AP Human Geography Industrialization And Economic Development

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AP Human Geography Quizzes & Trivia

Ninth Edition of Introduction to Human Geography by Rubenstein


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Development refers to 

    • A.

      Improvement in material conditions.

    • B.

      Value of the output of goods and services.

    • C.

      Value of a product compared to the needed labor.

    • D.

      Division of jobs into different sectors.

    • E.

      Changes in political institutions.

    Correct Answer
    A. Improvement in material conditions.
    Explanation
    p. 292: Development is the process of improving the material conditions of people. The process is continuous and never-ending to constantly improve the health and prosperity of people.

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  • 2. 

    The more developed regions include all but which of the following?

    • A.

      Anglo-America

    • B.

      Eastern Europe

    • C.

      Middle East

    • D.

      Western Europe

    • E.

      South Pacific

    Correct Answer
    C. Middle East
    Explanation
    p. 302 and map p 293: Three of the nine major cultural regions--Anglo America, Western Europe, and Eastern Europe, plus Japan and the South Pacific--are considered more developed. The other six regions are considered less developed. This section examines the more developed regions.

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  • 3. 

    The difference in per capita GDP between the more developed and less developed regions is 

    • A.

      Widening.

    • B.

      Remaining constant.

    • C.

      Decreasing.

    • D.

      Zero.

    • E.

      Cycling up and down.

    Correct Answer
    A. Widening.
    Explanation
    p. 294: Annual per capita GDP in 2005 averaged $27,000 in all MDCs, compared with $4,400 in LDCs. (see map, p. 294, Figure 9-2)

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  • 4. 

    On a north polar projection, less developed countries appear to be located

    • A.

      In the southern hemisphere.

    • B.

      In core region.

    • C.

      In peripheral locations.

    • D.

      Clustered in an inner ring.

    • E.

      Spread evenly across the land masses.

    Correct Answer
    C. In peripheral locations.
    Explanation
    Map, p. 322, Figure 9-25

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  • 5. 

    The value of total output of goods and services in a year in a country is its

    • A.

      Level of development.

    • B.

      Primary economic sector.

    • C.

      Productivity index.

    • D.

      Value added.

    • E.

      Gross domestic product.

    Correct Answer
    E. Gross domestic product.
    Explanation
    p. 294: Gross domestic product (GDP) is the value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country, normally during a year.

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  • 6. 

    In 1995, the per capita GDP in Sudan was about $400; this indicates that it is a

    • A.

      Petroleum exporting state.

    • B.

      Less developed country.

    • C.

      More developed country.

    • D.

      Country with a high gross domestic product.

    • E.

      Has evenly distributed wealth.

    Correct Answer
    B. Less developed country.
    Explanation
    p. 294: Annual per capita GDP in 2005 averaged $27,000 in all MDCs, compared with $4,000 in LDCs.

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  • 7. 

    Per capita GDP is a good indicator of all but which of the following?

    • A.

      The appropriate level of material well being in a country

    • B.

      The number of countries below the poverty level

    • C.

      The distribution of wealth within a country

    • D.

      The spatial distribution of global wealth

    • E.

      Potential for providing all citizens with a comfortable life

    Correct Answer
    C. The distribution of wealth within a country
    Explanation
    p. 294: Per capita GDP measures average wealth, not its distribution.

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  • 8. 

    An example of a primary sector activity is

    • A.

      Education

    • B.

      Manufacturing

    • C.

      Banking

    • D.

      Retailing

    • E.

      Mining

    Correct Answer
    E. Mining
    Explanation
    p. 294: Workers in the primary sector directly extract materials from Earth through agriculture, and sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.

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  • 9. 

    Processing of computer information is an example of which sector of the economy?

    • A.

      Primary

    • B.

      Secondary

    • C.

      Tertiary

    • D.

      None of the above

    • E.

      B and C

    Correct Answer
    C. Tertiary
    Explanation
    p. 294: The tertiary sector involves the provision of goods and services to people in exchange for payment. Tertiary-sector activities include retailing, banking, law, education, and government.

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  • 10. 

