The Perfect Practice Test For Geology Exams

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The Perfect Practice Test For Geology Exams - Quiz

When people tell you that this quiz is the hardest one, they have come across when it comes to Geology you may doubt it and aim to try it. Do you think that you have what it takes to tackle it? Why don’t you take it up and share your results with us so that we can compare how good you are by show of your certificate. All the best, and you have been warned!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Lava flows are typically finer grained than intrusive igneous rocks. Why? 

    • A.

      Intrusive magma is cooler because it is well insulated by the surrounding rock.

    • B.

      Intrusive magma flows onto the Earth's surface and cools very slowly, allowing many small mineral grains to grow.

    • C.

      The extrusive magma cools quickly so the mineral grains do not have time to grow.

    • D.

      The extrusive magma, because it is deep below the surface, cools very slowly producing very small mineral grains

    Correct Answer
    C. The extrusive magma cools quickly so the mineral grains do not have time to grow.
    Explanation
    Extrusive magma cools quickly when it flows onto the Earth's surface, which does not give enough time for the mineral grains to grow. This results in finer grained lava flows compared to intrusive igneous rocks.

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  • 2. 

    Which magma is most likely to quench (congeal) to a natural glass? 

    • A.

      Highly viscous; cools quickly

    • B.

      Highly viscous; cools slowly

    • C.

      Highly fluid; cools slowly

    • D.

      Highly fluid; cools quickly

    Correct Answer
    A. Highly viscous; cools quickly
    Explanation
    Magma that is highly viscous (thick and sticky) is more likely to quench (congeal) to a natural glass because it solidifies quickly when it cools rapidly. This prevents the formation of crystals, resulting in a glassy texture. On the other hand, magma that is highly fluid (runny) and cools slowly allows enough time for crystals to form, leading to a crystalline rock rather than a glass.

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  • 3. 

    The sizes, shapes, and arrangements of mineral grains in an igneous rock is known as ________

    • A.

      Silica content

    • B.

      Texture

    • C.

      Mineral content

    • D.

      Bowen's reaction series

    Correct Answer
    B. Texture
    Explanation
    The sizes, shapes, and arrangements of mineral grains in an igneous rock is known as texture. Texture refers to the overall appearance and feel of a rock, including the size and shape of its mineral grains. Silica content refers to the amount of silica present in the rock, mineral content refers to the types of minerals present in the rock, and Bowen's reaction series is a sequence that describes the order in which minerals crystallize from a cooling magma.

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  • 4. 

    ________ magma cools and consolidates without growth of mineral grains 

    • A.

      Aphanitic

    • B.

      Porphyritic

    • C.

      Phaneritic

    • D.

      Glassy

    Correct Answer
    D. Glassy
    Explanation
    Glassy texture is formed when magma cools rapidly, preventing the growth of mineral grains. This rapid cooling does not allow enough time for the minerals to crystallize and form distinct grains, resulting in a smooth and glass-like appearance. The lack of mineral grains gives the rock a homogeneous and non-crystalline structure.

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  • 5. 

    ________ mineral grains are of roughly equal size and coarse enough to be seen without a microscope or magnifying glass  

    • A.

      Aphanitic

    • B.

      Porphyritic

    • C.

      Phaneritic

    • D.

      Glassy

    Correct Answer
    C. Phaneritic
    Explanation
    Phaneritic mineral grains are of roughly equal size and coarse enough to be seen without a microscope or magnifying glass. This means that the mineral grains are large enough to be visible to the naked eye, indicating a coarse-grained texture. Aphanitic refers to fine-grained textures that are not visible without magnification, porphyritic refers to a mixture of large and small grains, and glassy refers to a non-crystalline texture.

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  • 6. 

    ________ rock has two or more, distinctly different-sized populations of mineral grains  

    • A.

      Aphanitic

    • B.

      Porphyritic

    • C.

      Phaneritic

    • D.

      Glassy

    Correct Answer
    B. Porphyritic
    Explanation
    Porphyritic rock has two or more distinctly different-sized populations of mineral grains. This means that the rock contains both large crystals (phenocrysts) and smaller crystals (groundmass). The large crystals are formed in a different environment or stage of cooling compared to the smaller crystals. This texture is typically found in igneous rocks that have undergone two stages of cooling, where the initial slow cooling allowed for the formation of large crystals, followed by rapid cooling that formed the smaller crystals.

