Basic Environmental Engineering And Elementary Biology (Evs) - 25-08-2015

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Basic Environmental Engineering And Elementary Biology (Evs) - 25-08-2015 - Quiz

Answer all the questions. Each questions has only one valid answer.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A natural phenomenon that becomes harmful due to pollution is

    • A.

      Global warming

    • B.

      Ecological balance

    • C.

      Desertification

    • D.

      Greenhouse effect

    Correct Answer
    D. Greenhouse effect
    Explanation
    The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon that becomes harmful due to pollution. It occurs when certain gases in the Earth's atmosphere trap heat from the sun, causing the planet to warm up. However, human activities have increased the concentration of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, leading to an enhanced greenhouse effect and global warming. This pollution-induced greenhouse effect has negative impacts on climate patterns, ecosystems, and human health, making it a natural phenomenon that becomes harmful due to pollution.

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  • 2. 

    An air pollutant that reduce oxygen-carrying capacity of haemoglobin is

    • A.

      Ammonia

    • B.

      Hydrogen sulphide

    • C.

      Carbon monoxide

    • D.

      Carbon dioxide

    Correct Answer
    C. Carbon monoxide
    Explanation
    Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas that binds to haemoglobin in the blood more readily than oxygen, forming carboxyhemoglobin. This reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of haemoglobin, leading to a decreased supply of oxygen to the body's tissues. This can result in symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, and in severe cases, can lead to organ damage or death.

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  • 3. 

    Hydrosphere consists of

    • A.

      Air layers

    • B.

      Rocks

    • C.

      Soil

    • D.

      Various water bodies and oceans

    Correct Answer
    D. Various water bodies and oceans
    Explanation
    The hydrosphere is the part of the Earth's system that includes all water bodies, such as oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, and groundwater. It also includes water vapor in the atmosphere and water trapped in ice and snow. Therefore, the answer "various water bodies and oceans" accurately represents the components of the hydrosphere.

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  • 4. 

    In the stratosphere, with increasing altitude, temperature

    • A.

      Rises gradually

    • B.

      Decreases gradually

    • C.

      Remains same

    • D.

      Has no definite pattern of change

    Correct Answer
    A. Rises gradually
    Explanation
    As altitude increases in the stratosphere, the temperature rises gradually. This is because the stratosphere is above the troposphere, which is where weather occurs and where temperature typically decreases with altitude. In the stratosphere, however, the presence of ozone absorbs and re-emits solar radiation, causing the temperature to gradually increase with height. Therefore, the correct answer is that the temperature rises gradually in the stratosphere with increasing altitude.

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  • 5. 

    Ozone is the main constituent of

    • A.

      Troposphere

    • B.

      Stratosphere

    • C.

      Mesosphere

    • D.

      Thermosphere

    Correct Answer
    B. Stratosphere
    Explanation
    Ozone is the main constituent of the stratosphere. The stratosphere is the second layer of the Earth's atmosphere, located above the troposphere. It extends from about 10 to 50 kilometers above the Earth's surface. Ozone is present in the stratosphere in the form of the ozone layer, which plays a crucial role in absorbing and filtering out harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun. This layer acts as a protective shield for life on Earth by preventing excessive UV radiation from reaching the surface, which can cause various health issues and damage to the environment.

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  • 6. 

    The atmosphere is neutrally stable under the condition of

    • A.

      ELR > ALR

    • B.

      ELR = ALR

    • C.

      ELR < ALR

    • D.

      none of these

    Correct Answer
    B. ELR = ALR
    Explanation
    When the environmental lapse rate (ELR) is equal to the adiabatic lapse rate (ALR), the atmosphere is neutrally stable. This means that the temperature of the air does not change with altitude, resulting in no vertical movement of air parcels. In this condition, the atmosphere is in a state of equilibrium, with no tendency for air to rise or sink, leading to stable weather conditions.

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  • 7. 

    The dry adiabatic lapse rate in the troposphere is about

    • A.

      −9.8 °C/Km

    • B.

      −4.5 °C/Km

    • C.

      −6.9 °C/Km

    • D.

