Biology Chapter 1 & 4 Test

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Biology Chapter 1 & 4 Test - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Biology is the study of 

    • A.

      Minerals.

    • B.

      Life.

    • C.

      The weather.

    • D.

      Energy.

    Correct Answer
    B. Life.
    Explanation
    Biology is the study of life because it focuses on understanding living organisms, their structure, function, growth, evolution, and interactions with their environment. It encompasses various branches such as botany, zoology, microbiology, and genetics, which all contribute to our knowledge of life forms and their processes. By studying biology, we gain insights into the diversity, complexity, and interconnectedness of living systems, helping us understand how life functions and evolves on Earth.

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  • 2. 

    Which one of the following is NOT a unifying theme we will discuss this year?

    • A.

      Structure and function

    • B.

      Inheritance and variation of traits

    • C.

      Natural selection and evolution

    • D.

      Forces and interactions

    Correct Answer
    D. Forces and interactions
    Explanation
    Forces and interactions is not a unifying theme that will be discussed this year. The other three options, structure and function, inheritance and variation of traits, and natural selection and evolution, are all important concepts in biology that are commonly discussed in relation to various organisms and their characteristics. However, forces and interactions are more commonly associated with physics and the study of motion and energy. Therefore, it is not a theme that will be focused on in the current year's discussions.

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  • 3. 

    A scientist noticed that in acidic pond water some salamanders developed with curved spines.  This was a(n)

    • A.

      Hypothesis

    • B.

      Theory

    • C.

      Observation

    • D.

      Control

    Correct Answer
    C. Observation
    Explanation
    The scientist observed that in acidic pond water, some salamanders developed with curved spines. This means that the scientist simply noticed this phenomenon without making any assumptions or explanations. The term "observation" refers to the act of gathering information or data through direct observation or measurement without any interpretation or explanation. Therefore, the correct answer is observation.

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  • 4. 

    A hypothesis is

    • A.

      A definite answer to a given problem

    • B.

      A testable possible explanation of an observation

    • C.

      A proven statement

    • D.

      A concluding statement

    Correct Answer
    B. A testable possible explanation of an observation
    Explanation
    A hypothesis is a testable possible explanation of an observation. It is not a definite answer or a proven statement, but rather a proposed explanation that can be tested through experimentation or further observation. Hypotheses are important in the scientific method as they provide a starting point for research and investigation, allowing scientists to explore and understand the underlying causes or mechanisms behind observed phenomena.

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  • 5. 

    Scientific hypothesis are most often tested by the process of 

    • A.

      Communicating.

    • B.

      Inferring.

    • C.

      Experimenting.

    • D.

      Analyzing data.

    Correct Answer
    C. Experimenting.
    Explanation
    Scientific hypotheses are typically tested through the process of experimenting. This involves designing and conducting controlled experiments to gather data and observe the results. By manipulating variables and comparing the outcomes, scientists can evaluate the validity of their hypotheses and draw conclusions. Experimenting allows for direct observation and measurement, providing empirical evidence to support or refute the hypothesis. Communication, inference, and data analysis are important steps in the scientific process, but they are not the primary means of testing hypotheses.

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  • 6. 

    A light microscope that has an objective lens of 10x and an ocular lens of 20x has a magnification of 

    • A.

      30x.

    • B.

      200x.

    • C.

      300x.

    • D.

      2000x.

    Correct Answer
    B. 200x.
    Explanation
    The magnification of a microscope is calculated by multiplying the magnification of the objective lens by the magnification of the ocular lens. In this case, the objective lens has a magnification of 10x and the ocular lens has a magnification of 20x. Multiplying these two values together gives a magnification of 200x.

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  • 7. 

    A cell contain which of the following:

    • A.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • B.

      Plasma membrane

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Mitochondria

    Correct Answer
    B. Plasma membrane
    Explanation
    The plasma membrane is a vital component of a cell. It acts as a barrier, separating the cell's internal environment from the external environment. It regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing for the exchange of nutrients and waste products. The plasma membrane also plays a role in cell signaling and communication with other cells. Therefore, it is a necessary and essential component of a cell.

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  • 8. 

    The control center of the cell is the

    • A.

      Nucleus

    • B.

      Mitochondria

    • C.