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  • 7. 

    ________ a magnifying glass or microscope is needed to see individual mineral grains 

    • A.

      Aphanitic

    • B.

      Porphyritic

    • C.

      Phaneritic

    • D.

      Glassy

    Correct Answer
    A. Aphanitic
    Explanation
    Aphanitic refers to the texture of igneous rocks that have fine-grained crystals that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. This means that a magnifying glass or microscope is needed to see individual mineral grains.

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  • 8. 

    A ________ is an open cavity in a volcanic rock that was filled by a gas bubble when the lava was still mainly liquid.

    • A.

      Porphyrocryst

    • B.

      Vesicle

    • C.

      Phenocryst

    • D.

      Xenocryst

    Correct Answer
    B. Vesicle
    Explanation
    A vesicle is an open cavity in a volcanic rock that was filled by a gas bubble when the lava was still mainly liquid. This gas bubble gets trapped in the rock as it solidifies, creating a hollow space or cavity. The other options, porphyrocryst, phenocryst, and xenocryst, do not refer to open cavities formed by gas bubbles in volcanic rock.

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  • 9. 

    Consider the Bowen's reaction series. Which mineral would you expect to see as a phenocryst in a porphyritic basalt? 

    • A.

      Olivine

    • B.

      Quartz

    • C.

      Orthoclase

    • D.

      Sodium-rich plagioclase

    Correct Answer
    A. Olivine
    Explanation
    In Bowen's reaction series, olivine is the mineral that forms at the highest temperature. In a porphyritic basalt, which is a volcanic rock with large crystals (phenocrysts) embedded in a fine-grained matrix, olivine would be expected to form as a phenocryst. This is because olivine crystallizes early in the cooling process of basaltic magma, allowing it to grow larger before the rest of the magma solidifies into a fine-grained texture. Therefore, olivine is the most likely mineral to be seen as a phenocryst in a porphyritic basalt.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following igneous rocks exhibit aphanitic texture? 

    • A.

      granite; gabbro

    • B.

      Andesite; rhyolite

    • C.

      Andesite; diorite

    • D.

      Rhyolite; gabbro

    Correct Answer
    B. Andesite; rhyolite
    Explanation
    Andesite and rhyolite are the correct answers because they both exhibit aphanitic texture. Aphanitic texture refers to fine-grained rocks where individual mineral grains are not visible to the naked eye. Andesite and rhyolite are both extrusive igneous rocks that cool quickly on the Earth's surface, resulting in the formation of small mineral grains. In contrast, granite and gabbro are intrusive igneous rocks that cool slowly beneath the Earth's surface, allowing for the formation of larger mineral grains, making them not exhibit aphanitic texture.

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  • 11. 

    In a porphyritic volcanic rock, which mineral grains are the last to crystallize? 

    • A.

      Phenocrysts

    • B.

      Vesicles

    • C.

      Pegmatites

    • D.

      Matrix or groundmass

    Correct Answer
    D. Matrix or groundmass
    Explanation
    In a porphyritic volcanic rock, the matrix or groundmass is the last to crystallize. This is because porphyritic rocks have two distinct grain sizes - larger phenocrysts and smaller matrix or groundmass. The phenocrysts are the first to crystallize and are larger in size, while the matrix or groundmass forms later and fills the spaces between the phenocrysts. Therefore, the matrix or groundmass is the last to crystallize in a porphyritic volcanic rock.

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  • 12. 

    Visible quartz and potassium feldspar grains are the main constituents in a ________. 

    • A.

      Granite

    • B.

      Gabbro

    • C.

      Basalt

    • D.

      Rhyolite

    Correct Answer
    A. Granite
    Explanation
    Granite is a type of igneous rock that is composed mainly of visible quartz and potassium feldspar grains. These minerals give granite its characteristic appearance and texture. The presence of these specific minerals distinguishes granite from other types of rocks such as gabbro, basalt, and rhyolite, which have different mineral compositions.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following igneous rocks has a pyroclastic texture? 

    • A.

      Rhyolitic tuff

    • B.

      Porphyritic basalt

    • C.

      Intrusive granite

    • D.

