Penicillin And Cephalosporins

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Penicillin And Cephalosporins - Quiz

This quiz is to help in understanding of how penicillin and macrolides work


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Penicillin is active against what?

    • A.

      Gram + cocci

    • B.

      Strep

    • C.

      Gram - cocci

    • D.

      Gram - baccilli

    • E.

      Staph

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Gram + cocci
    B. Strep
    E. Staph
    Explanation
    Penicillin is a type of antibiotic that is effective against certain types of bacteria. Gram-positive cocci, strep, and staph are all types of bacteria that are susceptible to penicillin. Gram-negative cocci and gram-negative bacilli, on the other hand, are not typically sensitive to penicillin. Therefore, the correct answer is gram + cocci, strep, and staph.

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  • 2. 

    What is the brand name for penicillin

    Correct Answer(s)
    veetids, pen vk
    Explanation
    The brand names "veetids" and "pen vk" are both associated with penicillin. Penicillin is a commonly used antibiotic medication that is prescribed to treat various bacterial infections. Veetids and pen vk are specific brand names under which penicillin is marketed and sold. These brand names help to differentiate different formulations or variations of penicillin, allowing healthcare professionals and patients to easily identify and access the specific type of penicillin they need for their treatment.

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  • 3. 

    What is the generic name for veetids

    Correct Answer(s)
    penicillin
    Explanation
    The generic name for Veetids is penicillin. Veetids is a brand name for a specific formulation of penicillin, which is a type of antibiotic. Penicillin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is commonly used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria and preventing them from forming cell walls. Veetids, being a brand name, is specific to a particular formulation of penicillin and may have different dosages or release mechanisms compared to other penicillin medications.

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  • 4. 

    What is the brand name for amoxicillin/clavulanate

    Correct Answer(s)
    augmentin, augmentin ES-600
    Explanation
    The brand name for the combination of amoxicillin and clavulanate is Augmentin. Augmentin ES-600 is a specific formulation of Augmentin that contains a higher dose of amoxicillin. Both Augmentin and Augmentin ES-600 are commonly prescribed antibiotics used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.

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  • 5. 

    What is the brand name for amoxil

    Correct Answer(s)
    amoxicillin
    Explanation
    Amoxicillin is the correct answer to the question "what is the brand name for amoxil." Amoxicillin is a commonly used antibiotic medication that is sold under various brand names, including Amoxil. It is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections and is available in different forms such as capsules, tablets, and oral suspensions. Amoxicillin belongs to the penicillin class of antibiotics and works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria. It is important to note that Amoxil is just one of the brand names for amoxicillin, and there may be other brand names available in different countries or regions.

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  • 6. 

    What is the mechanism of penicillins

    Correct Answer(s)
    inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin binding proteins and inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis
    Explanation
    Penicillins work by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. They achieve this by binding to penicillin binding proteins, which are enzymes involved in the formation of the bacterial cell wall. By binding to these proteins, penicillins prevent the synthesis of peptidoglycan, a key component of the cell wall. This weakens the bacterial cell wall, making it more susceptible to damage and ultimately leading to the death of the bacteria.

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  • 7. 

    Is penicillin vulnerable to penicillinase bacterial resistance?

    Correct Answer(s)
    yes
    Explanation
    Penicillin is vulnerable to penicillinase bacterial resistance because penicillinase is an enzyme produced by certain bacteria that can break down penicillin and render it ineffective. This resistance mechanism allows bacteria to survive and multiply even in the presence of penicillin, making it less effective in treating infections caused by these resistant bacteria.

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  • 8. 

    Penicillin is vulnerable to most strains of staph. aureus

    Correct Answer(s)
    true
    Explanation
    Penicillin is indeed vulnerable to most strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that can cause various infections, including skin infections, pneumonia, and bloodstream infections. However, over time, many strains of Staphylococcus aureus have developed resistance to penicillin and other antibiotics. This resistance is primarily due to the production of an enzyme called beta-lactamase, which breaks down penicillin and renders it ineffective. Therefore, while penicillin may still be effective against some strains of Staphylococcus aureus, it is generally considered vulnerable to most strains.

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  • 9. 

