because there has been a significant migration of Roman Catholics from Latin American countries to the U.S. southwest. This migration has led to a concentration of Roman Catholics in this region.

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• 13.

### It is reasonable to surmise that historically, when signs were posted in store windows warning "No Irish Need Apply," the store owner may also have been

• A.

A Protestant discriminating against Roman Catholic immigrants

• B.

A Roman Catholic discriminating against Jewish and Protestant immigrants

• C.

A Roman Catholic from Ireland

• D.

A nonreligious entrepreneur discriminating against all religious adherents

• E.

A Protestant attempting to welcome Roman Catholics but not Jewish immigrants

A. A Protestant discriminating against Roman Catholic immigrants
Explanation
During the time when signs like "No Irish Need Apply" were posted in store windows, there was a significant amount of discrimination against Irish immigrants, who were predominantly Roman Catholic. This discrimination was often fueled by anti-Catholic sentiment held by some Protestant individuals. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the store owner who posted such a sign was a Protestant discriminating against Roman Catholic immigrants.

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• 14.

### The agricultural calendar is relatively unimportant to which type of religions?

• A.

Animist

• B.

Ethnic

• C.

• D.

Universalizing

• E.

Judaism, Shintoism, and Daoism

D. Universalizing
Explanation
Universalizing religions, such as Judaism, Shintoism, and Daoism, do not place much importance on the agricultural calendar. This is because universalizing religions focus more on spreading their beliefs and attracting followers from different cultures and backgrounds, rather than being tied to specific cultural practices like agriculture. These religions tend to have a broader scope and aim to appeal to people from various regions and societies. Therefore, the agricultural calendar is relatively unimportant to universalizing religions.

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• 15.

### Which of the following best describes the situation of religion in Tibet?

• A.

Only a few practice Buddhism; the majority observe Confucianism

• B.

Tibetan leaders have a high degree of local control over the policies of their province

• C.

The population has become almost entirely atheist since the Chinese invasion

• D.

Its spiritual leader is in exile and the government discourages observance

• E.

Freedom of religion is protected by provincial law

D. Its spiritual leader is in exile and the government discourages observance
Explanation
The correct answer suggests that the spiritual leader of Tibet is in exile and the government discourages religious observance. This implies that there are restrictions and limitations on religious practices in Tibet, indicating a challenging situation for religion in the region.

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• 16.

### Jerusalem's geography represents a particularly difficult religious conflict to resolve because

• A.

Sacred sites to Jews and Muslims are literally built on top of one another

• B.

The population of Jerusalem is majority Christian but surrounded by majority Jewish and Muslim populations on either side

• C.

The Israeli government has separated the most sacred sites with a massive concrete wall

• D.

Israel captured the Sinai peninsula from Egypt

• E.

Few Muslims and Jews are allowed within the city

A. Sacred sites to Jews and Muslims are literally built on top of one another
Explanation
The correct answer is that sacred sites to Jews and Muslims are literally built on top of one another. This creates a complex situation where both religious groups claim ownership and have deep historical and religious connections to the same physical locations. The overlapping of these sacred sites makes it extremely challenging to find a solution that satisfies both parties and allows for peaceful coexistence.

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• 17.

### The barrier between Israel and the West Bank

• A.

Has been ruled as illegal by both Israeli and international courts but is supported by other elements of the Israeli government

• B.

Is welcomed by both sides within the Palestinian and Israeli governments, regardless of their political affiliations

• C.

Represents the natural landscape feature of the Jordan River as described in early religious texts.

• D.

Follows the previous border between Israel and Jordan

• E.

Has established peace in the Middle East

A. Has been ruled as illegal by both Israeli and international courts but is supported by other elements of the Israeli government
Explanation
The correct answer states that the barrier between Israel and the West Bank has been ruled as illegal by both Israeli and international courts but is supported by other elements of the Israeli government. This suggests that there is a disagreement within the Israeli government regarding the legality of the barrier. While some elements of the government support it, the courts have deemed it illegal. This indicates a complex and contentious issue surrounding the barrier and its legality.

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• 18.

### The example of Jerusalem indicates that in regards to the geographic landscape,

• A.

Sacred sites may be equally important to universalizing and ethnic religions

• B.

The population of Jerusalem is majority Christian but surrounded by majority Jewish and Muslim populations on either side

• C.

The sacred sites for universalizing religions do not overlap with the sacred sites of ethnic religions

• D.

There is almost always a clear distinction between the uses of sacred spaces by both ethnic and universalizing religions

• E.