      Andesitic lava

    Correct Answer
    A. Rhyolitic tuff
    Explanation
    Rhyolitic tuff is an igneous rock that has a pyroclastic texture. Pyroclastic texture refers to a rock texture that is composed of fragments of volcanic ash and other pyroclastic materials that were ejected during a volcanic eruption. Rhyolitic tuff is formed when these pyroclastic materials are deposited and compacted, resulting in a rock with a fine-grained texture. This is in contrast to the other options, which do not have a pyroclastic texture.

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  • 14. 

    ________ is a volcanic rock that is extremely vesicular and glassy. 

    • A.

      Obsidian

    • B.

      Pegmatite

    • C.

      Tuff

    • D.

      Pumice

    Correct Answer
    D. Pumice
    Explanation
    Pumice is a volcanic rock that is characterized by its high vesicularity and glassy texture. It is formed when lava rapidly cools and traps gas bubbles within it, resulting in a lightweight and porous rock. Pumice is commonly used as an abrasive in various industries due to its abrasive properties and ability to remove dead skin cells.

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  • 15. 

    ________ is composed mainly of ferromagnesian minerals. 

    • A.

      Peridotite

    • B.

      Rhyolite

    • C.

      Andesite

    • D.

      Granite

    Correct Answer
    A. Peridotite
    Explanation
    Peridotite is composed mainly of ferromagnesian minerals. This rock type is typically made up of minerals such as olivine and pyroxene, which are rich in iron and magnesium. These minerals give peridotite its dark color and high density. Peridotite is commonly found in the Earth's mantle and is associated with the formation of oceanic crust. It is also found in certain areas where tectonic forces have brought it to the surface, such as ophiolite complexes.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following minerals crystallize early in Bowen's reaction series? 

    • A.

      Biotite

    • B.

      Quartz

    • C.

      Olivine

    • D.

      Muscovite

    Correct Answer
    C. Olivine
    Explanation
    Olivine is the correct answer because it is one of the minerals that crystallize early in Bowen's reaction series. Bowen's reaction series is a sequence that describes the order in which minerals crystallize from a cooling magma. Olivine is one of the first minerals to form as the magma cools, followed by other minerals such as pyroxene, amphibole, and biotite. Quartz and muscovite, on the other hand, are examples of minerals that crystallize later in Bowen's reaction series.

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  • 17. 

    ________ is the dominant feldspar in basalt. 

    • A.

      Plagioclase

    • B.

      Microcline

    • C.

      Orthoclase

    • D.

      Pyroxene

    Correct Answer
    A. Plagioclase
    Explanation
    Plagioclase is the dominant feldspar in basalt. Feldspar is a common mineral found in many types of rocks, including basalt. Plagioclase is a specific type of feldspar that is commonly found in basalt. It is characterized by its striped or layered appearance and is usually white or light gray in color. Plagioclase feldspar is an important component of basalt and helps give the rock its characteristic composition and texture.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following are used for studying rocks with a polarizing microscope? 

    • A.

      Polished cubes

    • B.

      Broken chips

    • C.

      Thin sections

    • D.

      Grain karats

    Correct Answer
    C. Thin sections
    Explanation
    Thin sections are used for studying rocks with a polarizing microscope because they allow for the examination of the rock's mineral composition and texture in greater detail. Thin sections are prepared by cutting a very thin slice of rock and mounting it onto a glass slide. This thin slice allows light to pass through the rock, which can then be polarized and analyzed under a polarizing microscope. This technique is commonly used in petrology to identify minerals, determine rock types, and study the fabric and structure of rocks.

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  • 19. 

    ________ is characterized by very coarse mineral grains? 

    • A.

      Obsidian

    • B.

      Pumice

    • C.

      Pegmatite

    • D.

      Granite

    Correct Answer
    C. Pegmatite
    Explanation
    Pegmatite is characterized by very coarse mineral grains. Pegmatite is a type of igneous rock that forms from the slow cooling of magma deep within the Earth's crust. The slow cooling allows for the growth of large mineral crystals, resulting in a coarse texture. Obsidian and pumice, on the other hand, are characterized by a glassy texture and a vesicular texture respectively, while granite has a medium to coarse-grained texture.

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  • 20. 

    In which of the following igneous rocks and environments would you expect to find unusually high concentrations of rare elements such as lithium, beryllium, and boron? 

    • A.

