# APHUG (AP Human Geography) Midterm A

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Human geography is definitely one of the most interesting subjects of all time. Take up the test below to acquaint yourself with knowledge on the human population, births agriculture revolution and the theorist Thomas Maltus.

• 1.

### What demographic equation is used to determine natural increase?

• A.

Births plus deaths divided by immigration

• B.

Birth plus deaths minus immigration

• C.

Birth plus deaths plus immigration

• D.

Birth plus deaths minus emigration

• E.

Births minus deaths

E. Births minus deaths
Explanation
The demographic equation used to determine natural increase is "Births minus deaths." This equation calculates the difference between the number of births and the number of deaths in a population over a specific period of time. It does not take into account immigration or emigration, as those factors are not directly related to the natural increase of a population.

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• 2.

### Compared with the world pattern of crude birth rates, the world pattern of crude death rates shows

• A.

More variation because of the vast inequalities in minimal health care throughout the world

• B.

Less variation because of the general availability of minimal health care facilities throughout the world

• C.

Equal variation because of the offsetting effect of birth and death rates throughout the world

• D.

No variation

• E.

High variation because of the high infant mortality in some world regions

B. Less variation because of the general availability of minimal health care facilities throughout the world
Explanation
The correct answer is "less variation because of the general availability of minimal health care facilities throughout the world." This is because the availability of minimal health care facilities helps to reduce the differences in crude death rates across different regions of the world. When there is access to basic healthcare, it can help prevent and treat illnesses and diseases, ultimately reducing mortality rates. Therefore, the world pattern of crude death rates shows less variation due to the general availability of minimal health care facilities.

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• 3.

### The second agricultural revolution in developed at the same time as

• A.

Growing urban markets were demanding increased food production

• B.

Improved genetic modification of food allowed for increased harvests in developing countries

• C.

Humans were forming communes and practicing open-field farming

• D.

Vast shortages in laborers existed because of communicable diseases

• E.

Large streams of migrats moved from core to peripheral countries

A. Growing urban markets were demanding increased food production
Explanation
During the second agricultural revolution, there was a simultaneous increase in urbanization and the growth of urban markets. As more people moved to cities, the demand for food also increased. This led to a need for increased food production to meet the demands of the growing urban population. Farmers and agricultural practices had to adapt to this demand by improving their techniques and increasing productivity. Therefore, the statement that growing urban markets were demanding increased food production is a plausible explanation for the second agricultural revolution.

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• 4.

### Which of the following factors had the greatest effect in proving the demographic theorist Thomas Malthus incorrect

• A.

Decreased land supply after the Industrial Revolution

• B.

Improved fertilizers and crop strains

• C.

Increased contraceptive technology in Western Hemisphere

• D.

The decline of the Roman Catholic Churchâ€™s influnence on politics in Britain

• E.

B. Improved fertilizers and crop strains
Explanation
Improved fertilizers and crop strains had the greatest effect in proving Thomas Malthus incorrect because they increased agricultural productivity, allowing for more food to be produced on the same amount of land. This contradicted Malthus' theory that population growth would outstrip food production, leading to widespread famine and poverty. With improved fertilizers and crop strains, it became possible to feed a growing population without experiencing the dire consequences predicted by Malthus.

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• 5.

### The world's largest concentration of people is located in

• A.

Southeast Asia.

• B.

South Asia.

• C.

North America

• D.

East Asia.

• E.

Western Europe.

D. East Asia.
Explanation
East Asia is home to the world's largest concentration of people. This region includes countries such as China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, which have high population densities and large populations. With its booming economies and urbanization, East Asia has attracted a significant number of people, resulting in a densely populated area. This concentration of people in East Asia is due to factors such as historical and cultural reasons, economic opportunities, and advancements in infrastructure and technology.

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• 6.

### Relatively few people live at high elevations, but there are significant exceptions, especially

• A.

Latin America.

• B.

Europe.

• C.

Asia.

• D.

Southeast Asia

• E.

