Antimicrobial Therapy And Cell Wall Inhibitors

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| By Biologyfreak91
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Antimicrobial Therapy And Cell Wall Inhibitors - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Of these First Generation Cephalosporins, which one has a loner duration of action?

    • A.

      Cephalexin

    • B.

      Cefazolin

    • C.

      Cefuroxime

    • D.

      Cefixime

    Correct Answer
    B. Cefazolin
    Explanation
    Cefazolin has a longer duration of action compared to the other first-generation cephalosporins, including cephalexin, cefuroxime, and cefixime.

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  • 2. 

    Which of these second generation Cephalosporins is effective against abdominal sepsis, gynecological sepsis and anaerobe organisms?

    • A.

      Cefixime

    • B.

      Cefoxitin

    • C.

      Cefuroxime

    • D.

      Ceftriaxone

    Correct Answer
    B. Cefoxitin
    Explanation
    Cefoxitin is effective against abdominal sepsis, gynecological sepsis, and anaerobe organisms. This is because Cefoxitin belongs to the second generation of Cephalosporins, which have a broader spectrum of activity compared to the first generation. It has good activity against anaerobic bacteria, making it suitable for treating infections in the abdomen and gynecological area where anaerobic organisms are commonly found. Cefixime, Cefuroxime, and Ceftriaxone are not specifically indicated for anaerobic infections or sepsis in these areas.

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  • 3. 

    Penicillins are bacteriostatic antibiotics, thus controlling the growth of the bacteria but not killing it.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Penicillins are bactericidal antibiotics. They interfere with the last step of bacterial cell wall synthesis resulting in osmotically less stable membranes.

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  • 4. 

    Penicillins are susceptible to Beta-lactamase. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Penicillins are susceptible to beta-lactamase, which is an enzyme produced by some bacteria that can break down the beta-lactam ring in penicillins, rendering them ineffective. This susceptibility is a significant limitation of penicillins, as it reduces their effectiveness against certain bacterial infections. Therefore, the statement "Penicillins are susceptible to beta-lactamase" is true.

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  • 5. 

    Penicillins are effective against which of these organisms. (Choose 3)

    • A.

      Mycobacteria

    • B.

      Fungi

    • C.

      S. pneumoniae

    • D.

      Bacilus antracis

    • E.

      Neisseria gonorrhea

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. S. pneumoniae
    D. Bacilus antracis
    E. Neisseria gonorrhea
    Explanation
    Penicillins are a class of antibiotics that are effective against a wide range of bacterial infections. The organisms listed in the answer choices are all bacteria. Mycobacteria are not susceptible to penicillins, so they are not included in the correct answer. Fungi are not bacteria, so they are also not included in the correct answer. However, S. pneumoniae, Bacilus antracis, and Neisseria gonorrhea are all bacteria that can be treated with penicillins, making them the correct choices.

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  • 6. 

    Penicillin G are always given orally. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    They are not acid resistant, so they will not survive the gastric acids.

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  • 7. 

    Natural resistance occurs in an organism that lacks ______________ or have cells walls that are impermeable to drugs. 

    Correct Answer
    peptidoglycan cell wall
    Explanation
    The correct answer is peptidoglycan cell wall. Peptidoglycan is a structural component of bacterial cell walls that provides strength and rigidity. Organisms that lack peptidoglycan cell walls or have impermeable cell walls are naturally resistant to drugs because the drugs cannot penetrate the cell wall to reach their target sites.

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  • 8. 

    Bacterial resistance occurs when a certain type of bacteria is destroyed with any antibiotic.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Bacteria is said to be resistant to an antibiotic if their growth is not halted by the maximal level of that antibiotic that can be tolerated by the host.

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  • 9. 

    All Penicillins cross the placenta and Blood-Brain Barrier in all stages of disease. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Only some cross the BB barrier, during acute disease stage.

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  • 10. 

    Main route for excretion of penicillins is?

    • A.

      Liver

    • B.

      Respiratory System

    • C.