      Basalt dike; fills a vertical fracture at shallow depth

    • B.

      Pumice lump; crystallized at depth in a mass of intrusive granite

    • C.

      Peridotite; crystallized at depth in the upper mantle

    • D.

      Pegmatite; crystallized from a water-rich, highly differentiated, residual magma

    Correct Answer
    D. Pegmatite; crystallized from a water-rich, highly differentiated, residual magma
    Explanation
    Pegmatite is a type of igneous rock that forms from a water-rich, highly differentiated, residual magma. This type of magma has undergone extensive fractional crystallization, resulting in the concentration of rare elements such as lithium, beryllium, and boron. As a result, pegmatites are known for containing unusually high concentrations of these rare elements. The other options, basalt dike, pumice lump, and peridotite, do not typically have the same level of concentration of these rare elements.

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  • 21. 

    A (an) ________ texture represents a single, long period of cooling and crystallization. 

    • A.

      Glassy

    • B.

      Pyroclastic

    • C.

      Aphanitic

    • D.

      Phaneritic

    Correct Answer
    D. Phaneritic
    Explanation
    A phaneritic texture represents a single, long period of cooling and crystallization. This means that the rock formed from slowly cooling magma or lava over a long period of time, allowing the crystals to grow and become visible to the naked eye. This is in contrast to a glassy texture, which forms when the magma or lava cools rapidly, preventing crystal growth, or a pyroclastic texture, which forms from explosive volcanic activity and consists of fragmented material. Aphanitic texture refers to fine-grained rocks where the crystals are too small to be seen without a microscope.

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  • 22. 

    ________ has the same mineral composition as andesite? 

    • A.

      Basalt

    • B.

      Granite

    • C.

      Gabbro

    • D.

      Diorite

    Correct Answer
    D. Diorite
    Explanation
    Diorite has the same mineral composition as andesite.

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  • 23. 

    What do pumice and obsidian have in common?

    • A.

      Basaltic composition

    • B.

      Glassy texture

    • C.

      Ultramafic composition

    • D.

      Phaneritic texture

    Correct Answer
    B. Glassy texture
    Explanation
    Pumice and obsidian both have a glassy texture. Pumice is a volcanic rock that forms when lava with high gas content cools rapidly, trapping bubbles of gas in the rock and creating a porous and lightweight texture. Obsidian, on the other hand, is a volcanic glass that forms when lava cools very quickly, preventing the formation of any crystal structure and resulting in a smooth and glassy texture. Both rocks are formed from volcanic activity and have a similar appearance due to their glassy texture.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following best describes an aphanitic texture? 

    • A.

      The rock is crystalline; mineral grains are too small to be visible without a magnifying lens or microscope

    • B.

      The mineral grains have glassy textures.

    • C.

      The rock consists of broken, volcanic-rock and mineral fragments.

    • D.

      The rock is crystalline; mineral grains are of distinctly different sizes.

    Correct Answer
    A. The rock is crystalline; mineral grains are too small to be visible without a magnifying lens or microscope
    Explanation
    Aphanitic texture refers to a rock that is crystalline, but the mineral grains are too small to be visible without a magnifying lens or microscope. This means that the rock has a fine-grained appearance and lacks visible mineral grains.

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  • 25. 

    A ________ texture would be most unlikely to occur in an extrusive igneous rock. 

    • A.

      Pyroclastic

    • B.

      Glassy

    • C.

      Aphanitic

    • D.

      Phaneritic

    Correct Answer
    C. Aphanitic
    Explanation
    An aphanitic texture refers to the fine-grained nature of a rock, where the individual mineral grains are too small to be seen with the naked eye. This texture is commonly found in extrusive igneous rocks, which cool quickly on the Earth's surface, resulting in rapid crystal growth. In contrast, pyroclastic textures are formed from volcanic explosions and consist of fragmented materials, such as ash and pumice. Glassy textures occur when magma cools very quickly, preventing the formation of any crystalline structure. Phaneritic textures, on the other hand, are coarse-grained and are typically found in intrusive igneous rocks that cool slowly beneath the Earth's surface. Therefore, an aphanitic texture would be most unlikely to occur in an extrusive igneous rock.

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  • 26. 

    ________ is named for a prominent, volcanic mountain range in western South America. 

    • A.

      Basalt

    • B.

      Andesite

    • C.

