Diabetes Nursing Quiz: Nsg 353 Diabetes Mellitus

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| By Shelleyr
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Diabetes Nursing Quiz: Nsg 353 Diabetes Mellitus - Quiz

Are you preparing for nursing? Take this diabetes nursing quiz: NSG 353 diabetes mellitus to check how well you know about its treatment. Diabetes is a health condition in which the body is unable to produce the hormone insulin, which helps in the regulation and control of glucose. This quiz tests how much you know about this disease, its symptoms, and its treatment. You can share the quiz with other nursing aspirants also, who can learn and practice with these questions. All the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The nurse enters a diabetic patient's room at 11:30 and notices that the patient is diaphoretic, tachycardic, anxious, states she is hungry, and doesn't remember where she is.  This patient is most likely showing signs of what?

    • A.

      Hyperglycemic

    • B.

      Hypoglycemic

    • C.

      Diabetic ketoacidosis

    • D.

      Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic noketotic coma

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypoglycemic
    Explanation
    The patient is showing signs of hypoglycemia, which is a condition characterized by low blood sugar levels. The symptoms mentioned, such as diaphoresis (excessive sweating), tachycardia (rapid heart rate), anxiety, hunger, and confusion, are all common signs of hypoglycemia. This occurs when there is an imbalance between the amount of insulin in the body and the amount of glucose available for energy. Hypoglycemia can be dangerous if not treated promptly, as it can lead to seizures or loss of consciousness.

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  • 2. 

    The nurse's first action upon finding a patient with mild hypoglycemia is to

    • A.

      Call the rapid response team

    • B.

      Give 1 mg of glucagon

    • C.

      Give 10-15 g of CHO or Orange juice

    • D.

      Give insulin

    Correct Answer
    C. Give 10-15 g of CHO or Orange juice
    Explanation
    When a patient is experiencing mild hypoglycemia, the nurse's first action should be to give 10-15 g of CHO (carbohydrate) or orange juice. This is because CHO is quickly absorbed by the body and can rapidly raise blood glucose levels. Insulin would not be appropriate in this situation as it would further lower blood glucose levels. Calling the rapid response team is not necessary for mild hypoglycemia and giving glucagon is typically reserved for severe hypoglycemia when the patient is unconscious or unable to swallow.

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  • 3. 

    A patient with severe hypoglycemia arrives at the ED unconscious by ambulance.  The nurse would first

    • A.

      Give regular insulin by IV

    • B.

      Give NPH by IV

    • C.

      Give 10-15 g CHO or Orange juice

    • D.

      Give 1 mg glucagon

    Correct Answer
    D. Give 1 mg glucagon
    Explanation
    In a patient with severe hypoglycemia who is unconscious, giving 1 mg of glucagon would be the first priority. Glucagon is a hormone that raises blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to release stored glucose. It can be given intramuscularly or intravenously in emergency situations. This would help to quickly raise the patient's blood sugar levels and potentially reverse the unconsciousness. Giving regular insulin or NPH by IV would further lower the blood sugar levels, which is not appropriate in this situation. Giving 10-15 g of CHO or orange juice may not be effective in an unconscious patient as they may not be able to swallow or absorb it properly.

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  • 4. 

    A patient arrives at the ED with a blood sugar of 578, serum osmolarity of 300, pH of 7.3, severe thirst, dehydration, and confusion.  The patient is breathing rapidly and has a fruity breath smell.  This patient has symptoms of

    • A.

      Diabetic ketoacidosis

    • B.

      Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic noketotic coma

    • C.

      Hypoglycemia

    • D.

      Diabetic neuropathy

    Correct Answer
    A. Diabetic ketoacidosis
    Explanation
    The patient's high blood sugar level, low pH, and fruity breath smell indicate the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis. This condition occurs when there is a severe lack of insulin in the body, causing the body to break down fat for energy instead of glucose. This leads to the production of ketones, which can cause the fruity breath smell. The patient's symptoms of severe thirst, dehydration, confusion, and rapid breathing are also consistent with diabetic ketoacidosis.

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  • 5. 

    The nurse enters a patient's room and sees the patient breathing rapidly with a fruity breath smell.  This is known as

    • A.

      Trousseau's

    • B.

      Cullen's

    • C.

      Kussmaul's

    • D.