    By it self amoxicillin is vulnerable to beta-lactamase. so it is given with clavulanate.

    Correct Answer(s)
    true
    Explanation
    Amoxicillin is a commonly used antibiotic that is susceptible to beta-lactamase, an enzyme produced by bacteria that can inactivate the antibiotic. To overcome this vulnerability, amoxicillin is often combined with clavulanate, a beta-lactamase inhibitor. Clavulanate helps to protect amoxicillin from being broken down by the enzyme, allowing it to effectively kill bacteria. Therefore, the statement that amoxicillin is given with clavulanate to counteract beta-lactamase vulnerability is true.

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  • 10. 

    Amoxicillin has extended activity beyond penicillin to include

    • A.

      Haemophilus influenzae

    • B.

      Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    • C.

      Eschericha Coli

    • D.

      Enterococci

    • E.

      Proteus mirabis

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Haemophilus influenzae
    C. Eschericha Coli
    E. Proteus mirabis
    Explanation
    Amoxicillin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that belongs to the penicillin group. It is effective against a wide range of bacteria, including Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis. These bacteria are commonly associated with various infections such as respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and gastrointestinal infections. Therefore, amoxicillin's extended activity beyond penicillin includes these bacteria, making it an effective treatment option for infections caused by them.

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  • 11. 

    Clavulanate is a

    Correct Answer(s)
    beta lactamase inhibitor and entends the activity ofamoxicillin to beta-lactamase producing strainsof staph, H. flu,and E coli
    Explanation
    Clavulanate is a beta lactamase inhibitor, which means it prevents the action of beta-lactamase enzymes produced by certain bacteria. Beta-lactamase enzymes can inactivate antibiotics like amoxicillin, reducing their effectiveness against bacterial infections. By inhibiting beta-lactamase, clavulanate allows amoxicillin to remain active and effectively kill bacteria. This extends the activity of amoxicillin to beta-lactamase producing strains of bacteria such as staph, H. flu, and E. coli.

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  • 12. 

    Contradiction to using penicillin is

    Correct Answer(s)
    anaphylactic reaction to ANY penicillin
    Explanation
    An anaphylactic reaction refers to a severe and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction. The statement suggests that if someone has experienced an anaphylactic reaction to any form of penicillin, they should avoid using penicillin altogether. This is because there is a high risk that they will have a similar reaction if exposed to any type of penicillin medication. It is crucial for individuals with such a history to inform healthcare professionals about their allergy to ensure they are prescribed alternative antibiotics that are safe for them to use.

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  • 13. 

    Precautions for ANY penicillins

    Correct Answer(s)
    adjust dse in ptswith severe renal impairment
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that the dosage of penicillins should be adjusted in patients with severe renal impairment. This is because penicillins are primarily eliminated from the body through the kidneys, and in patients with impaired renal function, the clearance of the drug is reduced. Therefore, adjusting the dosage is necessary to prevent the accumulation of the drug and potential toxicity.

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  • 14. 

    What are the adverse effects of penicillin?

    • A.

      Mild diarrhea and nausea

    • B.

      Oral or vaginal candidiasis

    • C.

      Allergy-rash hives/SOB (rare)

    • D.

      Stevens johnson's syndrome

    • E.

      Nephrotoxocity

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Mild diarrhea and nausea
    B. Oral or vaginal candidiasis
    C. Allergy-rash hives/SOB (rare)
    Explanation
    Penicillin can cause several adverse effects, including mild diarrhea and nausea. This is a common side effect of the medication. Another potential adverse effect is the development of oral or vaginal candidiasis, which is a fungal infection. Allergic reactions to penicillin can also occur, presenting as a rash, hives, or shortness of breath, although this is rare. In severe cases, penicillin can lead to Stevens-Johnson syndrome, a serious skin condition. Lastly, penicillin can also have nephrotoxicity, which means it can cause damage to the kidneys.

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  • 15. 

    The pharmacokinetics of penicillin is that is eliminated how?

    Correct Answer(s)
    renally
    Explanation
    Penicillin is eliminated renally, meaning it is excreted from the body through the kidneys. This is a common route of elimination for many drugs and substances. The kidneys filter the penicillin from the blood and it is then excreted in the urine. Renal elimination is an important consideration in determining the dosage and frequency of administration for penicillin, as impaired kidney function can affect the drug's clearance from the body.