North America

A. Latin America.
Explanation
Latin America is the correct answer because it is stated in the sentence that there are significant exceptions to the statement that relatively few people live at high elevations, and Latin America is one of those exceptions. The other options (Europe, Asia, Southeast Asia, North America) are not mentioned in the sentence as being significant exceptions.

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• 7.

### The annual global population growth rate increased approximately two hundred years ago because of the

• A.

Agricultural revolution.

• B.

Demographic transition

• C.

Medical revolution.

• D.

Industrial Revolution.

• E.

American Revolution

D. Industrial Revolution.
Explanation
The correct answer is Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution, which began in the late 18th century, brought about significant advancements in technology, manufacturing, and transportation. These advancements led to increased productivity and economic growth, which in turn led to a population boom. The improved living conditions, access to better nutrition, and medical advancements during this time also contributed to increased life expectancy and population growth. Therefore, the Industrial Revolution is the most plausible explanation for the annual global population growth rate increasing approximately two hundred years ago.

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• 8.

### In comparing Malthus's theory to actual world food production and population growth during the past half-century, the principal difference is that

• A.

Actual food production has been much higher than Malthus predicted

• B.

Malthus's theory predicted much higher food production than has actually occurred.

• C.

Malthus's theory predicted much higher population growth than has actually occurred.

• D.

Actual population growth has been much higher than Malthus predicted.

• E.

Actual population growth has been mucj higher, while food production has been reduced

A. Actual food production has been much higher than Malthus predicted
Explanation
Malthus's theory predicted that food production would not be able to keep up with population growth, leading to widespread famine and starvation. However, in the past half-century, actual food production has been much higher than Malthus predicted. This suggests that advancements in agricultural technology, such as the Green Revolution, have allowed for increased food production and the ability to feed a growing population.

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• 9.

### Which of the following countries most likely has the highest agricultural density?

• A.

USA

• B.

Egypt

• C.

England

• D.

Netherlands

• E.

Germany

B. Egypt
Explanation
Egypt most likely has the highest agricultural density because it is known for its fertile land along the Nile River, which supports extensive agricultural activities. The country has a long history of agriculture, with a significant portion of its population engaged in farming. Additionally, Egypt's climate and irrigation systems contribute to its high agricultural productivity, making it a favorable environment for cultivating crops.

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• 10.

### In the 1990s, which key factor was identified by the United Nations population conference as the key to controlling population growth

• A.

Political ideology

• B.

Farming methods

• C.

HIV/AIDS

• D.

The status of women

• E.

Health care

D. The status of women
Explanation
The United Nations population conference identified the status of women as the key factor to controlling population growth in the 1990s. This is because empowering women and improving their status leads to increased access to education, healthcare, and economic opportunities. When women have control over their reproductive choices and are able to make informed decisions about family planning, population growth can be effectively managed. Additionally, addressing gender inequality and promoting women's rights can have positive ripple effects on various social and economic aspects, contributing to sustainable development.

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• 11.

### Net immigration means

• A.

More people leave a country than enter

• B.

More people accept migrants

• C.

• D.

More people enter a country as immigrants than leave as emigrants

• E.

The amount of migrants working illegally

D. More people enter a country as immigrants than leave as emigrants
Explanation
Net immigration refers to the situation where more people enter a country as immigrants than leave as emigrants. This means that the number of individuals who choose to migrate and settle in the country is higher than the number of individuals who decide to leave and live elsewhere. It indicates a positive balance of immigration, suggesting that the country is attracting more people to come and live within its borders than it is losing to emigration.

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• 12.

### Why do most people migrate

• A.

Economic

• B.

Social

• C.

Cultural

• D.

Environmental

• E.

Religious

A. Economic
Explanation
Most people migrate for economic reasons. Economic factors such as job opportunities, higher wages, better living conditions, and improved economic prospects are often the main drivers behind migration. People often move to find better economic opportunities and to improve their standard of living for themselves and their families. Economic migration is common in both developed and developing countries, as individuals seek to escape poverty, unemployment, or lack of economic opportunities in their home countries.