      Cell membrane

    • D.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    Correct Answer
    A. Nucleus
    Explanation
    The nucleus is considered the control center of the cell because it contains the cell's genetic material, DNA. It regulates the cell's activities by controlling gene expression and protein synthesis. The nucleus also plays a crucial role in cell division, as it directs the replication and distribution of DNA during mitosis and meiosis. Additionally, the nucleus is responsible for maintaining the integrity and stability of the cell's genetic information.

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  • 9. 

    Plant cells have all of the following except

    • A.

      Cell wall

    • B.

      Nucleus

    • C.

      Choloroplast

    • D.

      Centrioles

    Correct Answer
    D. Centrioles
    Explanation
    Plant cells do not have centrioles. Centrioles are small cylindrical structures found in animal cells that play a role in cell division. Plant cells, on the other hand, have a cell wall, nucleus, and chloroplasts. The cell wall provides support and protection, the nucleus contains genetic material and controls cell activities, and chloroplasts are responsible for photosynthesis.

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  • 10. 

    Rough ER has

    • A.

      Nucleoulus

    • B.

      Golgi apparatus

    • C.

      Ribosomes

    • D.

      Chromosomes

    Correct Answer
    C. Ribosomes
    Explanation
    The rough ER has ribosomes. Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis and are found either free in the cytoplasm or attached to the rough ER. The rough ER is called "rough" because it has ribosomes attached to its surface, giving it a rough appearance under a microscope. These ribosomes on the rough ER help in the production and modification of proteins that are then transported to various parts of the cell or outside the cell.

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  • 11. 

    The thin, flexible barrier around a cell is called the 

    • A.

      Plasma membrane

    • B.

      Cell wall

    • C.

      Nuclear envelope

    • D.

      Cytoplasm

    Correct Answer
    A. Plasma membrane
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds a cell. It is made up of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins and controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining the cell's shape and protecting its internal environment. The other options, such as the cell wall, nuclear envelope, and cytoplasm, are not the correct answers as they refer to different structures within or surrounding the cell.

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  • 12. 

    The main function of the cell wall is to

    • A.

      Store DNA

    • B.

      Help the cell move

    • C.

      Direct the activities of the cell

    • D.

      Support and protect the cell

    Correct Answer
    D. Support and protect the cell
    Explanation
    The cell wall is a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane in plant cells, fungi, and some bacteria. Its main function is to provide support and protection to the cell. The cell wall helps maintain the shape of the cell and prevents it from bursting under osmotic pressure. It also acts as a barrier, protecting the cell from external mechanical stresses and pathogens. Additionally, the cell wall allows for the exchange of materials between neighboring cells and helps in cell-to-cell communication.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is the function of the cytoskeleton?

    • A.

      Contains DNA

    • B.

      Surrounds the cell

    • C.

      Helps a cell keep its shape

    • D.

      Helps make proteins

    Correct Answer
    C. Helps a cell keep its shape
    Explanation
    The cytoskeleton is a network of protein filaments that provides structural support to the cell and helps maintain its shape. It acts like a scaffold, giving the cell its structural integrity and allowing it to withstand mechanical stress. Additionally, the cytoskeleton is involved in various cellular processes, such as cell division, cell movement, and intracellular transport. Therefore, the function of the cytoskeleton is to help a cell keep its shape.

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  • 14. 

    Prokaryotes lack

    • A.

      DNA or genetic material

    • B.

      A cell membrane

    • C.

      A nucleus

    • D.

      Cytoplasm

    Correct Answer
    C. A nucleus
    Explanation
    Prokaryotes lack a nucleus. Unlike eukaryotes, prokaryotes do not have a membrane-bound nucleus that houses their genetic material. Instead, their DNA is located in the cytoplasm, which is the region of the cell that contains all the cellular components. This lack of a nucleus is one of the defining characteristics of prokaryotic cells.

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  • 15. 

    Which organelle would not be found in animal cells?

    • A.

      Smooth ER

    • B.

      Chloroplasts

    • C.

      Mitochondria

    • D.

      Ribosomes

    Correct Answer
    B. Chloroplasts
    Explanation
    Chloroplasts are the organelles responsible for photosynthesis in plant cells. They contain chlorophyll, which is necessary for capturing sunlight and converting it into energy. Since animal cells do not undergo photosynthesis, chloroplasts are not present in animal cells. The other options, such as smooth ER, mitochondria, and ribosomes, are all organelles found in both animal and plant cells.