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  • 16. 

    What should you monitor while taking penicillin?

    • A.

      Signs of anaphylaxis during first dose

    • B.

      White blood cell count and febrile status, baseline serum creatinine

    • C.

      Nephrotoxicity

    • D.

      Blood urea nitrogen if renal impairment suspected

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Signs of anaphylaxis during first dose
    D. Blood urea nitrogen if renal impairment suspected
    Explanation
    While taking penicillin, it is important to monitor for signs of anaphylaxis during the first dose. Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can be life-threatening. Additionally, monitoring blood urea nitrogen is necessary if renal impairment is suspected. This is because penicillin can cause nephrotoxicity, which is damage to the kidneys. Monitoring these factors can help ensure the safety and effectiveness of penicillin treatment.

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  • 17. 

    What drug-drug interactions are seen with penicillins?

    Correct Answer(s)
    oral contraceptives failure
    Explanation
    Penicillins can interact with oral contraceptives, leading to a decrease in their effectiveness and potentially causing contraceptive failure. This interaction occurs because penicillins can alter the gut bacteria, which can in turn affect the metabolism of oral contraceptives. As a result, the hormones in the contraceptives may not be properly absorbed and may be excreted from the body before they can exert their contraceptive effects. It is important for individuals taking penicillins and oral contraceptives to use alternative methods of contraception to ensure effectiveness.

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  • 18. 

    Augmentin is dosed how?

    Correct Answer(s)
    mg/kg based on the amoxicillin component
    Explanation
    Augmentin is a combination medication that contains both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. When determining the dosage of Augmentin, it is typically based on the amoxicillin component of the medication. The dosage is calculated in milligrams per kilogram of body weight. This means that the amount of Augmentin a patient should take is determined by their weight and the recommended dosage per kilogram of amoxicillin.

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  • 19. 

    Penicillin SUSPENSION is stored in the refrigerator

    Correct Answer(s)
    true
    Explanation
    Penicillin suspension is stored in the refrigerator because refrigeration helps to maintain the stability and effectiveness of the medication. Cold temperatures slow down the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms, preventing them from degrading the penicillin. Additionally, refrigeration can help preserve the chemical structure of the medication, ensuring its potency over time. Storing penicillin suspension in the refrigerator is essential for maintaining its quality and safety for use.

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  • 20. 

    What is the generic name for keflex

    Correct Answer(s)
    cephalexin
    Explanation
    The generic name for Keflex is cephalexin.

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  • 21. 

    What is the generic name for cefzil

    Correct Answer(s)
    Explanation
    The generic name for Cefzil is cefprozil.

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  • 22. 

    What is the generic name for ceftin

    Correct Answer(s)
    cefuroxime
    Explanation
    The generic name for Ceftin is cefuroxime.

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  • 23. 

    What is the generic name for omnicef

    Correct Answer(s)
    cefdinir
    Explanation
    The generic name for Omnicef is cefdinir.

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  • 24. 

    What is the generic name for suprax

    Correct Answer(s)
    cefixime
    Explanation
    Cefixime is the generic name for Suprax. Generic names are the official names given to drugs, which are not brand names. Cefixime is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria, thus helping to alleviate the infection.

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  • 25. 

    What is the brand name for cephalexin, cefprozil, cefuroxime, cefdinir, cefixime

    Correct Answer(s)
    Explanation
    The brand name for cephalexin, cefprozil, cefuroxime, cefdinir, and cefixime is not provided in the question. Therefore, an explanation cannot be generated.

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  • 26. 

    Cephalosporin mechanism is what?

    Correct Answer(s)
    inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin binding proteins and inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis
    Explanation
    The mechanism of cephalosporin involves inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin binding proteins and inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis. This means that cephalosporin prevents the formation of the bacterial cell wall, which is essential for the bacteria's survival and replication. By targeting penicillin binding proteins, cephalosporin disrupts the synthesis of peptidoglycan, a major component of the bacterial cell wall. This weakens the cell wall, leading to bacterial cell death and ultimately, the elimination of the infection.