      Tubular/glomerular secretory system

    Correct Answer
    C. Tubular/glomerular secretory system
    Explanation
    The main route for excretion of penicillins is the tubular/glomerular secretory system. This system is responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and excreting them through urine. Penicillins, being a type of antibiotic, are metabolized in the liver and then eliminated from the body through the kidneys via this secretory system. They are actively transported from the blood into the kidney tubules, where they are further concentrated and eventually excreted in the urine.

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  • 11. 

    Most common adverse reactions to penicillins include, but are not limited to...

    • A.

      Excessive sweating and flushing of the face, miosis, diarrhea, and decrease blood pressure.

    • B.

      Sleepiness, dry mouth, constipation, and dizziness.

    • C.

      Hypersensitivity, Diarrhea, and Platelet Dysfunction.

    • D.

      Shortness of breath, convulsion, bradycardia and mydriasis.

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypersensitivity, Diarrhea, and Platelet Dysfunction.
    Explanation
    The most common adverse reactions to penicillins are hypersensitivity, diarrhea, and platelet dysfunction. These reactions can occur in individuals who are allergic to penicillin or have a sensitivity to it. Hypersensitivity reactions can range from mild rashes to severe anaphylaxis. Diarrhea is a common side effect of antibiotics and can occur due to disruption of the normal gut flora. Platelet dysfunction can lead to an increased risk of bleeding.

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  • 12. 

    Choose 2 Cephalosporins which are effective against Meningitis and have good Cerebrospinal Fluid penetration.  

    • A.

      Cefotaxime

    • B.

      Cefclor

    • C.

      Cefuroxime

    • D.

      Ceftriaxone

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cefotaxime
    D. Ceftriaxone
    Explanation
    Cefotaxime and Ceftriaxone are both effective against Meningitis and have good Cerebrospinal Fluid penetration. These cephalosporins are able to cross the blood-brain barrier and reach the central nervous system, making them effective in treating infections in the brain and spinal cord. They have a broad spectrum of activity against various bacteria, including those commonly associated with Meningitis. Additionally, they have a longer half-life, allowing for less frequent dosing compared to some other cephalosporins.

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  • 13. 

    Cephalosporins have poor oral absorption. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are known to have poor oral absorption. This means that when taken orally, they are not well absorbed into the bloodstream and may not reach effective concentrations in the body to fight off infections. Therefore, it is true that cephalosporins have poor oral absorption.

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  • 14. 

    Excretion of Cephalosporins is through which system?

    • A.

      Liver

    • B.

      Lymphatic Nodes

    • C.

      Kidney

    • D.

      Bone marrow

    Correct Answer
    C. Kidney
    Explanation
    Cephalosporins are a type of antibiotic that are eliminated from the body through the process of excretion. The kidneys play a crucial role in excreting waste products, including drugs, from the body. They filter the blood, remove waste substances, and produce urine, which carries these waste products out of the body. Therefore, the correct answer is kidney, as it is the primary system responsible for the excretion of cephalosporins.

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  • 15. 

    Imipenem and Meropenem are which type of antibiotic?

    • A.

      Penicillin

    • B.

      Monobactams

    • C.

      Cephalosporins

    • D.

      Carbapanems

    Correct Answer
    D. Carbapanems
    Explanation
    Imipenem and Meropenem belong to the class of antibiotics called Carbapenems. Carbapenems are broad-spectrum antibiotics that are effective against a wide range of bacteria, including those that are resistant to other types of antibiotics. They work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, leading to the death of the bacteria. Imipenem and Meropenem are commonly used to treat severe infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria.

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  • 16. 

    Of all antibiotics presented, which one has the broadest spectrum of therapy? 

    • A.

      Carpanems

    • B.

      Penicillins

    • C.

      Cephalosporins

    • D.

      Monobactams

    Correct Answer
    A. Carpanems
    Explanation
    Carbapenems have the broadest spectrum of therapy among all the antibiotics presented. They are effective against a wide range of bacteria, including both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Carbapenems are often reserved for treating serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms or in cases where the exact bacteria causing the infection is unknown. They are considered a last resort antibiotic due to their potency and potential for developing antibiotic resistance.

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  • 17. 

    Which of these is excreted through the kidney 90-100% unchanged?

    • A.

      Bacitracin

    • B.