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• 13.

### Distance decay in regards to migration means that?

• A.

The further away something is the more things will decay along the way

• B.

The further away something is the more attractive it is to migrants

• C.

The further away something is the less attractive it is to migrants

• D.

The further away a place is the less likely people are to relocate to it

• E.

The closer something is the less people will want to be there

D. The further away a place is the less likely people are to relocate to it
Explanation
Distance decay in regards to migration means that the further away a place is, the less likely people are to relocate to it. This concept suggests that distance plays a significant role in influencing migration patterns, with individuals being more inclined to move to places that are closer to their current location. As the distance increases, the attractiveness of a place decreases, leading to a lower likelihood of people choosing to relocate there.

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• 14.

### A Country in __________ of the demographic transition model is most likely to need migrants because

• A.

Stage 2 of the DTM has a high dependency ratio of young people and needs nannies

• B.

Stage 3 of the demographic transition model as the country requires more workers

• C.

Stage 4 of the DTM as the country has a high dependency ratio of old people and needs young workers to help with social security costs

• D.

Stage 4 of the DTM as the country requires young males of military age to remain secure

• E.

Stage 2 of the DTM so that young people can move in and provide much needed infrastructure

C. Stage 4 of the DTM as the country has a high dependency ratio of old people and needs young workers to help with social security costs
Explanation
In stage 4 of the demographic transition model, a country has a high dependency ratio of old people, meaning that there are more elderly people who are not in the workforce compared to the working-age population. This puts a strain on social security costs, as there are fewer workers contributing to support the elderly population. Therefore, the country would need young workers to help sustain the social security system and alleviate the burden of these costs.

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• 15.

### The Hmong tradition of bringing family members to the United States after some family members have migrated is an example of

• A.

Environmental pull factors.

• B.

Intervening opportunity.

• C.

Intervening obstacle

• D.

Chain migration

• E.

Brain drain

• F.

Brain drain

D. Chain migration
Explanation
Chain migration refers to the process where immigrants establish a new home in a foreign country and then facilitate the immigration of their family members and relatives to join them. In the case of the Hmong tradition, it involves bringing family members to the United States after some family members have already migrated. This practice exemplifies chain migration as it demonstrates the pattern of successive waves of migration driven by existing social networks and connections between migrants and their families.

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• 16.

### Which of the following events would be considered a migration pull factor?

• A.

Communist takeover of a government

• B.

Opening of a new factory

• C.

Flooding of a river

• D.

Failed harvest

• E.

War in the host country

B. Opening of a new factory
Explanation
The opening of a new factory would be considered a migration pull factor because it creates job opportunities and economic growth in the area. People from other regions or countries may be attracted to migrate to the location where the factory is opening in order to find employment and improve their living conditions. This event acts as a positive incentive for migration, as it offers the prospect of better economic prospects and a higher standard of living.

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• 17.

### The delivery area of Pittsburgh Gazette is an example of what type of region?

• A.

Functional region

• B.

Formal region

• C.

Vernacular region

• D.

Statistical region

• E.

Urban realm

A. Functional region
Explanation
The delivery area of Pittsburgh Gazette is an example of a functional region because it is defined by the function or purpose it serves, which is the distribution of the newspaper. This region is centered around the newspaper's headquarters and extends to the areas where the newspaper is delivered.

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• 18.

### Which land use system came from the British and still used today in many parts of New England?

• A.

Metes and bounds

• B.

Long lots

• C.

Township and range

• D.

Agricultural ordinance system

• E.

Urbanization

A. Metes and bounds
Explanation
Metes and bounds is the correct answer because it is a land use system that originated from the British and is still used today in many parts of New England. This system involves using physical features and measurements to define property boundaries, and it is commonly used in areas with irregularly shaped land parcels. Long lots, township and range, agricultural ordinance system, and urbanization are not land use systems that came from the British and are not specifically associated with New England.

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• 19.