    The tertiary sector includes all but the following?

    • A.

      Transportation

    • B.

      Producer services

    • C.

      Government

    • D.

      Construction

    • E.

      Banking

    Correct Answer
    D. Construction
    Explanation
    p. 294--The tertiary sector involves the provision of goods and services, including retailing, banking, law, education, and government.

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  • 11. 

    Compared to more developed countries, less developed countries have a higher percentage of workers in which sector of the economy?

    • A.

      Primary

    • B.

      Secondary

    • C.

      Tertiary

    • D.

      All three sectors

    • E.

      B and C

    Correct Answer
    A. Primary
    Explanation
    p. 295: The distribution of workers among primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors varies sharply between more and less developed countries. The percentage of people working in agriculture exceeds 60 percent in LDCs, compared with less than 5 percent in MDCs.

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  • 12. 

    Tertiary sector jobs involve the 

    • A.

      Extraction of materials from Earth.

    • B.

      Provision of goods and services.

    • C.

      Manufacturing of raw materials.

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      A and C

    Correct Answer
    B. Provision of goods and services.
    Explanation
    p. 294: Tertiary sector jobs involve the provision of goods and services.

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  • 13. 

    In more developed countries, employment is increasing in

    • A.

      The primary sector.

    • B.

      The secondary sector.

    • C.

      The tertiary sector.

    • D.

      All three sectors.

    • E.

      A and B

    Correct Answer
    C. The tertiary sector.
    Explanation
    In MDCs, employment in the service sector continues to expand.

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  • 14. 

    The large percentage of population involved in agriculture in China indicates that

    • A.

      The country imports most of its food.

    • B.

      Few people are unemployed.

    • C.

      Most people consume an inadequate amount of calories.

    • D.

      Most people must produce food for their own survival.

    • E.

      Factory production cannot expand.

    Correct Answer
    D. Most people must produce food for their own survival.
    Explanation
    The large percentage of population involved in agriculture in China indicates that most people must produce food for their own survival. This suggests that agriculture is a crucial sector for the country, and a significant portion of the population relies on farming to meet their basic food needs. This also implies that there may be limited access to imported food or that the country may not be self-sufficient in terms of food production.

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  • 15. 

    People are more productive in more developed countries because they

    • A.

      Work harder,

    • B.

      Have access to more technology.

    • C.

      Have a higher value added per person.

    • D.

      Are better educated.

    • E.

      Understand their jobs better than workers in less developed countries.

    Correct Answer
    B. Have access to more technology.
    Explanation
    p. 295: Workers in MDCs produce more with less effort because they have access to more machines, tools, and equipment to perform most of the work.

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  • 16. 

    The value of a product minus the costs of raw materials and energy is

    • A.

      Gross domestic product.

    • B.

      Productivity.

    • C.

      Tertiary sector analysis.

    • D.

      Market value.

    • E.

      Value added.

    Correct Answer
    E. Value added.
    Explanation
    p. 295: The value added in manufacturing is the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.

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  • 17. 

    Today, European countries obtain raw materials

    • A.

      From their abundant supplies.

    • B.

      Through exploitation of their colonies.

    • C.

      Through purchase from less developed countries.

    • D.

      From domestic extraction industries.

    • E.

      Exclusively through pipelines.

    Correct Answer
    C. Through purchase from less developed countries.
    Explanation
    The answer suggests that European countries obtain raw materials through purchase from less developed countries. This implies that European countries rely on importing raw materials from less developed countries rather than exploiting their own colonies or extracting domestically. This could be due to various reasons such as cost-effectiveness, availability, or specialization in certain types of raw materials by less developed countries.

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  • 18. 

    In less developed countries, consumer goods such as telephones, televisions, and motor vehicles are

    • A.

      Available for sharing by a large number of people.

    • B.

      Unknown and unfamiliar to most people.

    • C.

      Essential to rural life.

    • D.

      Owned by a minority of the people.

    • E.

      Available only through local manufacture.