      Amoxicillin

    • C.

      Vancomycin

    • D.

      Methicillin

    Correct Answer
    C. Vancomycin
    Explanation
    Vancomycin is excreted through the kidney 90-100% unchanged. This means that the drug is not metabolized or broken down in the body, and is eliminated in its original form. This characteristic of vancomycin makes it an ideal drug for treating infections in the urinary tract, as it can be directly excreted through the kidneys without undergoing any chemical changes. Bacitracin, Amoxicillin, and Methicillin, on the other hand, undergo significant metabolism in the body before being eliminated, making them less suitable for urinary tract infections.

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  • 18. 

    Which of these is the drug of choice for treatment of antibiotic-induced colitis?

    • A.

      Vancomycin

    • B.

      Penicillin G

    • C.

      Bacitracin

    • D.

      Aztrenam

    Correct Answer
    A. Vancomycin
    Explanation
    Vancomycin is the drug of choice for the treatment of antibiotic-induced colitis. This is because it is effective against the bacteria Clostridium difficile, which is the main cause of antibiotic-induced colitis. Vancomycin is a potent antibiotic that specifically targets and kills C. difficile, helping to alleviate the symptoms of colitis. Penicillin G, Bacitracin, and Aztrenam are not the preferred choices for treating this condition.

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  • 19. 

    Which of these antibiotics is the only recommended antibiotic that pregnant women should use?

    • A.

      Vancomycin

    • B.

      Ampicillin

    • C.

      Amoxicillin

    • D.

      Penicillin V

    Correct Answer
    B. Ampicillin
    Explanation
    Ampicillin is the only recommended antibiotic for pregnant women because it is considered safe to use during pregnancy. It belongs to the penicillin class of antibiotics and is commonly used to treat various infections. Other antibiotics like Vancomycin, Amoxicillin, and Penicillin V may have potential risks or limited safety data during pregnancy. Therefore, Ampicillin is the preferred choice for pregnant women to ensure the health and well-being of both the mother and the baby.

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  • 20. 

    Why is bacitracin a poor choice for a systemic infection?

    • A.

      Poor oral absorption

    • B.

      Not excreted completely causing toxicity

    • C.

      Only available topically

    • D.

      Needed concentration in the host result in fatal toxicity

    Correct Answer
    C. Only available topically
    Explanation
    Bacitracin is a poor choice for a systemic infection because it is only available topically. This means that it is not designed to be absorbed into the bloodstream and distributed throughout the body to treat infections in various organs or tissues. Instead, it is meant to be applied directly to the skin or mucous membranes. Therefore, if used systemically, bacitracin would not be able to reach the site of infection effectively and provide the necessary concentration to combat the infection.

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  • 21. 

    A patient presents with conjunctivitis to your office. After examining the pt. you determine that this pt. needs antibiotics to treat the infective conjunctivitis. The correct course of action is to send the pt. for labs and wait for the results to determine the type of antibiotic you will prescribe.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The correct course of action is to prescribe a broad-spectrum antibiotic for the patient without waiting for lab results. This is because infective conjunctivitis is commonly caused by bacteria, and prompt treatment with antibiotics can help alleviate symptoms and prevent the spread of infection. Waiting for lab results may delay treatment and potentially worsen the patient's condition.

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  • 22. 

    When determining the type of agent you will use to treat an infection you take into account: the immune system  of the host, and renal or hepatica dysfunction. We do not take into account pregnancy since antibiotics cannot pass the placenta barrier. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer (False) is that when determining the type of agent to treat an infection, we do take into account pregnancy. This is because certain antibiotics can cross the placenta barrier and potentially harm the developing fetus. Therefore, it is important to consider the safety of the medication for both the pregnant individual and the fetus.

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  • 23. 

    It is possible for an agent to be bacteriostatical with a certain organism and bacteriocidal with another organism. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    It is possible for an agent to be bacteriostatic with one organism, meaning it inhibits the growth and reproduction of bacteria, while being bactericidal with another organism, meaning it kills the bacteria. Different organisms may have varying susceptibility to different agents, hence an agent can have different effects on different organisms. Therefore, the statement is true.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 28, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Biologyfreak91
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