### In 1492 Christopher Columbus’s voyage took nearly 40 days to cross the Atlantic Ocean, a trip that would take a modern ship less than one week. This difference best reflects the geographic concept of

• A.

Distance decay

• B.

Uneven development

• C.

Stimulus diffusion

• D.

Space-time compression

• E.

Distribution

D. Space-time compression
Explanation
Space-time compression refers to the idea that advancements in transportation and communication technologies have made the world feel smaller and reduced the time it takes to travel and exchange information across long distances. The fact that Christopher Columbus's voyage took 40 days to cross the Atlantic Ocean, while a modern ship can do it in less than a week, demonstrates how advancements in technology have compressed the space and time required for long-distance travel.

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• 20.

### The borders of American south or “Dixie” as a culture region are

• A.

Defined by the locations of all NASCAR races and country music radio stations

• B.

Poorly-defined fuzzy borders which overlap other American culture regions

• C.

A finite political boundary which surrounds the Civil War-era

• D.

Defined by the planting range of agricultural products like peanuts and cotton

• E.

A measurable transition zone of 10 miles along the Mason-Dixon line

B. Poorly-defined fuzzy borders which overlap other American culture regions
Explanation
The correct answer is "poorly-defined fuzzy borders which overlap other American culture regions". This is because the borders of the American south, also known as "Dixie," are not clearly defined and can vary depending on different factors such as historical, cultural, and geographical influences. It is a region that overlaps with other American culture regions, making it difficult to pinpoint exact boundaries.

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• 21.

### In approximately 365 1/4 days the earth completes

• A.

One rotation

• B.

One eclipse

• C.

One leap year

• D.

One revolution

• E.

One crossword puzzle

D. One revolution
Explanation
The earth completes one revolution in approximately 365 1/4 days. This refers to the movement of the earth around the sun in its orbit. The rotation of the earth on its axis causes day and night, while the revolution around the sun causes the change in seasons. Therefore, the correct answer is "one revolution."

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• 22.

### Which of the the following would have the smallest map scale?

• A.

Map of Kentucky

• B.

Map of Asia

• C.

Map of Asia

• D.

Map of 6th Avenue, New York City

• E.

Map of Nashville, Tn

C. Map of Asia
Explanation
A map's scale reflects the relationship between distances on the map and real-world distances. The smaller the scale, the larger the area covered with less detail. Therefore, the "Map of the World" has the smallest scale among the options, as it encompasses the entire Earth, providing a broad overview with limited detail. In contrast, maps of specific locations, like "6th Avenue, New York City," have larger scales, offering more detail for smaller areas.

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• 23.

### The amount of limited space has caused ______________ to vigorously adopt international trade and land reclamation

• A.

Netherlands

• B.

Ireland

• C.

Belgium

• D.

Spain

• E.

England

A. Netherlands
Explanation
The Netherlands has a limited amount of space due to its geographic location, with a significant portion of its land being below sea level. As a result, the country has been forced to adopt international trade and land reclamation strategies to make the most of its available land. This includes building dikes and polders to reclaim land from the sea, as well as actively engaging in international trade to compensate for its limited space.

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• 24.

### Distortion can be defined as

• A.

The process of calculating map scale

• B.

A mathematical formula for translating cultural understandings of rivers

• C.

A spherical scaled model of earth

• D.

A technique for giving each location on earth a corresponding place on a flat surface

• E.

The error of accuracy that occurs in all maps

E. The error of accuracy that occurs in all maps
Explanation
Distortion refers to the error of accuracy that occurs in all maps. When representing the three-dimensional Earth on a two-dimensional map, it is impossible to maintain accurate proportions, shapes, distances, and areas of all features simultaneously. This leads to distortions in various aspects of the map, such as the shape of landmasses, the size of countries, or the distance between points. Different map projections attempt to minimize certain types of distortions, but some level of distortion is inevitable in all maps.

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• 25.

### What type of survey pattern was initiated by the French and the United States and is still evident in the Louisiana region of the United States today?

• A.

Long lots system

• B.

Township and range system

• C.