    Correct Answer
    D. Owned by a minority of the people.
    Explanation
    p. 296: Most people in LDCs are familiar with these goods, even though they cannot afford them. These objects may be desired as symbols of development.

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  • 19. 

    Compared to less developed countries, more developed countries have higher rates of all but which of these educational characteristics?

    • A.

      Percentage of GDP spent on education

    • B.

      Literacy rate

    • C.

      Number of teachers per pupil

    • D.

      Number of years attending school

    • E.

      Spending per student

    Correct Answer
    A. Percentage of GDP spent on education
    Explanation
    p. 298: For many LDCs, education is the ticket to better jobs and higher social status. Improved education is a major goal of many developing countries, but funds are scarce. Education may receive a higher percentage of the GDP in LDCs, but their GDP is far lower to begin with, so they spend far less per pupil than do MDCs.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is not an indicator of a country's level of development?

    • A.

      Infant mortality rate

    • B.

      Literacy rate

    • C.

      Age structure

    • D.

      Natural increase rate

    • E.

      Crude death rate

    Correct Answer
    E. Crude death rate
    Explanation
    p. 300: The crude death rate does not indicate a society's level of development.

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  • 21. 

    A major health care problem for people in Africa and Asia is

    • A.

      Low literacy rates

    • B.

      Lack of social security benefits for the elderly

    • C.

      High ratios of nurses and doctors to patients

    • D.

      Inadequate supply of calories and proteins

    • E.

      Defective drugs

    Correct Answer
    D. Inadequate supply of calories and proteins
    Explanation
    p. 298: In the LDCs of Africa and Asia, most people receive less than the daily minimum allowance of calories and proteins recommended by the United Nations.

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  • 22. 

    Correlating economic, social, and demographic indicators of developent shows that

    • A.

      Different indicators of development are associated with each other.

    • B.

      A more developed country is likely to rank among the top ten in all major development indicators.

    • C.

      A less developed country can see which indicators need improvement.

    • D.

      Economic, social, and demographic characteristics do not in reality coincide with each other.

    • E.

      Less developed countries are declining on most measures.

    Correct Answer
    A. Different indicators of development are associated with each other.
    Explanation
    The answer states that different indicators of development are associated with each other. This means that economic, social, and demographic indicators are interconnected and tend to have a relationship with one another. For example, a country with a higher GDP per capita may also have higher literacy rates and life expectancy. This association suggests that improvements in one indicator can lead to improvements in others, highlighting the interdependence of various development indicators.

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  • 23. 

    Compared to more developed countries, less developed countries typically have all but which of the following characteristics?

    • A.

      Higher crude birth rates

    • B.

      Lower dependency rates

    • C.

      Higher percentage of children under age fifteen

    • D.

      Lower percentage of elderly

    • E.

      Shorter life expectancy

    Correct Answer
    A. Higher crude birth rates
    Explanation
    p. 300: LDCs have higher crude birth rates than MDCs.

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  • 24. 

    The Anglo-American region is the world's leading provider of all but which of the following?

    • A.

      Food

    • B.

      Petroleum

    • C.

      Financial and management services

    • D.

      Entertainment

    • E.

      Sports

    Correct Answer
    B. Petroleum
    Explanation
    p. 302: Anglo America is the leading provider of many financial, management, and high-tech services, as well as entertainment, mass media, sports, recreation equipment, and other services that promote use of leisure time. In addition, Anglo-America is the world's most important food exporter and the only region that could significantly expand the amount of land devoted to agriculture.

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  • 25. 

    The more developed region that displays the highest level of cultural homogeneity is

    • A.

      Latin America.

    • B.

      Western Europe.

    • C.

      Eastern Europe.

    • D.

      The South Pacific.

    • E.

      Anglo-America.

    Correct Answer
    E. Anglo-America.
    Explanation
    p. 302: Language and religious patterns are less diverse in Anglo-America than in other world regions. More than 90 percent of the region's people use English as their first language and adhere to Christianity. Cultural diversity generates some tensions in the region, however, Anglo-America's relative homogeneity reduces the possibility that a large minority will be excluded from participating in the region's economy on the basis of cultural characteristics.

