A.P. Biology Chapter 6 (Cells)

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A.P. Biology Chapter 6 (Cells) - Quiz

This quiz is for chapter 6 of AP Bio, on the same test as 5, 7, and 8.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What kind of light microscope is used for thin sections?

    • A.

      Compound light microscope

    • B.

      Stereoscope

    • C.

      TEM

    • D.

      SEM

    Correct Answer
    A. Compound light microscope
    Explanation
    A compound light microscope is used for thin sections because it allows for high magnification and resolution of the sample. This type of microscope uses visible light to illuminate the sample, which is particularly useful for thin sections where the sample is transparent or semi-transparent. The compound light microscope has multiple lenses that work together to magnify the image, allowing for detailed examination of the thin section. In contrast, a stereoscope is used for viewing larger and solid objects in three dimensions, while TEM and SEM are electron microscopes that use electron beams instead of light for imaging.

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  • 2. 

    What kind of light microscope is used for thick sections?

    • A.

      Compound light microscope

    • B.

      Stereoscope

    • C.

      TEM

    • D.

      SEM

    Correct Answer
    B. Stereoscope
    Explanation
    A stereoscope is used for viewing thick sections under a light microscope. Unlike a compound light microscope, which is used for thin sections, a stereoscope provides a three-dimensional view of the specimen. This is achieved by having two separate optical paths for each eye, allowing for depth perception. The stereoscope is particularly useful for examining thicker samples, such as biological tissues or larger objects, where a compound microscope may not be able to provide a clear view.

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  • 3. 

    What kind of electron microscope is used for thick sections?

    • A.

      Compound light microscope

    • B.

      Stereoscope

    • C.

      Transmission Electron Microscope

    • D.

      Scanning Electron Microscope

    Correct Answer
    D. Scanning Electron Microscope
    Explanation
    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used for thick sections because it provides a detailed and three-dimensional view of the sample's surface. Unlike transmission electron microscopes (TEM), which require thin sections, SEM can analyze thicker samples by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with the sample, producing signals that are used to create an image. This allows for a higher depth of field and the ability to study larger and bulkier specimens, making it the ideal choice for thick sections.

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  • 4. 

    What kind of electron microscope is used for thin sections?

    • A.

      Compound light microscope

    • B.

      Stereoscope

    • C.

      Transmission Electron Microscope

    • D.

      Scanning Electron Microscope

    Correct Answer
    C. Transmission Electron Microscope
    Explanation
    A Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) is used for thin sections because it uses a beam of electrons to pass through the sample, allowing for high-resolution imaging of the internal structure of the specimen. This type of microscope is capable of producing detailed images of thin sections at the nanometer scale, making it ideal for studying the ultrastructure of biological samples or examining thin slices of materials. In contrast, a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is used for studying the surface of a sample rather than its internal structure.

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  • 5. 

    What is the maximum magnification of a compound light microscope?

    • A.

      400x

    • B.

      1500x

    • C.

      1,000,000x

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    B. 1500x
    Explanation
    The maximum magnification of a compound light microscope is 1500x. This means that the microscope can magnify an object up to 1500 times its original size.

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  • 6. 

    What is the maximum magniciation of a TEM?

    • A.

      400x

    • B.

      1500x

    • C.

      1,000,000x

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    C. 1,000,000x
    Explanation
    The maximum magnification of a TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) is 1,000,000x. This means that the microscope can magnify an image up to one million times its original size. This high magnification allows for detailed observation of very small objects and structures, making the TEM a powerful tool in scientific research and analysis.

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  • 7. 

    What is resolution?

    • A.

      Ability to see small objects clearly

    • B.

      Smallest distance between 2 objects that can still be distinguished as separate

    • C.

      Ability to see large object clearly

    • D.

      A and B

    Correct Answer
    D. A and B
    Explanation
    Resolution refers to the ability to see small objects clearly and the smallest distance between two objects that can still be distinguished as separate. This means that resolution encompasses both the clarity of small objects and the ability to differentiate between closely spaced objects. Therefore, the correct answer is A and B.

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  • 8. 

    What is the resolution of a compound light microscope?

    • A.

      2 micrometers

    • B.

      0.2 micrometers

    • C.

      2 nanometers

    • D.