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  • 27. 

    Cephalexin, cefprozil, cefuroxime, cefdinir, cefixime belong to what class of antibiotics

    Correct Answer(s)
    Explanation
    Cephalexin, cefprozil, cefuroxime, cefdinir, and cefixime belong to the class of antibiotics known as cephalosporins. Cephalosporins are a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics that are effective against a wide range of bacteria. They work by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall, leading to the destruction of the bacteria. Cephalosporins are commonly used to treat various infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, and meningitis.

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  • 28. 

    First generation of cephalosporins, CEpHALEXIN, have good activity against what

    Correct Answer(s)
    gram +
    Explanation
    Cephalexin, which belongs to the first generation of cephalosporins, is known to have good activity against gram-positive bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer in their cell wall, which makes them more susceptible to the action of cephalexin. This antibiotic works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall, leading to the destruction of the bacteria. Therefore, cephalexin is effective in treating infections caused by gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus species.

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  • 29. 

    What are the exception of the gram + that first generation cephlosporins does not cover

    Correct Answer(s)
    enterococci, methicillin-resistant staph, and staph. epidermis
    Explanation
    The first generation cephalosporins do not cover enterococci, methicillin-resistant staph (MRSA), and Staphylococcus epidermidis. This means that these antibiotics are not effective against these specific types of bacteria. It is important to note that these bacteria have developed resistance mechanisms that make them less susceptible to the effects of first generation cephalosporins. Therefore, alternative antibiotics or higher generation cephalosporins may be required to effectively treat infections caused by these bacteria.

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  • 30. 

    2nd generation cephalosporins, CEFPROZIL, have increased activiy against gram negativebactria such as

    Correct Answer(s)
    haemophilus influenzae, escherichia coli
    Explanation
    The correct answer is haemophilus influenzae, escherichia coli. 2nd generation cephalosporins, including CEFPROZIL, have been specifically developed to have increased activity against gram-negative bacteria such as haemophilus influenzae and escherichia coli. These antibiotics are effective in treating infections caused by these bacteria due to their ability to target and inhibit the growth of gram-negative organisms.

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  • 31. 

    3rd generation cephlosporins, CEFDINIR and CEFIXIME, have good activity against what bacterias

    Correct Answer(s)
    gram positive and gram negative aerobic bacteria
    Explanation
    Cefdinir and cefixime, which belong to the third generation cephalosporins, are effective against both gram positive and gram negative aerobic bacteria. This means that they can target and kill a wide range of bacteria that have different cell wall structures. Gram positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer in their cell walls, while gram negative bacteria have a thinner peptidoglycan layer and an additional outer membrane. The broad spectrum activity of cefdinir and cefixime makes them useful in treating various bacterial infections caused by both types of bacteria.

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  • 32. 

    Cefixime is also indicated for what kind of disease

    Correct Answer(s)
    gonorrhea
    Explanation
    Cefixime is indicated for the treatment of gonorrhea. Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Cefixime is an antibiotic that belongs to the class of cephalosporins and it works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria. It is commonly used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including gonorrhea. By targeting and killing the bacteria responsible for the infection, cefixime helps in relieving the symptoms and curing the disease.

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  • 33. 

    What are the indications that cephalosporins areusedto treat?

    Correct Answer(s)
    respiratory tract, otitis media, sinusitis, skin, urinary tract
    Explanation
    Cephalosporins are a type of antibiotic medication that is commonly used to treat various infections caused by bacteria. The indications for using cephalosporins include respiratory tract infections, such as pneumonia and bronchitis, otitis media (middle ear infection), sinusitis (sinus infection), skin infections, and urinary tract infections. These medications are effective in treating these conditions because they have a broad spectrum of activity against many different types of bacteria. By targeting and killing the bacteria responsible for these infections, cephalosporins help to alleviate symptoms and promote healing.

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  • 34. 

    What are the cntraindications of using cephalosporins

    Correct Answer(s)
    anaphylactic reaction to any penicillin or cephalosporin
    Explanation
    Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are structurally similar to penicillins. Therefore, individuals who have had an anaphylactic reaction (a severe allergic reaction) to any penicillin or cephalosporin should not use cephalosporins. Anaphylactic reactions can be life-threatening and may include symptoms such as difficulty breathing, swelling, and hives. It is important to avoid cephalosporins in these individuals to prevent a potentially dangerous allergic reaction.