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  • 16. 

    A eukaryotic cell contains

    • A.

      Only ribosomes

    • B.

      Membrane bound organelles

    • C.

      DNA floating in cytoplasm

    • D.

      Just cytoplasm

    Correct Answer
    B. Membrane bound organelles
    Explanation
    Eukaryotic cells are characterized by the presence of membrane-bound organelles. These organelles, such as the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus, are enclosed by a lipid bilayer membrane that separates their internal contents from the cytoplasm. This membrane allows for compartmentalization and specialization of cellular functions, enabling eukaryotic cells to perform a wide range of complex processes. Therefore, the presence of membrane-bound organelles is a defining feature of eukaryotic cells.

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  • 17. 

    Which organelle is the "packing center" for the cell?

    • A.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • B.

      Nucleus

    • C.

      Lysosome

    • D.

      Golgi apparatus

    Correct Answer
    D. Golgi apparatus
    Explanation
    The Golgi apparatus is known as the "packing center" for the cell because it is responsible for modifying, sorting, and packaging proteins and lipids into vesicles for transport to their final destinations. It receives proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum and then modifies them by adding sugars and other molecules. The Golgi apparatus then sorts these molecules and packages them into vesicles, which can be transported within the cell or secreted outside of the cell. Therefore, the Golgi apparatus plays a crucial role in the intracellular transport and secretion of molecules, making it the correct answer for the "packing center" organelle.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is a saclike structure that stores water, food, and wastes?

    • A.

      Golgi apparatus

    • B.

      Nucleus

    • C.

      Vacuole

    • D.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    Correct Answer
    C. Vacuole
    Explanation
    A vacuole is a saclike structure found in plant and animal cells that stores water, food, and wastes. It is responsible for maintaining cell turgor pressure, storing nutrients and metabolic waste products, and regulating the pH of the cell. In plant cells, the vacuole is particularly large and plays a crucial role in maintaining cell shape and structure. The Golgi apparatus is responsible for modifying, sorting, and packaging proteins. The nucleus contains the cell's genetic material. The endoplasmic reticulum is involved in protein synthesis and lipid metabolism.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is the "powerhouse" of the cell that breaks down food into energy that the cell needs?

    • A.

      Mitochondria

    • B.

      Vacuole

    • C.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • D.

      Chloroplast

    Correct Answer
    A. Mitochondria
    Explanation
    Mitochondria is the correct answer because it is known as the "powerhouse" of the cell. It is responsible for breaking down food into energy through a process called cellular respiration. This energy is then used by the cell to carry out various functions and activities. Mitochondria have their own DNA and are found in large numbers in most eukaryotic cells, highlighting their crucial role in energy production.

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  • 20. 

    Who discovered "cells" and named them?

    • A.

      Anton van Leewenhoek

    • B.

      Robert Hooke

    • C.

      Lynn Margulis

    • D.

      Rudolph Virchow

    Correct Answer
    B. Robert Hooke
    Explanation
    Robert Hooke is credited with discovering "cells" and naming them. In 1665, he observed thin slices of cork under a microscope and noticed small box-like structures, which he called "cells" due to their resemblance to the cells of a monastery. Hooke's discovery and naming of cells laid the foundation for the field of cell biology and revolutionized our understanding of the microscopic world.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is not found in all cells?

    • A.

      Genetic material

    • B.

      Cell membrane

    • C.

      Vacuoles

    • D.

      Cytoplasm

    Correct Answer
    C. Vacuoles
    Explanation
    Vacuoles are not found in all cells. While genetic material, cell membrane, and cytoplasm are essential components found in all cells, vacuoles are not universally present. Vacuoles are membrane-bound organelles that store water, ions, and other molecules. They are more commonly found in plant cells, where they play a crucial role in maintaining turgor pressure and storing nutrients. However, not all cells, such as animal cells, possess vacuoles.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following is the site for protein synthesis?

    • A.

      Cell membrane

    • B.

      Nucleus

    • C.

      Ribosomes

    • D.

      Lysosomes

    Correct Answer
    C. Ribosomes
    Explanation
    Ribosomes are the site for protein synthesis. They are small organelles found in the cytoplasm of cells. Ribosomes play a crucial role in translating the genetic information from the DNA in the nucleus into proteins. They are responsible for assembling amino acids into polypeptide chains according to the instructions provided by the messenger RNA (mRNA). This process, known as translation, occurs on the surface of ribosomes. Therefore, ribosomes are the correct answer as they are directly involved in protein synthesis.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following is not part of the cell theory?