      −8.9 °C/Km

    Correct Answer
    A. −9.8 °C/Km
    Explanation
    The correct answer is -9.8 °C/Km. The dry adiabatic lapse rate refers to the rate at which the temperature decreases with increasing altitude in the troposphere, assuming no condensation or heat exchange occurs. This rate is approximately 9.8 °C decrease in temperature per kilometer increase in altitude. This value is based on the assumption that the air parcel is dry and does not release or absorb heat during its ascent or descent.

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  • 8. 

    The hottest region of the atmosphere is

    • A.

      Troposphere

    • B.

      Mesosphere

    • C.

      Stratosphere

    • D.

      Thermosphere

    Correct Answer
    D. Thermosphere
    Explanation
    The thermosphere is the hottest region of the atmosphere. It is located above the mesosphere and extends to outer space. This region is characterized by high temperatures due to the absorption of intense solar radiation. The thermosphere is also where the auroras occur, as charged particles from the sun interact with the gases in this layer.

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  • 9. 

    The IR active gas is 

    • A.

      O<sub style="color: rgb(102, 102, 102);">2

    • B.

      CO<sub style="color: rgb(102, 102, 102);">2

    • C.

      N<sub style="color: rgb(102, 102, 102);">2

    • D.

      He

    Correct Answer
    B. CO<sub style="color: rgb(102, 102, 102);">2
    Explanation
    CO2 is the correct answer because it is an IR active gas. IR active gases are those that can absorb and emit infrared radiation. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has three atoms and a linear molecular structure, which allows it to have vibrational modes that can absorb and emit infrared radiation. This makes CO2 an important greenhouse gas, as it can trap heat in the Earth's atmosphere. O2, N2, and He are not IR active gases, as they do not have the necessary molecular structures to absorb and emit infrared radiation.

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  • 10. 

    The pollutant responsible for ozone holes is

    • A.

      CO<sub style="color: rgb(102, 102, 102);">2

    • B.

      CFC

    • C.

      CO

    • D.

      SO<sub style="color: rgb(102, 102, 102);">2

    Correct Answer
    B. CFC
    Explanation
    CFCs, or chlorofluorocarbons, are the pollutants responsible for ozone holes. When released into the atmosphere, CFCs break down and release chlorine atoms. These chlorine atoms then react with ozone molecules, depleting the ozone layer. CO2, CO, and SO2 are not directly responsible for ozone depletion, although they are greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change.

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  • 11. 

    The simple global temperature model predicts earth atmosphere to

    • A.

      0°C

    • B.

      34°C

    • C.

      −19°C

    • D.

      −273°C

    Correct Answer
    C. −19°C
    Explanation
    The simple global temperature model predicts the Earth's atmosphere to be at -19°C. This means that according to the model, the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere would be below freezing point. This prediction is likely based on various factors such as the Earth's distance from the sun, greenhouse gas concentrations, and other climate variables. It is important to note that this is a simplified model and may not reflect the actual temperature variations experienced on Earth.

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  • 12. 

    The temperature range of mesosphere is

    • A.

      −2°C to −92°C

    • B.

      15°C to −56°C

    • C.

      −56°C to −2°C

    • D.

      −92°C to 1200°C

    Correct Answer
    A. −2°C to −92°C
    Explanation
    The mesosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere that is located above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere. It is characterized by decreasing temperatures with increasing altitude. The given answer, −2°C to −92°C, falls within the expected temperature range for the mesosphere. The negative temperatures indicate that it is a cold layer of the atmosphere, with the lower end of the range being slightly colder than the upper end.

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  • 13. 

    A natural phenomonone that becomes harmful due to pollution is

    • A.

      Global warming

    • B.

      Ecological balance

    • C.

      Desertification

    • D.

      Greenhouse effect

    Correct Answer
    D. Greenhouse effect
    Explanation
    The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon that becomes harmful due to pollution. It occurs when certain gases in the Earth's atmosphere trap heat from the sun, causing the planet to warm up. However, human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels, release additional greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, intensifying the greenhouse effect and leading to global warming. This increased warming has numerous negative consequences, including rising sea levels, extreme weather events, and harm to ecosystems and biodiversity.