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  • 26. 

    Western Europe is distinguished from Anglo-America by its

    • A.

      Relative lack of raw materials.

    • B.

      Greater cultural homogeneity.

    • C.

      Self-sufficiency in raw materials.

    • D.

      Ability to feed itself without importing food.

    • E.

      Lack of strong banking institutions.

    Correct Answer
    A. Relative lack of raw materials.
    Explanation
    p. 302: Western Europe has to buy raw materials from other countries.

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  • 27. 

    Under communism, Eastern Europe was characterized by all but which of the following?

    • A.

      Investment in heavy industries such as iron and steel

    • B.

      Governments that made the key decisions concerning the national economy

    • C.

      Favorable balances between population and resources

    • D.

      Most social and demographic indicators became comparable to Western Europe

    • E.

      Specialization in production of consumer-oriented products

    Correct Answer
    E. Specialization in production of consumer-oriented products
    Explanation
    p. 303: Soviet planners preferred to locate manufacturing facilities near sources of raw materials rather than near markets. This policy reflected both the needs of industries emphasized in Soviet plans and the lack of effective consumer demand. By locating heavy industry near the raw materials, Soviet planners gave lower priority to producing consumer goods, such as telephones, washing machines, shoes, and dishes.

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  • 28. 

    The major asset of the Eastern European region is

    • A.

      Agricultural productivity

    • B.

      Development of basic industries.

    • C.

      Production of consumer goods.

    • D.

      Abundant reserves of many raw materials.

    • E.

      Diversified industrial manufacturing.

    Correct Answer
    D. Abundant reserves of many raw materials.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is abundant reserves of many raw materials. Eastern European region is known for its rich natural resources including minerals, metals, and energy resources. These raw materials play a significant role in the region's economy and industrial development. The abundance of raw materials provides opportunities for various industries such as mining, manufacturing, and energy production, contributing to the economic growth and development of the region.

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  • 29. 

    Japan's principal asset for promoting development was

    • A.

      A favorable ratio of population to resources.

    • B.

      An abundant supply of labor.

    • C.

      High physiological density.

    • D.

      Extensive supplies of critical raw materials.

    • E.

      Easy access to established Asian markets.

    Correct Answer
    B. An abundant supply of labor.
    Explanation
    p. 304: Japan's development is remarkable because it has an extremely unfavorable ratio of population to resources. Japan also lacks many key raw materials for basic industry. The Japanese economy developed by taking advantage of the country's one asset, an abundant supply of people willing to work hard for low wages.

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  • 30. 

    The Middle East shows promise of becoming more developed primarily because of what characteristic?

    • A.

      Abundant petroleum reserves

    • B.

      Desert climate

    • C.

      Islamic religious principles

    • D.

      Democratic reforms

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Abundant petroleum reserves
    Explanation
    p. 306: Much of the Middle East is desert that can sustain only sparse concentrations of plant and animal life. Most products must be imported. However, the region possess one major economic asset--a large percentage of the world's petroleum reserves.

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  • 31. 

    Petroleum reserves in the Middle East are

    • A.

      Clustered primarily in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf states.

    • B.

      Dispersed throughout the region.

    • C.

      Concentrated primarily along the Mediterranean Sea.

    • D.

      Primarily in Saudi Arabia.

    • E.

      Clustered in fields along the western shore of the Red Sea.

    Correct Answer
    A. Clustered primarily in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf states.
    Explanation
    Petroleum reserves in the Middle East are clustered primarily in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf states. This means that the majority of the oil reserves in the Middle East are located in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Iran, which are all situated along the Persian Gulf. These countries have significant oil production and play a crucial role in the global oil market. The concentration of petroleum reserves in this region has made the Persian Gulf states major players in the global energy industry.

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  • 32. 

    The highest level of development within Latin America is found in

    • A.

      Central America

    • B.

      Caribbean islands.

    • C.

      Interior South America.

    • D.

      Southern South America.

    • E.

      Countries on the Caribbean coast of northern South America.