      Pegmatite

    • D.

      Peridotite

    Correct Answer
    B. Andesite
    Explanation
    Andesite is named for a prominent, volcanic mountain range in western South America. The Andes mountain range is known for its volcanic activity and is composed of andesite, a type of volcanic rock. Andesite is formed from the solidification of lava that erupts from volcanoes in the Andes region. It is characterized by its intermediate composition, with a balance of silica and other minerals. Andesite is commonly found in volcanic arcs and is associated with subduction zones where tectonic plates collide.

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  • 27. 

    ________ is the dominant lava erupted from volcanoes on Hawaii and Iceland. 

    • A.

      Rhyolite

    • B.

      Andesite

    • C.

      Peridotite

    • D.

      Basalt

    Correct Answer
    C. Peridotite
  • 28. 

    Which igneous rock or magma has the lowest silica (SiO2) content? 

    • A.

      Granite

    • B.

      Basalt

    • C.

      Andesite

    • D.

      Peridotite

    Correct Answer
    B. Basalt
    Explanation
    Basalt has the lowest silica (SiO2) content among the given options. Silica content is a key characteristic used to classify igneous rocks, and basalt is classified as a mafic rock due to its low silica content. Mafic rocks have a higher percentage of iron and magnesium, and a lower percentage of silica. Basalt is formed from the rapid cooling of lava and is commonly found in volcanic areas, such as oceanic crust and volcanic islands.

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  • 29. 

    ________ is thought to be common in the Earth's mantle but rare in the crust? 

    • A.

      Pumice

    • B.

      Grante

    • C.

      Pegmatite

    • D.

      Peridotite

    Correct Answer
    D. Peridotite
    Explanation
    Peridotite is thought to be common in the Earth's mantle but rare in the crust. Peridotite is a coarse-grained igneous rock that is rich in the mineral olivine. It is believed to be the main rock type in the upper mantle of the Earth. In contrast, pumice, grante, and pegmatite are all more commonly found in the Earth's crust. Pumice is a volcanic rock with a porous texture, grante is a type of intrusive igneous rock, and pegmatite is a coarse-grained granite-like rock. Therefore, peridotite is the correct answer as it is the only option that is known to be common in the mantle and rare in the crust.

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  • 30. 

    ________ often contain gem-quality crystals of minerals such as beryl and tourmaline and high concentrations of relatively rare elements such as lithium, boron, and beryllium.

    • A.

      Welded tuff sheets

    • B.

      Basaltic lavas

    • C.

      Granitic pegmatites

    • D.

      Diorite plutons

    Correct Answer
    C. Granitic pegmatites
    Explanation
    Granitic pegmatites often contain gem-quality crystals of minerals such as beryl and tourmaline and high concentrations of relatively rare elements such as lithium, boron, and beryllium. This suggests that granitic pegmatites are the most likely option among the given choices to have these characteristics. Welded tuff sheets, basaltic lavas, and diorite plutons do not typically have the same composition or conditions necessary for the formation of gem-quality crystals and high concentrations of rare elements.

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  • 31. 

    The last minerals to crystallize on Bowen's Reaction Series result in igneous rocks with a ________ composition. 

    • A.

      Felsic

    • B.

      Intermediate

    • C.

      Mafic

    • D.

      Ultramafic

    Correct Answer
    A. Felsic
    Explanation
    The last minerals to crystallize on Bowen's Reaction Series result in igneous rocks with a felsic composition. This is because felsic rocks are rich in light-colored minerals such as quartz and feldspar, which have higher melting points and crystallize at higher temperatures. As the magma cools and minerals crystallize, the felsic minerals are the last to form, resulting in rocks with a felsic composition.

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  • 32. 

    Changing the composition of magma by incorporating surrounding host rock is known as ________

    • A.

      Magma mixing

    • B.

      Partial melting

    • C.

      Differentiation

    • D.

      Assimilation

    Correct Answer
    D. Assimilation
    Explanation
    Assimilation is the process of changing the composition of magma by incorporating surrounding host rock. This occurs when the magma comes into contact with the surrounding rock and incorporates some of its components, altering the composition of the magma. This process can result in changes in the chemical composition and physical properties of the magma, leading to the formation of different types of igneous rocks.

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  • 33. 

    All of the following are factors that affect the generation of magma except for ________. 