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  • 14. 

    …………………………….of stratosphere provides protection of our life

    • A.

      Ozone

    • B.

      Nitrogen

    • C.

      Hydrogen

    • D.

      Argon

    Correct Answer
    A. Ozone
    Explanation
    Ozone in the stratosphere provides protection for our life. Ozone molecules in the stratosphere absorb most of the sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation, preventing it from reaching the Earth's surface. This UV radiation can cause skin cancer, cataracts, and damage to the immune system. Therefore, the presence of ozone in the stratosphere acts as a shield, protecting us from the harmful effects of UV radiation and ensuring the survival of life on Earth.

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  • 15. 

    In the atmosphere, the larger above the troposhere is

    • A.

      Stratosphere

    • B.

      Exosphere

    • C.

      Mesosphere

    • D.

      Thermosphere

    Correct Answer
    A. Stratosphere
    Explanation
    The stratosphere is the correct answer because it is the layer of the atmosphere that is located above the troposphere. It is characterized by the presence of the ozone layer, which absorbs and filters out a significant amount of the sun's ultraviolet radiation. The stratosphere is also where commercial airplanes typically fly, as it is more stable and less turbulent compared to the troposphere.

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  • 16. 

    Ozone is the main constituent of

    • A.

      Troposphere

    • B.

      Stratosphere

    • C.

      Mesosphere

    • D.

      Thermosphere

    Correct Answer
    B. Stratosphere
    Explanation
    Ozone is primarily found in the stratosphere. The stratosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere located above the troposphere and below the mesosphere. It is characterized by the presence of ozone molecules, which form the ozone layer. The ozone layer plays a crucial role in protecting life on Earth by absorbing the majority of the Sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Therefore, the correct answer is stratosphere.

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  • 17. 

    The atmosphere is neutrally stable under the condition of

    • A.

      ELR > ALR

    • B.

      ELR = ALR

    • C.

      ELR < ALR

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. ELR = ALR
    Explanation
    When the environmental lapse rate (ELR) is equal to the adiabatic lapse rate (ALR), the atmosphere is neutrally stable. This means that the temperature of the air is neither increasing nor decreasing with height. In this condition, a parcel of air that is displaced vertically will neither rise nor sink on its own. This equilibrium between the ELR and ALR indicates that the atmosphere is in a stable state, with no significant vertical movement of air masses.

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  • 18. 

    The dry adiabatic lapse rate in the troposphere is about (in degree Celsium/Km)

    • A.

      -9.8

    • B.

      -4.5

    • C.

      -8.9

    • D.

      -7.8

    Correct Answer
    A. -9.8
    Explanation
    The correct answer is -9.8. The dry adiabatic lapse rate refers to the rate at which the temperature decreases with increasing altitude in the troposphere, assuming no exchange of heat with the surroundings. This lapse rate is approximately 9.8 degrees Celsius per kilometer. As air rises in the troposphere, it expands and cools adiabatically, causing the temperature to decrease at this rate. Therefore, the correct answer is -9.8.

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  • 19. 

    Ozone has strongest absorption band at

    • A.

      9 µm

    • B.

      12 µm

    • C.

      6 µm

    • D.

      16 µm

    Correct Answer
    A. 9 µm
    Explanation
    Ozone has the strongest absorption band at 9 µm. This means that ozone molecules are most effective at absorbing electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of 9 µm. This absorption band is significant because it allows ozone to filter out harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, protecting the Earth's surface from its damaging effects.

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  • 20. 

    Short term properties of the atmosphere at a given place and time is referred to as

    • A.

      Microclimate

    • B.

      Climate

    • C.

      Weather

    • D.

      Season

    Correct Answer
    C. Weather
    Explanation
    The short term properties of the atmosphere at a given place and time are referred to as weather. Weather includes variables such as temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind speed, and atmospheric pressure that can change on a daily or even hourly basis. Unlike climate, which refers to long-term patterns and averages of weather conditions in a region, weather describes the immediate conditions that we experience on a day-to-day basis.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following conceptual sphere of the environment has the least storage cpacity of matter ?