    Correct Answer
    E. Countries on the Caribbean coast of northern South America.
    Explanation
    p. 305: The level of development is relatively high along the South Atlantic Coast between Curitiba, Brazil, and Buenos Aires Argentina.

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  • 33. 

    The less developed region with the highest percentage of people living in urban areas is

    • A.

      The Middle East.

    • B.

      East Asia.

    • C.

      South Asia.

    • D.

      Latin America.

    • E.

      Southeast Asia.

    Correct Answer
    D. Latin America.
    Explanation
    p. 305: Latin Americans are more likely to live in urban areas than people in other developing regions.

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  • 34. 

    In the decades following the 1949 Communist victory in the civil war, the Chinese people were subjected to increasing amounts of all but which of the following?

    • A.

      Control of agricultural land

    • B.

      Distribution of food according to need

    • C.

      Fear of famine

    • D.

      Government assignment of specific tasks to farmers

    • E.

      Emphasis on rural life

    Correct Answer
    C. Fear of famine
    Explanation
    p. 305: Under communism, the government took control of most agricultural land. In some villages, officials assigned specific tasks to each family according to individual needs, and sold any remaining food to urban residents. In other cases, farmers rented land from the local government, received orders to grow specific amounts of particular crops, and sold for their own profit any crops above the minimum production targets. The system assured the production and distribution of enough food to support China's one-billion-plus population.

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  • 35. 

    Population was traditionally low in Southeast Asia because of

    • A.

      Dry climate.

    • B.

      Inhospitable environment.

    • C.

      Dutch colonial activity.

    • D.

      High arithmetic density.

    • E.

      Low fertility rates.

    Correct Answer
    B. Inhospitable environment.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is inhospitable environment. This is because Southeast Asia has various geographical features such as dense rainforests, rugged terrains, and mountainous areas, which made it difficult for human settlement and agriculture. Additionally, the region is prone to natural disasters like typhoons and earthquakes, further contributing to the inhospitable environment. These factors have historically limited the population growth in Southeast Asia.

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  • 36. 

    Agricultural output in South Asia each year depends primarily on the 

    • A.

      Arrival of the monsoon.

    • B.

      Diffusion of miracle seeds.

    • C.

      Ratio between population and resources.

    • D.

      Price of jute.

    • E.

      Price of coconut oil.

    Correct Answer
    A. Arrival of the monsoon.
    Explanation
    p. 308: Agricultural productivity in South Asia depends on climate. The regions receives nearly all its precipitation from rain that falls during the monsoon season between May and August. Agricultural output declines sharply if the monsoon rains fail to arrive.

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  • 37. 

    Development prospects are limited in Sub-Saharan Africa because of all but which of the following?

    • A.

      Colonial legacy

    • B.

      Poor leadership

    • C.

      Capacity of land to produce food

    • D.

      Lack of monsoon rains

    • E.

      Overworked agricultural land and declining output

    Correct Answer
    C. Capacity of land to produce food
    Explanation
    p. 309: Despite its assets, sub-Saharan Africa has the least favorable prospect for development. The region has the world's highest percentage of people living in poverty and suffering from poor health and low education levels. Economic conditions in sub-Saharan Africa have deteriorated in recent years: the average African consumes less today than 25 years ago. Some of the region's economic problems are a legacy of the colonial era. Political problems have also plagued the region. Frequent wars within and between countries is a dramatic imbalance between the number of inhabitants and the capacity of the land to feed the population.

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  • 38. 

    According to Rostow's development model, the process of development begins when 

    • A.

      A high percentage of national wealth is allocated to nonproductive activities.

    • B.

      An elite group initiates innovative activities.

    • C.

      Take-off industries achieve technical advances.

    • D.

      Workers become more skilled and specialized.

    • E.

      Banking institutions are sufficiently mature.

    Correct Answer
    B. An elite group initiates innovative activities.
    Explanation
    p. 316: Under the international trade model, the process of development begins when an elite group initiates innovative economic activities. Under the influence of these well-educated leaders, the country starts to invest in new technology and infrastructure, such as water supplies and transportation systems. These projects will ultimately stimulate an increase of productivity.