Islam and Christianity are not good examples of universalizing religions

A. Sacred sites may be equally important to universalizing and ethnic religions
Explanation
The example of Jerusalem demonstrates that sacred sites can hold equal importance for both universalizing and ethnic religions. This is evident in the fact that the population of Jerusalem is predominantly Christian, but is surrounded by Jewish and Muslim populations on either side. This suggests that the sacred sites in Jerusalem are significant to multiple religious groups, regardless of whether they are universalizing or ethnic in nature.

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• 19.

### Cremation is more important than burial in which religion?

• A.

Buddhism

• B.

Christianity

• C.

Hinduism

• D.

Islam

• E.

Judaism

C. Hinduism
Explanation
Cremation is more important than burial in Hinduism. In Hindu culture, cremation is considered a sacred ritual that releases the soul from the body and allows it to move on to the afterlife. It is believed that cremation purifies the soul and helps it achieve moksha, liberation from the cycle of birth and death. Burial is not commonly practiced in Hinduism, as it is believed to keep the soul attached to the earthly realm. Therefore, cremation is considered the preferred method of disposal for the deceased in Hinduism.

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• 20.

### Palestinians include all but which of the following groups?

• A.

Residents of refugee camps

• B.

Residents of territories occupied by Israel

• C.

Citizens of other states calling themselves Palestinians

• D.

Jewish citizens of Israel

• E.

Muslim citizens of Israel

D. Jewish citizens of Israel
Explanation
The correct answer is Jewish citizens of Israel. Palestinians include residents of refugee camps, residents of territories occupied by Israel, citizens of other states calling themselves Palestinians, and Muslim citizens of Israel. However, Jewish citizens of Israel are not considered Palestinians.

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• 21.

### Which of these penalties were imposed by the Taliban in Afghanistan?

• A.

Men were beaten for shaving their beards.

• B.

Homosexuals were buried alive

• C.

Prostitutes were hanged in public, and men were stoned for committing adultery

• D.

Thieves' hands were cut off, and women with nail polish had their fingers cut off

• E.

All of these answers are correct

E. All of these answers are correct
Explanation
During their rule in Afghanistan, the Taliban imposed various harsh penalties on the population. Men who shaved their beards were beaten, homosexuals were buried alive, prostitutes were hanged in public, and men were stoned for committing adultery. Additionally, thieves had their hands cut off, and women who wore nail polish had their fingers cut off. Therefore, all of these answers are correct as they represent the different punishments imposed by the Taliban in Afghanistan.

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• 22.

### Which of the following religions is also part of a territorial concern for the Chinese government?

• A.

Judaism

• B.

Christianity

• C.

Hinduism

• D.

Islam

• E.

Buddhism

E. Buddhism
Explanation
Buddhism is a correct answer because it is not only a religious belief but also a territorial concern for the Chinese government. Buddhism has a long history in China and has played a significant role in shaping the country's culture and society. The Chinese government closely monitors and controls Buddhist institutions and practices within its territory, as it sees Buddhism as a potential source of influence and political mobilization. The government has implemented various policies to regulate and manage Buddhism, including the appointment of state-approved leaders and the control of religious activities.

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• 23.

### It is reasonable to hypothesize that during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) when some Irish soldiers deserted from the U.S. Army to join the Mexican Army instead, most were at least partly motivated by

• A.

Feelings of loyalty toward fellow Roman Catholics

• B.

Feelings of loyalty toward fellow Protestant immigrants

• C.

Feelings of loyalty toward nonreligious immigrants

• D.

Anti-war pHilosopHies prevalent in the Protestantism of the time

• E.

The commands of Protestant church leaders

A. Feelings of loyalty toward fellow Roman Catholics
Explanation
During the Mexican-American War, it is reasonable to hypothesize that Irish soldiers who deserted from the U.S. Army to join the Mexican Army were motivated by feelings of loyalty toward fellow Roman Catholics. This is because the majority of Irish soldiers were Roman Catholics themselves, and they may have felt a sense of solidarity and loyalty towards others who shared their religious beliefs. Additionally, the Irish had a history of facing discrimination and oppression in Protestant-dominated societies, so they may have felt a stronger sense of camaraderie and support among their fellow Roman Catholics.

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• 24.

### Given the geographic perspectives on religion that are discussed in this chapter, we might hypothesize in addition that victorious Spanish soldiers in 1492 were partly motivated by

• A.

A fanatical "holy war" mentality and their Roman Catholic faith

• B.

A fanatical "holy war" mentality and their Protestant faith

• C.

A peaceful vision of their Roman Catholic faith

• D.

A nonreligious view of the world

• E.

A fanatical "holy war" mentality that they learned from Muslims, Jews, and Eastern Orthodox Christians

A. A fanatical "holy war" mentality and their Roman Catholic faith
Explanation
The correct answer suggests that the victorious Spanish soldiers in 1492 were motivated by a combination of a fanatical "holy war" mentality and their Roman Catholic faith. This implies that their religious beliefs and the idea of fighting for their faith played a significant role in their actions.