    • A.

      Atmosphere

    • B.

      Hydrosphere

    • C.

      Lithosphere

    • D.

      Biosphere

    Correct Answer
    A. Atmosphere
    Explanation
    The atmosphere has the least storage capacity of matter compared to the other conceptual spheres of the environment. This is because the atmosphere is composed of gases and has a relatively low density, which limits its ability to hold large amounts of matter. In contrast, the hydrosphere (water), lithosphere (earth), and biosphere (living organisms) have greater storage capacities due to their solid or liquid nature and ability to contain and retain matter.

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  • 22. 

    ESP is

    • A.

      Electrostatic precipitator

    • B.

      Electrostatic producer

    • C.

      Electrostatic production

    • D.

      Electron source precipitator

    Correct Answer
    A. Electrostatic precipitator
    Explanation
    An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is a device used to remove particulate matter from a gas stream by using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. It works by charging the particles in the gas stream and then attracting them to oppositely charged plates or electrodes, where they are collected and removed. This technology is commonly used in industries such as power plants and cement factories to control air pollution and maintain clean air quality.

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  • 23. 

    Air pollutant which reduces oxygen carrying capacity of haemoglobin is

    • A.

      Ammonia

    • B.

      Hydrogen sulphide

    • C.

      Carbon monoxide

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    C. Carbon monoxide
    Explanation
    Carbon monoxide is a highly toxic air pollutant that reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of haemoglobin in the blood. When inhaled, it binds to haemoglobin more readily than oxygen, forming carboxyhemoglobin. This reduces the amount of oxygen that can be transported to the body's tissues, leading to oxygen deprivation and potentially life-threatening conditions. Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, such as those found in vehicle exhaust fumes and poorly ventilated indoor heating systems.

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  • 24. 

    Lapse rate refers to the rate at which

    • A.

      Population increases in an area with increasing temperature

    • B.

      Temperature decreases with increase in elevation

    • C.

      Temperature decreases with decrease in elevation

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    B. Temperature decreases with increase in elevation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "temperature decreases with increase in elevation." This is because as elevation increases, the air becomes less dense and there is less pressure. As a result, the air molecules are more spread out and have less energy, leading to a decrease in temperature. This phenomenon is known as the lapse rate.

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  • 25. 

    Ozone is a pollutant when present in

    • A.

      Stratosphere

    • B.

      Troposphere

    • C.

      Mesosphere

    • D.

      Thermosphere

    Correct Answer
    B. Troposphere
    Explanation
    Ozone is considered a pollutant when present in the troposphere because it is harmful to human health and the environment. In the troposphere, ozone is a key component of smog and can cause respiratory issues, such as asthma and lung damage. It is also a greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change. However, in the stratosphere, ozone is beneficial as it forms a protective layer that shields the Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. In the mesosphere and thermosphere, ozone concentrations are very low and do not have significant impacts on pollution or health.

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  • 26. 

    In the stratosphere, with increasing altitude, temperature

    • A.

      Rises gradually

    • B.

      Decreases gradually

    • C.

      Remains same

    • D.

      Has no definite pattern of change

    Correct Answer
    A. Rises gradually
    Explanation
    As altitude increases in the stratosphere, the temperature also rises gradually. This is because the stratosphere is located above the troposphere, where most weather phenomena occur. In the stratosphere, the ozone layer absorbs and scatters the Sun's ultraviolet radiation, which causes the temperature to increase. Therefore, as one moves higher in the stratosphere, the temperature gradually rises.

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  • 27. 

    The coldest region of the atmosphere is

    • A.

      Troposphere

    • B.

      Stratosphere

    • C.

      Mesosphere

    • D.

      Thermosphere

    Correct Answer
    C. Mesosphere
    Explanation
    The mesosphere is the coldest region of the atmosphere. It is located above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere. In this layer, temperatures can drop as low as -90 degrees Celsius. This is because the mesosphere is the layer where the air is the least dense and furthest from the heat-trapping effects of the Earth's surface. Additionally, the mesosphere is also the layer where meteors burn up upon entry into the Earth's atmosphere, which further contributes to its cold temperatures.