      Bitot's

    Correct Answer
    C. Kussmaul's
    Explanation
    Kussmaul's is the correct answer because it is a condition characterized by rapid, deep, and labored breathing, also known as hyperpnea. The fruity breath smell is a characteristic symptom of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a complication of diabetes that can cause Kussmaul's breathing. This condition occurs when there is a buildup of ketones in the blood, leading to an acidic environment.

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  • 6. 

    The diabetic patient's lab work comes back with a pH of 7.4, serum blood sugar of 950, serum osmolarity of 460, pCO2 of 35, HCO3 of 25.  The patient is confused and dehydrated.  This patient is showing signs and symptoms of

    • A.

      Diabetic ketoacidosis

    • B.

      Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic noketotic coma

    • C.

      Hypoglycemia

    • D.

      Diabetic neuropathy

    Correct Answer
    B. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic noketotic coma
    Explanation
    The patient's lab work shows a high serum blood sugar level (950) and a high serum osmolarity (460), which are both indicative of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma (HHNK). Additionally, the patient is confused and dehydrated, which are common symptoms of HHNK. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is characterized by low pH, high blood sugar, and ketones in the blood, which are not present in this case. Hypoglycemia is characterized by low blood sugar, which is not seen in this patient. Diabetic neuropathy is a long-term complication of diabetes and is not related to the acute symptoms described in this case.

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  • 7. 

    A urine test in an undiagnosed diabetic may show

    • A.

      Glucose and ketones in the urine

    • B.

      glucose and high amounts of bilirubin in the urine

    • C.

      Ketones in the urine

    • D.

      ketones and adrenaline in the urine

    Correct Answer
    A. Glucose and ketones in the urine
    Explanation
    In an undiagnosed diabetic, the body is unable to properly regulate blood sugar levels. As a result, excess glucose is present in the bloodstream and can be detected in the urine. Additionally, the body may break down fat for energy instead of glucose, leading to the production of ketones. Ketones can also be detected in the urine of an undiagnosed diabetic. Therefore, a urine test in an undiagnosed diabetic may show the presence of both glucose and ketones in the urine.

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  • 8. 

    The newly diagnosed diabetic patient asks the nurse why he needs to check his feet every day.  The nurse's best response is

    • A.

      To prevent leg amputation.

    • B.

      To check for any cuts, sores, or dry cracked skin so they can be treated early to prevent infection or gangrene.

    • C.

      To see if they hurt.

    • D.

      You just need to do it.

    Correct Answer
    B. To check for any cuts, sores, or dry cracked skin so they can be treated early to prevent infection or gangrene.
    Explanation
    The nurse's best response is to check for any cuts, sores, or dry cracked skin so they can be treated early to prevent infection or gangrene. This is important for diabetic patients because they are at a higher risk of developing foot complications due to poor blood circulation and nerve damage. Regular foot checks can help identify any issues early on and prevent them from worsening, potentially leading to the need for leg amputation.

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  • 9. 

    What are the microvascular complications of uncontrolled diabetes?

    • A.

      Delayed gastric emptying

    • B.

      Diarrhea

    • C.

      Glomuerular injury

    • D.

      Bleeding of retinal caplillaries

    • E.

      Numbness of feet

    • F.

      Impotence

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Delayed gastric emptying
    C. Glomuerular injury
    D. Bleeding of retinal caplillaries
    F. Impotence
    Explanation
    The microvascular complications of uncontrolled diabetes include delayed gastric emptying, glomerular injury, bleeding of retinal capillaries, and impotence. Delayed gastric emptying refers to a condition where the stomach takes longer than usual to empty its contents, leading to symptoms like bloating and nausea. Glomerular injury refers to damage to the small blood vessels in the kidneys, which can result in kidney dysfunction. Bleeding of retinal capillaries can cause vision problems and potentially lead to blindness. Impotence refers to the inability to achieve or maintain an erection, which can be a result of damage to the blood vessels and nerves in the penis.

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  • 10. 

    What are Macrovascular complications of uncontrolled diabetes?

    • A.

      Pain in lower legs

    • B.

      Hyperlipidemia

    • C.

      Impotence

    • D.

      Ischemic heart disease

    • E.