    • A.

      All living things are made of cells

    • B.

      Cells come from existing cells

    • C.

      Cells are the basic units of structure and function in all living things

    • D.

      All cells contain the same organelles

    Correct Answer
    D. All cells contain the same organelles
    Explanation
    The cell theory states that all living things are made of cells, cells come from existing cells, and cells are the basic units of structure and function in all living things. However, it does not state that all cells contain the same organelles. Organelles are specialized structures within cells that perform specific functions, and different types of cells can have different organelles depending on their specific functions. Therefore, the statement that all cells contain the same organelles is not part of the cell theory.

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  • 24. 

    What is the small dark structure in the nucleus that produces ribosomes?

    • A.

      Rough ER

    • B.

      Nucleolus

    • C.

      Smooth ER

    • D.

      Chromatin

    Correct Answer
    B. Nucleolus
    Explanation
    The small dark structure in the nucleus that produces ribosomes is called the nucleolus. The nucleolus is responsible for assembling ribosomes, which are essential for protein synthesis. It is made up of proteins and ribonucleic acid (RNA). The nucleolus plays a vital role in the production of proteins and is crucial for the overall functioning of the cell.

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  • 25. 

    This is the jelly-like substance found in all cells:

    • A.

      Centrioles

    • B.

      Cytoskeleton

    • C.

      Chromosomes

    • D.

      Cytoplasm

    Correct Answer
    D. Cytoplasm
    Explanation
    Cytoplasm is the jelly-like substance found in all cells. It is a semi-fluid substance that fills the cell and is responsible for holding the organelles in place. It also acts as a medium for various cellular processes such as metabolism, transport of molecules, and cell division. The cytoplasm contains various components like water, ions, proteins, and other molecules necessary for cell function. It is essential for maintaining the shape and structure of the cell and provides a suitable environment for cellular activities to occur.

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  • 26. 

    This is a sac-like structure that contains digestive enzymes. It may digest waste materials or even dead cells

    • A.

      ER

    • B.

      Lysosomes

    • C.

      Vacuole

    • D.

      Vesicle

    Correct Answer
    B. Lysosomes
    Explanation
    Lysosomes are sac-like structures that contain digestive enzymes. They are responsible for breaking down waste materials and even dead cells in the cell. Lysosomes play a crucial role in maintaining cell health and recycling cellular components. They are able to digest various substances and help in the removal of cellular waste.

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  • 27. 

    This is a series of sac-like tunnels that have ribosomes attached.  The main function of this organelle is to make and process proteins.

    • A.

      Nucleus

    • B.

      Rough ER

    • C.

      Smooth ER

    • D.

      Golgi apparatus

    Correct Answer
    B. Rough ER
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Rough ER. The rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of sac-like tunnels that have ribosomes attached to their surface. Its main function is to synthesize and process proteins. The ribosomes on the rough ER are responsible for protein synthesis, while the sac-like tunnels provide a space for protein processing and modification before they are transported to their final destinations within the cell or outside of it.

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  • 28. 

    This is a series of sac-like tunnels without ribosomes.  The main function of this organelle is to make and process lipids and carbohydrates.

    • A.

      Smooth ER

    • B.

      Nucleus

    • C.

      Rough ER

    • D.

      Golgi apparatus

    Correct Answer
    A. Smooth ER
    Explanation
    The organelle being described in the question is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The smooth ER is a network of sac-like tunnels that lack ribosomes. Its main function is to synthesize and process lipids and carbohydrates. Unlike the rough ER, which is involved in protein synthesis, the smooth ER is primarily responsible for lipid metabolism and detoxification of drugs and toxins. It also plays a role in calcium storage and release. Therefore, the correct answer is Smooth ER.

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  • 29. 

    The smallest unit of structure and function that maintains all the characteristics of life:

    • A.

      Nucleus

    • B.

      Tissue

    • C.

      Organism

    • D.

      Cell

    Correct Answer
    D. Cell
    Explanation
    A cell is the smallest unit of structure and function that maintains all the characteristics of life. It is the basic building block of all living organisms and is responsible for carrying out all the necessary functions for life, such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, and response to stimuli. Cells can exist as single-celled organisms or as part of multicellular organisms, where they work together to form tissues, organs, and ultimately, the entire organism.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following best describes the lipid bilayer present in the plasma membrane?