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  • 39. 

    According to the international trade approach to development, a country should identify all but which of its following assets?

    • A.

      Abundant agricultural products

    • B.

      High quality manufactured goods

    • C.

      Imports to be limited

    • D.

      International consumer preferences

    • E.

      Abundant mineral resources

    Correct Answer
    C. Imports to be limited
    Explanation
    p. 316: The international trade model of development calls for a country to identify its distinctive or unique economic assets. A country can develop economically by concentrating scarce resources on expansion of its distinctive local industries. The sale of these products in the world market brings funds into the country that can be used to finance other development.

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  • 40. 

    The biggest problem in promoting development through the international trade alternative is

    • A.

      Increased demand for many goods

    • B.

      Increased price of petroleum

    • C.

      Regional cooperation

    • D.

      Unequal distribution of resources

    • E.

      Consumer demand expanding faster than manufacturing can increase

    Correct Answer
    D. Unequal distribution of resources
    Explanation
    p. 317: Three problems have hindered countries outside the four Asian tigers and the Arabian Peninsula from developing through the international trade approach: uneven resource distribution, market stagnation, and increased dependence on MDCs.

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  • 41. 

    Saudi Arabia has successfully employed the international trade alternative primarily because of 

    • A.

      Consumer spending

    • B.

      Petroleum reserves

    • C.

      Regional cooperation

    • D.

      Traditional social customs

    • E.

      Its strategic distribution location

    Correct Answer
    B. Petroleum reserves
    Explanation
    p. 317: The Arabian Peninsula includes Saudi Arabia, the region's largest and most populous country, plus Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates. Once among the world's least developed countries, they were transformed overnight into some of the wealthiest thanks to escalating petroleum prices during the 1970s. Arabian Peninsula countries have used petroleum revenues to finance large-scale projects, such as housing, highways, airports, universities, and telecommunications networks.

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  • 42. 

    China in the twenty-first century has seen all but which of the following economic changes?

    • A.

      China is now the world's largest market for personal consumer products like toothpaste.

    • B.

      Low factory wages in China are driving down manufacturing wages world wide.

    • C.

      China is now the leading banking center in Asia.

    • D.

      China's manufacturing is driving down prices on consumer goods world wide.

    • E.

      China's manufacturing sector is now the world's second largest.

    Correct Answer
    C. China is now the leading banking center in Asia.
    Explanation
    p. 305: In the twenty-first century, manufacturing has been increasingly dramatically in China. With rising wealth, the world's largest population has been transformed into the world's largest market for consumer products like detergent, shampoo, and toothpaste. With its factories paying much lower wages than in MDCs, China is producing two-thirds of the world's DVD players, microwaves, photocopiers, and shoes, for export to other countries as well as for domestic consumption.

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  • 43. 

    In contrast to the international approach, the self-sufficiency approach to development 

    • A.

      Begins when an elite group initiates innovative activities.

    • B.

      Results in uneven resource development.

    • C.

      Suffers from market stagnation.

    • D.

      Spreads investment through all sectors of the economy.

    • E.

      Identifies appropriate developmental stages

    Correct Answer
    D. Spreads investment through all sectors of the economy.
    Explanation
    p. 315: For most of the twentieth century, self-sufficiency, or balanced growth, was the more popular of the development alternatives. The world's two most populous countries, China and India, once adopted this strategy, as did most African and Eastern European countries.

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  • 44. 

    Traditional barriers to international investment have included

    • A.

      Low taxes on imports.

    • B.

      Making domestic goods more expensive.

    • C.

      Elimination of quotas on imports.

    • D.

      Requiring licenses for imports.

    • E.

      Weak domestic demand.

    Correct Answer
    D. Requiring licenses for imports.
    Explanation
    Traditional barriers to international investment have included low taxes on imports, making domestic goods more expensive, elimination of quotas on imports, and weak domestic demand. However, requiring licenses for imports is also a traditional barrier to international investment. This means that foreign companies or individuals must obtain licenses or permits in order to import goods into a country. This requirement can create additional costs and administrative burdens, making it more difficult for foreign investors to enter the market. Therefore, requiring licenses for imports is a valid answer as it represents a traditional barrier to international investment.