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  • 28. 

    The green house effect is pronounced in versus due to the presence of

    • A.

      Carbon dioxide

    • B.

      Methane

    • C.

      Nitrous oxide

    • D.

      Water vapour

    Correct Answer
    A. Carbon dioxide
    Explanation
    The correct answer is carbon dioxide because it is a greenhouse gas that traps heat in the Earth's atmosphere. When carbon dioxide levels increase, more heat is trapped, leading to an intensification of the greenhouse effect. Methane and nitrous oxide are also greenhouse gases, but their concentrations in the atmosphere are much lower compared to carbon dioxide. Water vapor is another greenhouse gas, but its concentration in the atmosphere is highly variable and depends on local weather conditions.

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  • 29. 

    The ozone hole in the antartic is due to

    • A.

      Methane

    • B.

      CFC

    • C.

      Ozone

    • D.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these
    Explanation
    The ozone hole in the Antarctic is due to a combination of factors, including methane, CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), and ozone. Methane is a greenhouse gas that contributes to the depletion of ozone in the atmosphere. CFCs, commonly used in aerosol products and refrigerants, are known to break down ozone molecules. Ozone itself is also a factor in the formation of the ozone hole, as it can be depleted by chemical reactions. Therefore, all of these factors contribute to the formation of the ozone hole in the Antarctic.

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  • 30. 

    Ozonized water means

    • A.

      Water containg ozone

    • B.

      Ozone as disinfectant

    • C.

      Deionized water

    • D.

      Saline water

    Correct Answer
    B. Ozone as disinfectant
    Explanation
    Ozonized water refers to water that contains ozone as a disinfectant. Ozone is a highly reactive form of oxygen that is used to kill bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms in water. It is a powerful disinfectant that can effectively remove contaminants and purify water. Ozone is commonly used in water treatment processes to ensure the safety and cleanliness of drinking water.

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  • 31. 

    The gas responsible for Greenhouse Effect is

    • A.

      CO

    • B.

      SO2

    • C.

      CFC

    • D.

      N2

    Correct Answer
    C. CFC
    Explanation
    CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) are a group of synthetic compounds that were commonly used in aerosol propellants, refrigerants, and solvents. They are responsible for the Greenhouse Effect because when released into the atmosphere, they deplete the ozone layer. This depletion allows more harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun to reach the Earth's surface, leading to global warming and climate change. Therefore, CFCs are the gas responsible for the Greenhouse Effect.

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  • 32. 

    The pollutant responsible for ozone holes is

    • A.

      CO2

    • B.

      CFC

    • C.

      CO

    • D.

      SO2

    Correct Answer
    B. CFC
    Explanation
    CFCs, or chlorofluorocarbons, are responsible for ozone holes. When released into the atmosphere, CFCs break down and release chlorine atoms. These chlorine atoms then react with ozone molecules, breaking them apart and depleting the ozone layer. CO2, CO, and SO2 are not responsible for ozone holes, as they do not have the same impact on the ozone layer.

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  • 33. 

    Global warming has resulted due to

    • A.

      Increased emissions of fine particles from automobiles

    • B.

      Oxides of sulphur and nitrogen

    • C.

      Increased emission of CO2 from automobiles

    • D.

      Lack of rainfall worldwide

    Correct Answer
    C. Increased emission of CO2 from automobiles
    Explanation
    The increased emission of CO2 from automobiles is a major contributor to global warming. CO2 is a greenhouse gas that traps heat in the Earth's atmosphere, leading to a rise in global temperatures. As more and more automobiles are being used worldwide, the amount of CO2 being released into the atmosphere has significantly increased. This excess CO2 acts as a blanket, preventing heat from escaping into space and causing the planet to warm up. Therefore, the increased emission of CO2 from automobiles is a significant factor in the phenomenon of global warming.

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  • 34. 

    The life supporting gases such as O2, CO2 and N2 are chiefly concentrated in the

    • A.

      Stratosphere

    • B.

      Exosphere

    • C.

      Mesosphere

    • D.