    • A.

      Phospholipids in single layer with heads facing outside the cell

    • B.

      Phospholipids in double layer with heads of both layers meeting in the middle

    • C.

      Phospholipids in single layer with heads facing inside the cell

    • D.

      Phospholipids in double layer with tails facing each other and heads on both the inside and outside of the cell

    Correct Answer
    D. Phospholipids in double layer with tails facing each other and heads on both the inside and outside of the cell
    Explanation
    The plasma membrane is composed of a lipid bilayer, which consists of two layers of phospholipids. The phospholipids have a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail. In the lipid bilayer, the hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids face each other, while the hydrophilic heads are exposed to both the inside and outside of the cell. This arrangement provides a barrier that separates the internal environment of the cell from the external environment while still allowing for the passage of certain molecules and ions.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following is the site of photosynthesis?

    • A.

      Smooth ER

    • B.

      Chloroplast

    • C.

      Mitochondria

    • D.

      Cytoplams

    Correct Answer
    B. Chloroplast
    Explanation
    Chloroplast is the correct answer because it is the site of photosynthesis in plant cells. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen. Chloroplasts contain a green pigment called chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy from the sun and uses it to carry out photosynthesis. The other options, Smooth ER, Mitochondria, and Cytoplasm, are not directly involved in photosynthesis. Smooth ER is involved in lipid synthesis, Mitochondria is responsible for cellular respiration, and Cytoplasm is the fluid that fills the cell.

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  • 32. 

    If when changing to a higher objective lens your specimen disappears what should you do?

    • A.

      Change the fine focus

    • B.

      Change the iris diaphram

    • C.

      Clean the ocular lens

    • D.

      Go back to the lower objective and recenter the specimen

    Correct Answer
    D. Go back to the lower objective and recenter the specimen
    Explanation
    When changing to a higher objective lens, the field of view becomes smaller and the depth of field decreases. If the specimen disappears, it is likely that it has moved out of the field of view. To locate the specimen again, it is necessary to go back to the lower objective lens, which provides a wider field of view, and recenter the specimen within the field of view.

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  • 33. 

    How many Dm in 665 cm?

    • A.

      6.65 Dm

    • B.

      665000 Dm

    • C.

      .665 Dm

    • D.

      .0665 Dm

    Correct Answer
    C. .665 Dm
    Explanation
    To convert from cm to Dm, we need to divide the given value by 10 since there are 10 cm in 1 Dm. So, 665 cm divided by 10 is equal to 66.5 Dm. However, none of the options provided match this value exactly. The closest option is .665 Dm, which is equal to 66.5 cm when multiplied by 10. Therefore, .665 Dm is the correct answer.

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  • 34. 

     A scientist testing the affects of a chemical on apple yeild sprays an orchard with the chemical. A second orchard does not receive the chemical. In the fall, the number of apples harvested from each forest is counted. Which of the following is the independent (manipulated) variable in the experiment?

    • A.

      The chemical

    • B.

      The number of apples

    • C.

      The first orchard

    • D.

      The second orchard

    Correct Answer
    A. The chemical
    Explanation
    The independent (manipulated) variable in the experiment is the chemical. This is because the scientist is testing the effects of the chemical on apple yield by spraying one orchard with the chemical and not spraying the other orchard. The chemical is the variable that is being manipulated by the scientist to observe its effects on the number of apples harvested.

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  • 35. 

    The orchard sprayed with the chemical yields an average of 60 apples per tree, the other orchard yields an average of 40 apples per tree. Based on the data, the scientist would:

    • A.

      Report his data

    • B.

      Test the chemical on other plants

    • C.

      Determine that the chemical increases apple yield

    • D.

      Determine that the results were inconclusive

    Correct Answer
    C. Determine that the chemical increases apple yield
    Explanation
    Based on the given data, the scientist would determine that the chemical increases apple yield. This conclusion can be drawn because the orchard sprayed with the chemical yields an average of 60 apples per tree, while the other orchard without the chemical yields an average of 40 apples per tree. The significant increase in apple yield in the orchard treated with the chemical suggests that it has a positive effect on the apple trees, leading to a higher yield.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Oct 11, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 08, 2015
    Quiz Created by
    MrsWest

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