Metes and bounds

• D.

Nucleated town system

• E.

Concentric urban framework

A. Long lots system
Explanation
The long lots system is a type of survey pattern that was initiated by the French and the United States and is still evident in the Louisiana region of the United States today. This system involves dividing land into long, narrow lots that extend back from a river or road. Each lot has access to water and transportation, making it an efficient and practical way to distribute land in a region with a prominent waterway like Louisiana. This system is different from other survey patterns such as the township and range system, metes and bounds, nucleated town system, and concentric urban framework.

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• 26.

### What is the name of the supranational organization established in 1960 to control the trade of petroleum production by its members?

• A.

NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)

• B.

OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)

• C.

European Union

• D.

PRA (Pacific Rim Alliances)

• E.

CENTO (Central Treaty Organization)

B. OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
Explanation
OPEC, or the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, is the correct answer because it was established in 1960 to control the trade of petroleum production by its members. OPEC is a supranational organization composed of 13 oil-producing countries, including Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Venezuela, among others. Its main goal is to coordinate and stabilize oil prices in the global market, ensuring fair and stable returns for member countries. OPEC also plays a significant role in influencing global energy policies and decisions related to oil production and distribution.

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• 27.

### Which of the following is the best example of a nation-state?

• A.

Romania

• B.

Vietnam

• C.

Argentina

• D.

Zimbabwe

• E.

Denmark

E. Denmark
Explanation
Denmark is the best example of a nation-state because it is a sovereign state with defined borders and a population that shares a common culture, language, and history. It has a stable government and a strong sense of national identity. Denmark is recognized as a nation-state both domestically and internationally, and its citizens have a strong sense of belonging and loyalty to their country.

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• 28.

### The majority of the entrants into the United Nations, a supranational organization, came from where during the 1960s?

• A.

Europe

• B.

South America

• C.

Pacific Islands

• D.

Africa

• E.

Central Asia

D. Africa
Explanation
During the 1960s, many African countries gained independence from their colonial powers. As a result, a significant number of these newly independent nations joined the United Nations, a supranational organization aimed at promoting international cooperation and peace. This influx of African countries into the United Nations during the 1960s makes Africa the correct answer.

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• 29.

### Which supranational organization was established to prevent the Heartland from spreading after WWII

• A.

The EU

• B.

Warsaw Pact

• C.

UN

• D.

NAFTA

C. UN
Explanation
The United Nations (UN) was established after WWII with the primary objective of preventing the spread of conflicts and maintaining international peace and security. While the European Union (EU) was formed to promote economic and political integration among European countries, the Warsaw Pact was a military alliance between Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellite states. NAFTA, on the other hand, is a trade agreement between the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Therefore, the UN is the most appropriate supranational organization that was established to prevent the spread of the Heartland after WWII.

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• 30.

### All of the following are nations without a state EXCEPT

• A.

Basques

• B.

Hmong

• C.

Zulus

• D.

Kurds

• E.

Thais

E. Thais
Explanation
The question asks for a nation without a state, and all of the options listed are ethnic groups that do not have their own independent state except for Thais. Basques, Hmong, Zulus, and Kurds are all ethnic groups that have distinct cultural identities and aspirations for self-determination, but do not have their own independent nation-state. Thais, on the other hand, are the dominant ethnic group in Thailand, which is a sovereign state. Therefore, Thais are not a nation without a state, making them the exception in this list.

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• 31.

### Romania’s relationship to the former Soviet Union could best be described as a

• A.

Nation belt

• B.

Shatterbelt

• C.

Satellite state

• D.

Stateless nation

• E.

Unitary government

C. Satellite state
Explanation
Romania's relationship to the former Soviet Union can be best described as a satellite state. A satellite state refers to a country that is formally independent but under heavy political, economic, and military influence from a more powerful country. During the Cold War, Romania was a member of the Warsaw Pact and had close ties with the Soviet Union. It followed the Soviet Union's political and economic policies, and its government was heavily influenced by Moscow. Therefore, the term "satellite state" accurately describes Romania's relationship with the former Soviet Union.