      Thermosphere

    Correct Answer
    B. Exosphere
    Explanation
    The correct answer is exosphere. The exosphere is the outermost layer of the Earth's atmosphere, where the concentration of gases is very low and they are not well-mixed. The life-supporting gases such as oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2) are found in trace amounts in the exosphere. The exosphere is characterized by extremely low density and high temperatures, and it gradually transitions into outer space.

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  • 35. 

    The gas responsible for Greenhouse effect is

    • A.

      CO

    • B.

      SO2

    • C.

      CFC

    • D.

      N2

    Correct Answer
    C. CFC
    Explanation
    CFCs, or chlorofluorocarbons, are a group of gases that were commonly used in refrigerants, aerosol propellants, and foam-blowing agents. They are responsible for the greenhouse effect because they have the ability to trap heat in the Earth's atmosphere. When released into the atmosphere, CFCs can rise to the stratosphere where they break down due to ultraviolet radiation, releasing chlorine atoms. These chlorine atoms then catalytically destroy ozone molecules, leading to the thinning of the ozone layer. The thinning of the ozone layer allows more harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun to reach the Earth's surface, contributing to the greenhouse effect and causing negative impacts on the environment.

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  • 36. 

    The primary air pollutant is

    • A.

      O3

    • B.

      SO2

    • C.

      PAN

    • D.

      HCHO

    Correct Answer
    B. SO2
    Explanation
    SO2 is considered the primary air pollutant because it is released directly into the atmosphere from various industrial processes, such as burning fossil fuels and smelting metals. It is a colorless gas with a pungent odor and can have detrimental effects on human health and the environment. SO2 contributes to the formation of acid rain, which can harm ecosystems and damage buildings and infrastructure. It is also a precursor to the formation of particulate matter, which can cause respiratory issues. Therefore, SO2 is the correct answer as the primary air pollutant.

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  • 37. 

    The temperature range of mesosphere is (in degree celsius)

    • A.

      -2 °C to -92 °C

    • B.

      15 °C to -56 °C

    • C.

      -56 °C to -2 °C

    • D.

      -92 °C to 1200 °C

    Correct Answer
    A. -2 °C to -92 °C
    Explanation
    The correct answer is -2 °C to -92 °C. The mesosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere that is located above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere. It is characterized by decreasing temperature with increasing altitude. The temperature range of -2 °C to -92 °C represents the typical temperatures found in the mesosphere.

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  • 38. 

    Green house effect is due to

    • A.

      Over-cultivation of land

    • B.

      Testing nuclear weapons

    • C.

      Some atmospheric gases like CO2, N2O and some 'man-made' gases

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    C. Some atmospheric gases like CO2, N2O and some 'man-made' gases
    Explanation
    The greenhouse effect is caused by certain atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and some man-made gases. These gases trap heat from the sun in the Earth's atmosphere, leading to an increase in the overall temperature of the planet. This phenomenon is known as global warming. Over-cultivation of land and testing nuclear weapons do not directly contribute to the greenhouse effect.

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  • 39. 

    Which one of the following shows the highest greenhouse efficiency ?

    • A.

      CH4

    • B.

      N2O

    • C.

      CO2

    • D.

      O3

    Correct Answer
    B. N2O
    Explanation
    N2O, also known as nitrous oxide, has the highest greenhouse efficiency among the given options. It is a potent greenhouse gas that has a much higher global warming potential than CO2. N2O has a longer atmospheric lifetime, which allows it to trap more heat in the atmosphere. This makes it a more effective greenhouse gas in terms of its ability to contribute to global warming and climate change.

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  • 40. 

    The mechanism by which heat energy is transmitted from one place to another without the agency of any intervening medium is called ------

    • A.

      Radiation

    • B.

      Convection

    • C.

      Conduction

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    A. Radiation
    Explanation
    Radiation is the correct answer because it is the process by which heat energy is transferred through electromagnetic waves without the need for any intervening medium. Unlike conduction and convection, which require a material medium, radiation can occur in a vacuum or through transparent substances. This mechanism is commonly observed in the form of heat transfer from the sun to the Earth, where electromagnetic waves travel through the vacuum of space to reach our planet.

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