Molecular And Cellular Biology Of Angiogenesis Assessment

25 Questions | Total Attempts: 106

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Molecular And Cellular Biology Of Angiogenesis Assessment

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following statements is true?
    • A. 

      Angiogenesis is responsible for the development of the initial vasculature within the embryo and for the expansion of this network.

    • B. 

      Endothelial sprouting is an integral step within the vasculogenesis process.

    • C. 

      Angiogenesis is necessary for the growth and repair of lymphatic vessels.

    • D. 

      Angiogenesis is responsible for transforming the primitive, embryonic vasculature network into a mature system of blood vessels and for expanding existing blood vessels to support normal tissue growth.

    • E. 

      Angiogenesis is characterized by the formation of blood vessels from angioblasts. It also is involved in the wound healing process.

  • 2. 
    From what vessel(s) does angiogenesis usually begin?
    • A. 

      Capillary

    • B. 

      Small venule

    • C. 

      Smart arteriole

    • D. 

      Capillaries and small venules

    • E. 

      Capillaries and arteries

  • 3. 
    Which smooth muscle cells wrap around the exterior of the capillary wall, providing stability?
    • A. 

      Pericytes

    • B. 

      Actin myosin filaments

    • C. 

      Tip cells

    • D. 

      Mesenchymal cells

    • E. 

      None of the responses are correct

  • 4. 
    During angiogenesis, what event precedes endothelial cells entering a state of proliferation?  
    • A. 

      Pericytes detach from the wall of a blood vessel, thus destabilizing it

    • B. 

      The permeability of the blood vessel increases, causing proteases and stromal mix components to leak out

    • C. 

      A tip cell extends itself out from the vessel into the stroma and guides the advancement of a new capillary sprout

    • D. 

      Endothelial cells behind the tip cell replicate and form a stalk-like structure

    • E. 

      None of the responses are correct

  • 5. 
    Which specialized endothelial cell pushes out from a vessel wall into the stroma, guiding the development of a new capillary sprout?
    • A. 

      Stromal cell

    • B. 

      Pericyte

    • C. 

      Mesenchymal cell

    • D. 

      Stalk cell

    • E. 

      Tip cell

  • 6. 
    Fill in the blanks.  In healthy individuals angiogenesis is a _________________ controlled process that is kept in check by ___________________________________________________.    
    • A. 

      Tightly; maintaining a balance between adhesion molecules and colony-stimulating factors

    • B. 

      Tightly; maintaining a balance between VEGF and TNF-α

    • C. 

      Tightly; maintaining a balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic molecules

    • D. 

      Poorly; maintaining a balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic molecules

    • E. 

      loosely; maintaining a balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic molecules

  • 7. 
    Which of the following is not a proangiogenic growth factor?   
    • A. 

      Placental growth factor (PlGF)

    • B. 

      Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)

    • C. 

      Vascular endothelial cell growth factor

    • D. 

      Angiopoietin-1

    • E. 

      All of the above are proangiogenic growth factors

  • 8. 
    Which of the following is not recognized as a proangiogenic factor?   
    • A. 

      Colony stimulating factors

    • B. 

      Growth factors

    • C. 

      Adhesion molecules

    • D. 

      Ang2

    • E. 

      All of the above are proangiogenic factors

  • 9. 
    Choose the option that depicts the most relevant antiangiogenic  factors.     
    • A. 

      Angiopoietin-2 (Ang 2), thrombospondins (TSP-1, TSP-2), tissue inhibitors of matrix matelloproteinases

    • B. 

      Angiopoietin-2 (Ang 2), angiostatin, epidermal growth factor (EGF)

    • C. 

      AvB3-integrin, angiostatin, endostatin

    • D. 

      Angiopoietin-2 (Ang 2), thrombospondins (TSP-1, TSP-2), tissue inhibitors of matrix matelloproteinases, epidermal growth factor (EGF)

    • E. 

      Angiopoietin-2 (Ang 2), tissue inhibitors of matrix matelloproteinases, AvB3-integrin, endostatin

  • 10. 
    Which of the following are VEGF ligands found in humans?   
    • A. 

      VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C

    • B. 