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  • 35. 

    What precautions should be used with pts with severe renal impairment?

    Correct Answer(s)
    adjust dose
    Explanation
    When patients have severe renal impairment, their kidneys are not able to properly filter waste and drugs from their body. This can lead to a buildup of medications in their system and potentially cause harm. Therefore, it is important to adjust the dose of medications for these patients to prevent toxicity or adverse effects. By adjusting the dose, healthcare professionals can ensure that the medication is safe and effective for the patient's condition while taking into account their impaired kidney function.

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  • 36. 

    What is the pharmacokinetics of cephalosporin elimination

    Correct Answer(s)
    renal elimination
    Explanation
    The pharmacokinetics of cephalosporin elimination involves renal elimination, meaning that the drug is primarily excreted from the body through the kidneys. This process involves filtration of the drug from the blood into the urine, followed by its excretion. Renal elimination is an important consideration when prescribing cephalosporins, as impaired kidney function can affect drug clearance and potentially lead to drug accumulation and toxicity. Monitoring renal function and adjusting the dose accordingly is often necessary to ensure safe and effective use of cephalosporins.

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  • 37. 

    What is the adverse effectsof cephalosporins

    Correct Answer(s)
    mild diarrhea, nausea,oral or vaginal candidiasis
    Explanation
    Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that can cause mild diarrhea, nausea, and oral or vaginal candidiasis as adverse effects. These side effects are common with the use of cephalosporins and can occur due to the disruption of the normal balance of bacteria in the digestive system or the overgrowth of yeast. It is important to monitor and manage these adverse effects to ensure the safety and well-being of the patient.

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  • 38. 

    What should be monitored during cephalosporins intake

    Correct Answer(s)
    signs of anaphylaxis during first dose, white blood cell count and febrile status, baseline serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen if renal impairment suspected
    Explanation
    During the intake of cephalosporins, it is important to monitor for signs of anaphylaxis during the first dose. This is because cephalosporins can sometimes cause allergic reactions, and anaphylaxis is a severe and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction. Additionally, monitoring the white blood cell count and febrile status is necessary to check for any signs of infection, as cephalosporins are commonly used to treat bacterial infections. Lastly, baseline serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen should be monitored if renal impairment is suspected, as cephalosporins can affect kidney function.

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  • 39. 

    What is the drug-drug interaction of cephalosporins

    Correct Answer(s)
    decreases oral contraceptive effectiveness
    Explanation
    Cephalosporins can decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. This means that if a person is taking both medications, there is a higher risk of the contraceptive not working properly and an increased chance of pregnancy. It is important for individuals taking cephalosporins to use an alternative form of contraception while on the medication to ensure effectiveness and prevent unwanted pregnancies.

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  • 40. 

    How should cephalosporin be taken?

    • A.

      100-200mg 2 times must be taken with pr without food

    • B.

      100-200mg 2 times must be taken without food

    • C.

      100-200mg 2 times must be taken with food

    • D.

      Twice daily doses every 12 hours must be taken with food

    • E.

      Twice daily doses every 12 hours may be taken with or without food

    Correct Answer
    E. Twice daily doses every 12 hours may be taken with or without food
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "twice daily doses every 12 hours may be taken with or without food." This statement suggests that cephalosporin can be taken either with or without food. This flexibility allows the patient to choose the most convenient option for them.

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  • 41. 

    The cephalosporin SUSPENSION should be stored

    Correct Answer
    room temperature
    Explanation
    Cephalosporin suspension should be stored at room temperature because certain medications may lose their effectiveness or stability if exposed to extreme temperatures. Storing the suspension at room temperature helps maintain its potency and ensures that it remains safe for consumption. Refrigeration or exposure to high temperatures can lead to degradation of the medication, rendering it less effective or potentially harmful. Therefore, it is important to follow the recommended storage instructions to maintain the quality and efficacy of the cephalosporin suspension.

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  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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