    • A.

      Heat

    • B.

      Pressure

    • C.

      Crystal size

    • D.

      Volatiles

    Correct Answer
    C. Crystal size
    Explanation
    Crystal size does not affect the generation of magma. Magma is formed through the melting of rocks in the Earth's mantle or crust. The factors that affect magma generation include heat, pressure, and the presence of volatiles (such as water and carbon dioxide). Crystal size, on the other hand, is determined by the cooling rate of magma and does not play a role in its generation.

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  • 34. 

    Bowen's reaction series predicts the sizes of the different mineral grains that grow from crystallizing magmas. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Bowen's reaction series is a concept in geology that describes the order in which different minerals crystallize from a cooling magma. It does not predict the sizes of the mineral grains that form. The sizes of mineral grains are influenced by factors such as cooling rate, pressure, and composition of the magma. Therefore, the given statement is false.

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  • 35. 

    In an igneous rock with a phaneritic texture, the mineral grains are visible to the unaided eye. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In an igneous rock with a phaneritic texture, the mineral grains are visible to the unaided eye. This means that the grains are large enough to be seen without the need for magnification. Phaneritic textures are typically found in intrusive igneous rocks, which cool slowly beneath the Earth's surface, allowing the mineral crystals to grow to a size that is visible to the naked eye. This is in contrast to aphanitic textures, where the mineral grains are too small to be seen without the aid of a microscope. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 36. 

    Olivine and quartz commonly crystallize together from mafic or basaltic magmas. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Olivine and quartz do not commonly crystallize together from mafic or basaltic magmas. Olivine is a common mineral in mafic rocks, while quartz is more commonly found in felsic rocks. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 37. 

    Most lava crystallizes to form igneous rocks with phaneritic textures. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    This statement is false because most lava actually crystallizes to form igneous rocks with aphanitic textures, not phaneritic textures. Aphanitic textures refer to fine-grained rocks with crystals that are too small to be seen with the naked eye, while phaneritic textures refer to coarse-grained rocks with visible crystals.

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  • 38. 

    Pegmatites are smaller volume, intrusive bodies with glassy textures. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Pegmatites are actually larger volume, intrusive bodies with coarse-grained textures, not smaller volume with glassy textures.

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  • 39. 

    Basalt is the aphanitic or fine-grained equivalent of gabbro. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Basalt is indeed the aphanitic or fine-grained equivalent of gabbro. Aphanitic refers to the texture of igneous rocks that are composed of small crystals that cannot be easily seen with the naked eye. Gabbro, on the other hand, is the coarse-grained equivalent of basalt, meaning it has larger crystals that are visible to the naked eye. Therefore, the statement that basalt is the aphanitic or fine-grained equivalent of gabbro is true.

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  • 40. 

    Plutonic rocks are intrusive and generally consist of mineral grains coarse enough to be readily visible in a hand sample. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Plutonic rocks are indeed intrusive, meaning they are formed from magma that cools and solidifies beneath the Earth's surface. These rocks typically have large mineral grains that are easily visible to the naked eye, making them coarse in texture. Therefore, the statement that plutonic rocks are intrusive and consist of visible mineral grains is true.

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  • 41. 

    A porphyritic texture includes two different sizes of mineral grains, the phenocrysts and the vesicles. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A porphyritic texture includes two different sizes of mineral grains, the phenocrysts and the vesicles. False.

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  • 42. 

    Olivine is an important mineral in peridotites and other ultramafic rocks. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Olivine is indeed an important mineral in peridotites and other ultramafic rocks. Peridotites are a type of ultramafic rock that make up the Earth's mantle and are rich in olivine. Olivine is a green mineral that is commonly found in these rocks and is a key indicator of ultramafic compositions. Therefore, the statement "Olivine is an important mineral in peridotites and other ultramafic rocks" is true.

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  • 43. 

    The process of magmatic differentiation can generate residual, more felsic magmas from mafic magmas such as basalt. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Magmatic differentiation is the process in which a single parent magma can produce different types of magmas with varying compositions. This occurs as the magma cools and different minerals crystallize at different temperatures. Mafic magmas, such as basalt, are rich in iron and magnesium and have a low silica content. Through magmatic differentiation, these mafic magmas can generate residual magmas that are more felsic, meaning they have a higher silica content and are richer in elements like aluminum, potassium, and sodium. Therefore, the statement that magmatic differentiation can generate residual, more felsic magmas from mafic magmas is true.