      Aortic disection

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Hyperlipidemia
    D. Ischemic heart disease
    Explanation
    Macrovascular complications of uncontrolled diabetes refer to the long-term damage that can occur to the large blood vessels in the body. Hyperlipidemia, or high levels of fats in the blood, is a common complication of uncontrolled diabetes. This can lead to the development of atherosclerosis, where plaque builds up in the arteries and restricts blood flow. Ischemic heart disease, which refers to reduced blood flow to the heart, is another macrovascular complication that can occur. This can lead to chest pain, heart attacks, and other heart-related issues. Therefore, the correct answer includes both hyperlipidemia and ischemic heart disease.

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  • 11. 

    What is the number one complication of diabetes?

    • A.

      Diabetic ketoacidosis

    • B.

      Obesity

    • C.

      Hypertension

    • D.

      Cardiovascular disease

    Correct Answer
    D. Cardiovascular disease
    Explanation
    Cardiovascular disease is the number one complication of diabetes because high blood sugar levels can damage the blood vessels and lead to the build-up of plaque, increasing the risk of heart attacks, strokes, and other cardiovascular problems. Diabetes also often coexists with other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and obesity, further increasing the likelihood of developing cardiovascular complications. Therefore, it is crucial for individuals with diabetes to manage their blood sugar levels and address other risk factors to prevent or minimize the risk of cardiovascular disease.

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  • 12. 

    Which are the potential complications of diabetes?

    • A.

      Amputations (BKA)

    • B.

      Edema

    • C.

      Hyperthyroidism

    • D.

      Retinopathy

    • E.

      Cardio neuropathy

    • F.

      Arteriosclerosis

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Amputations (BKA)
    D. Retinopathy
    E. Cardio neuropathy
    F. Arteriosclerosis
    Explanation
    The potential complications of diabetes include amputations (BKA) due to poor circulation and nerve damage, retinopathy which can lead to vision loss, cardio neuropathy which affects the heart and blood vessels, and arteriosclerosis which is the hardening and narrowing of the arteries. These complications can arise as a result of long-term uncontrolled blood sugar levels and can significantly impact a person's health and quality of life.

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  • 13. 

    A nurse is providing a bedtime snack to his patient. It is based on the knowledge that intermediate-acting insulins are effective for a duration of:

    • A.

      6-8 hours

    • B.

      10-14 hours

    • C.

      14-18 hours

    • D.

      24-48 hours

    Correct Answer
    C. 14-18 hours
    Explanation
    Intermediate-acting insulins, such as NPH insulin, have a duration of action of 14-18 hours. This means that they start working within 1-2 hours after injection and continue to lower blood sugar levels for 14-18 hours. This duration makes them suitable for providing a bedtime snack to the patient, as it will help maintain stable blood sugar levels throughout the night.

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  • 14. 

    The nurse admits a patient diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The nurse must expect the following symptoms during an assessment, except:

    • A.

      Ketonuria

    • B.

      Hypoglycemia

    • C.

      Frequent bruising

    • D.

      Dry mouth

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypoglycemia
    Explanation
    When admitting a patient diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the nurse can expect certain symptoms during an assessment. Hypoglycemia is not one of these expected symptoms. Hypoglycemia refers to low blood sugar levels, which is more commonly associated with type 1 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the body usually produces insulin, but it may not use it effectively. Therefore, symptoms such as ketonuria (presence of ketones in urine), frequent bruising (due to poor blood clotting), and dry mouth (due to increased thirst and dehydration) may be expected, but not hypoglycemia.

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  • 15. 

    A patient with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is being treated in the Emergency Room. Which finding would a nurse be expecting to note as confirming the diagnosis?

    • A.

      Increased respiration and an increase in pH.

    • B.

      Decreased urine output

    • C.

      Elevated blood glucose level and a low plasma bicarbonate

    • D.

      Comatose state

    Correct Answer
    C. Elevated blood glucose level and a low plasma bicarbonate
    Explanation
    A patient with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) typically presents with elevated blood glucose levels and a low plasma bicarbonate level. This is because DKA is characterized by a lack of insulin, leading to increased blood glucose levels. In response, the body breaks down fat for energy, resulting in the production of ketones and a decrease in bicarbonate levels. This combination of high blood glucose and low bicarbonate levels confirms the diagnosis of DKA.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • May 18, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 06, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Shelleyr
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