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• 32.

### In the early 1990’s Germany saw East and West Germany come together to form one country. This is the process of

• A.

Regionalism

• B.

Gerrymandering

• C.

Reapportionment

• D.

Reunification

• E.

Supranationalism

D. Reunification
Explanation
In the early 1990s, Germany experienced the merging of East and West Germany to become one country. This process is known as reunification. It involved the integration of the two regions that had been separated by the Berlin Wall for several decades. Reunification brought about political, social, and economic changes as the two regions merged their systems and institutions.

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• 33.

### Governments such as those controlled by the Taliban in Afghanistan and the Ayatollah Khomeini in Iran are classified as

• A.

Landlocked

• B.

Parliamentary

• C.

Federal

• D.

Theocratic

• E.

Microstates

D. Theocratic
Explanation
Governments controlled by the Taliban in Afghanistan and the Ayatollah Khomeini in Iran are classified as theocratic. This is because these governments are based on religious principles and are ruled by religious leaders who hold ultimate authority. Theocratic governments prioritize religious laws and doctrines over secular laws and often enforce strict religious practices. In the case of the Taliban and Ayatollah Khomeini, their rule was based on Islamic principles, making them examples of theocratic governments.

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• 34.

### Which of the following significantly weakened the strength of Mackinder’s geopolitical heartland theroy?

• A.

Ascending of the United Statesâ€™ international influnece after World War 2

• B.

Existence of a pivot area

• C.

Growth of soviet power in Eastern Europe

• D.

Influence of Eurasia in World affairs

• E.

Rise of Nazi Germany

A. Ascending of the United Statesâ€™ international influnece after World War 2
Explanation
The ascending of the United States' international influence after World War 2 significantly weakened the strength of Mackinder's geopolitical heartland theory. This is because Mackinder's theory emphasized the importance of controlling the heartland, which consisted of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, in order to dominate the world. However, with the United States emerging as a superpower and exerting its influence globally, the focus of power shifted away from the heartland. The United States' dominance and its ability to project power across the globe undermined the significance of controlling the heartland as the key to global dominance.

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• 35.

### The definition of United Kingdom (Great Britain) as a nation-state would be incorrect because of

• A.

The countryâ€™s membership in the European Union

• B.

Its physical location as an island nation

• C.

The widespread use of the English language in the countries outside of the UK.

• D.

The large-scale fragmentation of the British Empire in the twelfth century

• E.

The internal cultural difference between England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland

E. The internal cultural difference between England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland
Explanation
The internal cultural difference between England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland would make the definition of United Kingdom (Great Britain) as a nation-state incorrect. This is because a nation-state is typically defined as a political entity where the people share a common culture, language, and history. However, the United Kingdom is made up of four distinct countries with their own unique cultural identities, which makes it more of a multinational state rather than a nation-state.

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• 36.

### Europe and Asia are primarily divided along a line that extends along the

• A.

Himalayas and Indian Ocean

• B.

Ural Mountains, Black Sea and Caspain Sea

• C.

Volga River and Dinaric Alps

• D.

Transylvanian Alps and Danube River

• E.

Alps, Black Sea, and Indian Ocean

B. Ural Mountains, Black Sea and Caspain Sea
Explanation
Europe and Asia are primarily divided along a line that extends along the Ural Mountains, Black Sea, and Caspian Sea. The Ural Mountains act as a natural boundary between the two continents, separating the European and Asian landmasses. The Black Sea and Caspian Sea further contribute to the division, as they are large bodies of water that serve as additional markers along this boundary line. Therefore, this line of division accurately represents the geographical separation between Europe and Asia.

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• 37.

### Northern Ireland has remained British because

• A.

Britain want to promote Protestantism

• B.

The British wish to protect the rights of Northern Irish Muslims in Belfast

• C.

A small majority of Northern Irish wish to remain British

• D.

The British have violently suppressed Irish nationalism in Northern Ireland

• E.