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  • 45. 

    In recent years, countries such as India have

    • A.

      Embraced the international trade model.

    • B.

      Raised taxes on imports.

    • C.

      Required licenses for importers.

    • D.

      Embraced the self-sufficiency approach.

    • E.

      Returned to traditional agricultural methods.

    Correct Answer
    A. Embraced the international trade model.
    Explanation
    p. 318: India dismantled its formidable collection of barriers to international trade during the 1990s.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is not an indicator of global gender inequality?

    • A.

      Women on average have two-thirds of the income of men in MDCs.

    • B.

      Women have much lower incomes than men in LDCs.

    • C.

      Female life expectancy is less than males in every country of the world.

    • D.

      Female literacy is much lower than males in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East.

    • E.

      Women hold less than one-fourth of managerial jobs in LDCs where data are available.

    Correct Answer
    C. Female life expectancy is less than males in every country of the world.
    Explanation
    p. 309: To measure the extent of each country's gender inequality; the United States has created two indexes. The Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes using income, literacy, education, and life expectancy. The Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making. The GEM is calculated by combining two indicators of economic power (income and professional jobs) and two indicators of political power (managerial jobs and elected jobs).

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  • 47. 

    The principal benefit of the self-sufficiency approach is to promote

    • A.

      Balanced growth of all economic sectors.

    • B.

      Global competitiveness for local industries.

    • C.

      The maintenance of a large bureaucracy.

    • D.

      Unequal distribution of resources.

    • E.

      More efficient industries.

    Correct Answer
    A. Balanced growth of all economic sectors.
    Explanation
    p. 315: With the Self-Sufficiency approach, the pace of development is slow, but the system is fair because residents and enterprises throughout the country share the benefits of development.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following is not a characteristic of the Fair Trade movement?

    • A.

      Products are made and traded according to standards intending to protect workers and small businesses in LDCs.

    • B.

      In North America most products have been craft products, while Europe has more sales in foods.

    • C.

      Cooperatives intend to benefit local farmers and artisans, rather than absentee corporate owners.

    • D.

      Employers must pay fair wages and comply with environmental and safety standards.

    • E.

      Protection of workers' rights is a high priority for multinational corporations.

    Correct Answer
    E. Protection of workers' rights is a high priority for multinational corporations.
    Explanation
    p. 321: Fair trade means that products are made and traded according to standards that protect workers and small businesses in LDCs.

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  • 49. 

    The biggest problem faced by less developed countries in financing development is

    • A.

      Confrontation with more developed countries.

    • B.

      Identifying unique economic assets.

    • C.

      Inability to repay loans.

    • D.

      Promoting self-sufficiency.

    • E.

      Currency inflation.

    Correct Answer
    C. Inability to repay loans.
    Explanation
    p. 320: Many LDCs have been unable to repay the interest on their loans, let alone the principal. Debt exceeds annual income in 18 countries. When these countries cannot repay their debts, financial institutions in MDCs refuse to make further loans, so construction of needed infrastructure stops. The inability of many LDCs to repay loans also damages the financial stability of banks in the MDCs.

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  • 50. 

    What do critics charge are some effects of Structural Adjustment Programs for refinancing loans to LDCs?

    • A.

      More efficient civil service

    • B.

      Diverting investment from the military to health and education

    • C.

      Investment benefiting the poor, not just the elite

    • D.

      More dissemination of information to the public

    • E.

      Workers in state enterprises losing their jobs and support for dependent citizens being cut

    Correct Answer
    E. Workers in state enterprises losing their jobs and support for dependent citizens being cut
    Explanation
    pp. 320-21: Critics charge that poverty worsens under structural adjustment programs. By placing priority on reducing government spending and inflation, structural adjustment programs require cuts in health, education, and social services that benefit the poor. Unemployment may rise, workers in state enterprises and the civil service may lose their jobs, and support may be cut for those in need. Structural reforms punish Earth's poorest people for actions they did not commit.

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