      VEGF-D, placental growth factor

    • C. 

      Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)

    • D. 

      VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, placental growth factor

    • E. 

      All of the responses are correct

  • 11. 
    What is the main stimulus for VEGF expression?
  • 12. 
    Which of the following is a target receptor involved in the angiogenesis process?     
    • A. 

      Tyrosine kinase

    • B. 

      NR3C4

    • C. 

      Neuropilins

    • D. 

      Tyrosine kinases and neuropilins

    • E. 

      All of the responses are correct

  • 13. 
    To which receptors does the VEGF-A ligand bind?
    • A. 

      VEGFR-1

    • B. 

      VEGFR-2

    • C. 

      Neuropilin-1

    • D. 

      Neuropilin-2

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 14. 
    What is the most important regulator of angiogenesis?
    • A. 

      VEGF-A

    • B. 

      VEGF-B

    • C. 

      VEGF-C

    • D. 

      VEGF-D

    • E. 

      VEGF-E

  • 15. 
    Which VEGF receptor is the main mediator of the proangiogenic effects of VEGF-A?       
    • A. 

      VEGFR-1

    • B. 

      VEGFR-2

    • C. 

      Neuropilin-1

    • D. 

      Neuropilin-2

    • E. 

      Placental growth factor receptor (PlGF)

  • 16. 
    Which target receptors modulate the strength of VEGFR signal transduction?    
    • A. 

      VEGFR

    • B. 

      NR3C4

    • C. 

      Neuropilins

    • D. 

      VEGFR and neuropilins

    • E. 

      None of the responses are correct

  • 17. 
    Which of the following is a form of PDGR?      
    • A. 

      PDGFR-α

    • B. 

      PDGFR-γ

    • C. 

      PDGFR-δ

    • D. 

      PDGFR-α and PDGFR- δ

    • E. 

      None of the responses are correct

  • 18. 
    True or False.  PDGRF-α and PDGFR-β are expressed outside of the vasculature.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 19. 
    Which of the following outcomes are associated with PDGF/PDGFR signaling?    
    • A. 

      Cell migration

    • B. 

      Cell replication

    • C. 

      Cell survival

    • D. 

      Cell migration, cell replication and cell survival

    • E. 

      None of the responses are correct

  • 20. 
    In what form are PDGF proteins active?    
    • A. 

      Monomers

    • B. 

      Dimers

    • C. 

      Trimers

    • D. 

      Tetramers

    • E. 

      Pentamers

  • 21. 
    Which VEGF expression is regulated by the mTOR-HIF α pathway?     
    • A. 

      VEGF-A

    • B. 

      VEGF-B

    • C. 

      VEGF-C

    • D. 

      VEGF-D

    • E. 

      Placental growth factor

  • 22. 
    What role does the protein kinase mTOR play in a cell?
    • A. 

      It is involved in the regulation of cell growth.

    • B. 

      It is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation.

    • C. 

      It is involved in the regulation of cell survival.

    • D. 

      It is involved in the regulation of cell growth and cell survival.

    • E. 

      All of the responses are correct

  • 23. 
    Which pathway mediates the effect of O2 levels on VEGF-A?     
    • A. 

      HIFα/mAKAP

    • B. 

      MTOR

    • C. 

      HIFα/VHL

    • D. 

      HIFβ/VHL

    • E. 

      HIFβ/mAKAP

  • 24. 
    What is a potential consequence associated with the leakiness of the tumor vasculature?     
    • A. 

      Proliferation of tumor cells

    • B. 

      Migration of tumor cells

    • C. 

      Growth of tumor cells

    • D. 

      Protein synthesis and transcription

    • E. 

      Proliferation and migration of tumor cells

  • 25. 
    What is a potential consequence associated with a lack of nonuniform adhesion molecular expression on tumors?      
    • A. 

      Increase in the ease with which tumor cells can enter blood vessels

    • B. 

      Avoidance of immune system surveillance

    • C. 

      Potential to decrease metastatic potential

    • D. 

      Potential enhancement of immune system surveillance

    • E. 

      Increase in the ease with which tumor cells can enter blood vessels as well as avoidance of immune system surveillance