Britain wants to promote the Catholic Church

C. A small majority of Northern Irish wish to remain British
Explanation
The correct answer is that a small majority of Northern Irish wish to remain British. This means that the majority of people in Northern Ireland prefer to maintain their status as part of the United Kingdom rather than becoming part of a unified Ireland. This preference is a significant factor in why Northern Ireland has remained British.

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• 38.

### Which two countries alone have close to 2,000 of the 6,000 languages spoken in the world today?

• A.

China and India

• B.

India and Nigeria

• C.

Papua New Guinea and India

• D.

Thailand and Papua New Guinea

• E.

India and Thailand

C. Papua New Guinea and India
Explanation
Papua New Guinea and India are the two countries that have close to 2,000 of the 6,000 languages spoken in the world today. This is because Papua New Guinea is known for its linguistic diversity, with over 800 languages spoken in the country. India, on the other hand, is home to a large number of languages due to its vast population and diverse culture. Together, these two countries contribute significantly to the total number of languages spoken worldwide.

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• 39.

### A Walloon is

• A.

A Dutch speaking Belgium

• B.

A French speaking Belgium

• C.

Someone who perceived as is bad at soccer

• D.

A German speaking French national

• E.

A Celtic speaking British national

B. A French speaking Belgium
Explanation
A Walloon is a French speaking Belgium.

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• 40.

### Which of the following languages would seldom be used as a lingua-franca

• A.

Spanish

• B.

English

• C.

French

• D.

Mandarin, Chinese

• E.

Japanese

E. Japanese
Explanation
Japanese would seldom be used as a lingua-franca because it is primarily spoken in Japan and has limited usage outside of the country. In contrast, Spanish, English, French, and Mandarin Chinese are widely spoken and used as lingua-francas in various parts of the world.

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• 41.

### Celtic languages are most often spoken as

• A.

First languages in the eastern parts of the Europe

• B.

Second languages in the north western parts of Europe

• C.

Second languages in the south-west of Europe

• D.

First languages in the Baltic region

• E.

Second languages in the north-eastern parts of the British Isles

B. Second languages in the north western parts of Europe
Explanation
Celtic languages are most often spoken as second languages in the northwestern parts of Europe. This suggests that while Celtic languages are not the primary languages spoken in this region, they are still commonly spoken and used as a second language by many individuals. This indicates that there is a significant presence of Celtic languages in the northwestern parts of Europe, even though they may not be the dominant languages in these areas.

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• 42.

### The first speakers of the language that evolved into English were tribes that lived in present-day

• A.

Roman Empire

• B.

Denmark.

• C.

France.

• D.

United States.

• E.

Russia

B. Denmark.
Explanation
The correct answer is Denmark. The first speakers of the language that evolved into English were tribes that lived in present-day Denmark. These tribes, known as the Anglo-Saxons, migrated to the British Isles in the 5th and 6th centuries. They brought their language, which eventually developed into Old English, the precursor to modern English. This migration and the subsequent influence of other languages and cultures shaped the English language as we know it today.

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• 43.

### Which of the following is not a Romance language?

• A.

Romanian

• B.

Portuguese

• C.

Italian

• D.

Bulgarian

• E.

French

D. Bulgarian
Explanation
Bulgarian is not a Romance language. The Romance languages are derived from Latin and include languages such as Romanian, Portuguese, Italian, and French. Bulgarian, on the other hand, is a South Slavic language and belongs to the Slavic language family. Therefore, it is not considered a Romance language.

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• 44.

### The most widely spoken Indo-European language is

• A.

French

• B.

English.

• C.

Hindi.

• D.

Spanish.

• E.

None of the above

B. English.
Explanation
English is the most widely spoken Indo-European language because it is the official language of many countries, including the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. It is also widely used as a second language in many other countries. English has become a global language of communication, business, science, and technology, which has contributed to its widespread usage and popularity. Additionally, the historical influence of the British Empire and the United States has played a significant role in the spread of the English language worldwide.

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• 45.