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  • 44. 

    Glassy igneous rocks form when magma cools too fast for mineral grains to grow. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Glassy igneous rocks form when magma cools too fast for mineral grains to grow. This is because rapid cooling prevents the atoms from arranging themselves into a crystalline structure. Instead, the atoms become trapped in a disordered arrangement, resulting in a glassy texture. This can occur when magma is rapidly quenched by water or air, or when it erupts onto the Earth's surface as lava and cools quickly.

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  • 45. 

    Minerals, such as plagioclase feldspar, on the continuous branch of Bowen's Reaction Series react with the magma to form lower temperature, more stable minerals such as hornblende or biotite.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Minerals on the continuous branch of Bowen's Reaction Series do not react with magma to form lower temperature, more stable minerals. Instead, they undergo a process of crystallization as the magma cools, forming higher temperature, less stable minerals. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 46. 

    A feldspar crystal where a calcium rich interior is surrounded by a sodium rich rim indicates that there was incomplete reaction between the crystal and surrounding magma 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A feldspar crystal with a calcium-rich interior and a sodium-rich rim suggests that there was incomplete reaction between the crystal and the surrounding magma. This is because during the cooling and crystallization process, different elements and minerals can react at different rates and temperatures. In this case, it indicates that the crystal started forming in a calcium-rich environment and then was exposed to a sodium-rich environment before the reaction could fully occur. This incomplete reaction can provide valuable information about the geological processes and history of the rock formation.

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  • 47. 

    Andesitic magma can form through differentiation of granitic magma 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Andesitic magma cannot form through differentiation of granitic magma. Differentiation refers to the process in which a magma changes composition by losing or gaining certain elements. Andesitic magma has a different composition than granitic magma, so it cannot be formed through differentiation.

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  • 48. 

    Consider Bowen's reaction series. Which mineral would you expect to see as a phenocryst in a porphyritic basalt?

    • A.

      Olivine

    • B.

      Quartz

    • C.

      Orthosclase feldspar

    • D.

      Sodium-rich plagioclase feldspar

    Correct Answer
    A. Olivine
    Explanation
    Olivine is the correct answer because it is one of the first minerals to crystallize in Bowen's reaction series, which describes the order in which minerals form as magma cools. Phenocrysts are large crystals that form in the slower cooling process of porphyritic rocks. Since olivine is an early crystallizing mineral, it has enough time to grow into larger crystals and become phenocrysts in porphyritic basalt. Quartz, orthoclase feldspar, and sodium-rich plagioclase feldspar are not typically found as phenocrysts in basalt.

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  • 49. 

    What texture describes an igneous rock that has two or more distinctly different-sized populations of mineral grains? 

    • A.

      Porphyritic

    • B.

      Phaneritic

    • C.

      Aphanitic

    • D.

      Glassy

    Correct Answer
    A. Porphyritic
    Explanation
    Porphyritic texture describes an igneous rock that has two or more distinctly different-sized populations of mineral grains. This means that the rock contains both large, visible crystals (phenocrysts) and smaller, fine-grained crystals (groundmass). The phenocrysts typically form first in the cooling magma, while the groundmass forms later. This texture is commonly found in volcanic rocks that have undergone two stages of cooling, with the first stage occurring slowly beneath the Earth's surface and the second stage occurring rapidly during volcanic eruptions.

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  • 50. 

    Which of the following igneous rocks has a phaneritic texture? 

    • A.

      Andesite

    • B.

      Rhyolite

    • C.

      Basalt

    • D.

      Gabbro

    Correct Answer
    D. Gabbro
    Explanation
    Gabbro is an igneous rock that has a phaneritic texture. Phaneritic texture refers to the visible crystals within the rock, which are large enough to be seen with the naked eye. Gabbro is formed from the slow cooling and solidification of magma deep within the Earth's crust. This slow cooling allows for the growth of large crystals, giving gabbro its phaneritic texture. In contrast, andesite, rhyolite, and basalt are volcanic rocks that cool quickly on the Earth's surface, resulting in a fine-grained or aphanitic texture.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jul 10, 2016
    Quiz Created by
    Hanaxxx
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