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• 25.

### Given the Soviet Union's policies toward religion discussed in this chapter, a historian could hypothesize that in the United States, Cold War opposition to the Soviet Union was accompanied by a heightened

• A.

EmpHasis on religion as an area in which the United States was deficient

• B.

EmpHasis in nonreligious policies and programs

• C.

EmpHasis on religion as a weapon against "Godless communism."

• D.

Disregard for religious practices in Christian churches

• E.

Concern for scientific practices rather than religious practices

C. EmpHasis on religion as a weapon against "Godless communism."
Explanation
During the Cold War, the Soviet Union implemented policies that suppressed religion, leading to the hypothesis that in the United States, opposition to the Soviet Union would be accompanied by a heightened emphasis on religion. This would be seen as a way to counter the "Godless communism" of the Soviet Union, using religion as a weapon in the ideological battle. This explanation aligns with the historical context of the Cold War and the contrasting approaches to religion between the United States and the Soviet Union.

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• 26.

### A universalizing religion

• A.

Is based on the pHysical characteristics of a particular location on Earth.

• B.

Appeals to people living in a wide variety of locations

• C.

Is rarely transmitted through missionaries

• D.

Has celebrations that are almost entirely based on seasonal changes

• E.

Is less likely to be used as a reason for violence than ethnic religions

B. Appeals to people living in a wide variety of locations
Explanation
This answer is correct because a universalizing religion is one that seeks to appeal to people from all over the world, regardless of their geographic location. It does not focus on the physical characteristics of a particular location on Earth, but rather aims to attract followers from diverse backgrounds and locations. This type of religion often spreads through missionary work, as it seeks to convert people from different regions. Unlike ethnic religions, which are tied to specific cultural or ethnic groups, universalizing religions have a broader appeal and are less likely to be used as a justification for violence.

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• 27.

### Adherents of which religion controlled much of present-day Spain until 1492, but not since then?

• A.

Buddhism

• B.

Christianity

• C.

Hinduism

• D.

Islam

• E.

Druze

D. Islam
Explanation
Islam was the religion that controlled much of present-day Spain until 1492. During the period known as the Islamic Golden Age, Muslims established a powerful Islamic state known as Al-Andalus in the Iberian Peninsula. However, in 1492, the last Muslim stronghold, the Emirate of Granada, fell to the Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella, marking the end of Muslim rule in Spain. Since then, Islam has not controlled much of present-day Spain.

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• 28.

### The situation in Northern Ireland is the result of

• A.

Counties in Northern Ireland voting to remain in the United Kingdom

• B.

Catholic protest against discrimination by Protestants

• C.

British colonial control which contributed to poor economic conditions

• D.

Violence committed by extreme partisans on both sides

• E.

All of these answers are correct

E. All of these answers are correct
Explanation
The situation in Northern Ireland is the result of a combination of factors. The counties in Northern Ireland voting to remain in the United Kingdom has created a divide between those who identify as Irish and those who identify as British. Catholic protest against discrimination by Protestants has also played a significant role in fueling tensions. Additionally, British colonial control has contributed to poor economic conditions in the region. Finally, violence committed by extreme partisans on both sides has further escalated the conflict. All of these factors have contributed to the complex situation in Northern Ireland.

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• 29.

### Which of the following is not a universalizing religion?

• A.

Christianity

• B.

Judaism

• C.

Sikhism

• D.

Islam

• E.

Buddhism

B. Judaism
Explanation
Judaism is not a universalizing religion; it is generally considered an ethnic or ethnic-religious religion. It is often associated with a particular ethnic or cultural group, namely the Jewish people, and it is not actively seeking to convert people of other ethnic backgrounds. Universalizing religions, on the other hand, actively seek to spread their beliefs and convert people regardless of their ethnic or cultural background. Examples of universalizing religions in the list include Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Islam.

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• 30.

### Which of the following would we be more likely to classify as a characteristic of an ethnic religion?

• A.

The adherents of a church pledge that they will not support warfare in any form.

• B.

Priests build temples in cities around the world.

• C.

Priests travel across the world to establish missions on remote islands.

• D.

A religious leader proclaims that you cannot join her church as a full member unless you bring two or three people with you, as converts to her religion.

• E.

The religious calendar is based largely on seasonal changes in a particular region.

E. The religious calendar is based largely on seasonal changes in a particular region.
Explanation
Ethnic religions are often closely tied to specific geographic areas and the cultural practices associated with those regions, including seasonal changes. This characteristic reflects a connection between the religious calendar and the local environment. I appreciate your understanding.

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