### Recent evidence points to the first speakers of the Indo-European language as the ancient

• A.

Celts.

• B.

Russians.

• C.

Norman

• D.

Kurgans

• E.

Germans.

D. Kurgans
Explanation
Recent evidence suggests that the first speakers of the Indo-European language were the Kurgans. The Kurgans were a nomadic pastoralist culture that existed during the Bronze Age in the Pontic-Caspian steppe region (modern-day Ukraine and Russia). Archaeological and linguistic studies have found similarities between the Kurgan culture and the spread of the Indo-European language family across Europe and Asia. This evidence includes the presence of Kurgan burial mounds, known as kurgans, which contain artifacts and remains that align with Indo-European cultural and linguistic traits. Therefore, the Kurgans are believed to be the most likely originators of the Indo-European language.

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• 46.

### Which religion is the largest universalizing religion in the world today?

• A.

Christianity

• B.

Islam

• C.

Buddhism

• D.

Judaism

• E.

Hinduism

A. Christianity
Explanation
Christianity is the largest universalizing religion in the world today because it has the highest number of followers worldwide. With over 2.3 billion adherents, Christianity has a significant global presence and is practiced in almost every country. It originated from the teachings of Jesus Christ and spread through missionary work and colonization. Christianity's universal message of salvation and its emphasis on evangelism have contributed to its widespread adoption and growth.

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• 47.

### Which of the following is NOT associated with Hindu religion?

• A.

Brahma

• B.

Caste System

• C.

Shiva

• D.

Vishnu

• E.

Mecca

E. Mecca
Explanation
Mecca is not associated with Hindu religion. Mecca is a holy city in Islam and is considered the birthplace of Prophet Muhammad. Hinduism, on the other hand, is a different religion with its own set of deities and beliefs. Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu are all prominent deities in Hinduism, while the Caste System is a social structure that is closely associated with Hinduism.

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• 48.

### A universalizing religion

• A.

Can only be monotheistic

• B.

Is based on the physical characteristics of a particular location on Earth.

• C.

Is rarely transmitted through missionaries.

• D.

Is intentionally developed to be a world religion.

• E.

Appeals to people living in a wide variety of locations.

E. Appeals to people living in a wide variety of locations.
Explanation
A universalizing religion appeals to people living in a wide variety of locations because it is designed to be accessible and relevant to all people, regardless of their geographic location. It seeks to spread its beliefs and teachings to all corners of the world and attract followers from diverse backgrounds. This is in contrast to a religion that is based on the physical characteristics of a particular location or is only monotheistic. It also differs from a religion that is rarely transmitted through missionaries or one that is intentionally developed to be a world religion.

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• 49.

### Lutheranism is an example of a Christian

• A.

Branch

• B.

Denomination

• C.

Religion

• D.

Sect

• E.

Sub-group

B. Denomination
Explanation
Lutheranism is considered a denomination within Christianity because it represents a distinct branch or subgroup of the larger Christian faith. Denominations typically have their own specific beliefs, practices, and organizational structures that differentiate them from other groups within the same religion. In the case of Lutheranism, it originated from the teachings of Martin Luther during the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century and has since developed its own distinct theological perspectives and traditions.

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• 50.

### In ranked order, (most important to lesser importance) the holiest cities for Muslims are

• A.

Jakarta, Makkah, Medinah

• B.

Jerusalem, Makkah, Medinah

• C.

Medinah, Makkah, Jerusalem

• D.

Makkah, Medinah, Jerusalem

• E.

D. Makkah, Medinah, Jerusalem
Explanation
The correct answer is Makkah, Medinah, Jerusalem. This is because Makkah is considered the holiest city for Muslims as it is the birthplace of Prophet Muhammad and the location of the Kaaba, the most sacred site in Islam. Medinah is the second holiest city as it is the city where Prophet Muhammad migrated to and established the first Islamic state. Jerusalem is also considered a holy city for Muslims as it is home to the Al-Aqsa Mosque, the third holiest site in Islam.

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• Dec 03, 2013
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