      0.2 nanometers

    Correct Answer
    B. 0.2 micrometers
    Explanation
    The resolution of a compound light microscope refers to its ability to distinguish between two closely spaced objects. A resolution of 0.2 micrometers means that the microscope can differentiate between two objects that are at least 0.2 micrometers apart. This suggests that the microscope has a relatively high level of resolving power, allowing for clear and detailed imaging of microscopic specimens.

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  • 9. 

    What is the resolution of a TEM?

    • A.

      2 micrometers

    • B.

      0.2 micrometers

    • C.

      2 nanometers

    • D.

      0.2 nanometers

    Correct Answer
    D. 0.2 nanometers
    Explanation
    The resolution of a TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) refers to its ability to distinguish between two closely spaced objects. A resolution of 0.2 nanometers means that the TEM can distinguish between objects that are at least 0.2 nanometers apart. This indicates that the TEM has a high level of detail and can provide clear and precise images of extremely small structures.

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  • 10. 

    What is cell fractionation?

    • A.

      Putting cells in a blender and centrifuge (spin fast to separate) for biochemical analysis

    • B.

      Putting cells in a blender to combine them for biochemical analysis

    • C.

      There is no such term, this is a trick question

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Putting cells in a blender and centrifuge (spin fast to separate) for biochemical analysis
    Explanation
    Cell fractionation is a process of separating different components of cells based on their size, density, and other physical properties. In this case, putting cells in a blender and then centrifuging them at high speeds helps to break down the cells and separate their components based on their density. This allows for further analysis of the different cellular components, such as organelles or proteins, in biochemical studies.

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  • 11. 

    What are the smallest cells? (0.1-1 micrometer)

    • A.

      Mycoplasms

    • B.

      Regular bacteria

    • C.

      Eukaryotes

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Mycoplasms
    Explanation
    Mycoplasms are the smallest cells because they have a size range of 0.1-1 micrometers. Regular bacteria and eukaryotes are larger in size compared to mycoplasms. Therefore, the correct answer is mycoplasms.

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  • 12. 

    What cell is 1-10 micrometers?

    • A.

      Mycoplasms

    • B.

      Regular bacteria

    • C.

      Eukaryotes

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Regular bacteria
    Explanation
    Regular bacteria are the cells that are 1-10 micrometers in size. Mycoplasms are also bacteria but they are smaller in size, typically ranging from 0.2-0.3 micrometers. Eukaryotes, on the other hand, include cells that are much larger than regular bacteria, such as animal and plant cells. Therefore, the correct answer is regular bacteria.

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  • 13. 

    What are the largest cells? (10-100 micrometers)

    • A.

      Mycoplasms

    • B.

      Regular bacteria

    • C.

      Eukaryotes

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Eukaryotes
    Explanation
    Eukaryotes are the largest cells, ranging in size from 10-100 micrometers. Eukaryotic cells are found in plants, animals, fungi, and protists. They contain a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles, allowing for more complex cellular functions. Mycoplasms, regular bacteria, and none of the above are not the largest cells.

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  • 14. 

    Why can cells not get bigger?

    • A.

      SA to volume ratio gets smaller, meaning more membranes

    • B.

      SA to volume ratio gets larger, meaning more membranes

    • C.

      SA to volume ratio gets smaller, meaning less membranes

    • D.

      SA to volume ratio gets larger, meaning less membranes

    Correct Answer
    C. SA to volume ratio gets smaller, meaning less membranes
    Explanation
    As cells get bigger, their volume increases faster than their surface area. The surface area to volume ratio decreases, meaning that there is less membrane available to support the increased volume. This is why cells cannot continue to get bigger indefinitely.

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  • 15. 

    What is the nucleus?

    • A.

      Organelle that contains chromatin or chromosomes

    • B.

      Organelle that carries out cell respiration

    • C.

      Organelle that carries out photosynthesis

    • D.

      Part of the phospholipid bilayer

    Correct Answer
    A. Organelle that contains chromatin or chromosomes
    Explanation
    The nucleus is an organelle that contains chromatin or chromosomes. This is where the genetic material of a cell is stored, including DNA and RNA. The nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope, which helps protect the genetic material and regulate the passage of molecules in and out of the nucleus. The chromatin or chromosomes within the nucleus carry the instructions for the cell's growth, development, and reproduction.

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  • 16. 

    What does chromatin in the nucleus mean?

    • A.

      DNA is condensed, not dividing

    • B.

      DNA is spread out, not dividing

    • C.

      DNA is condensed, dividing

    • D.

      DNA is spread out, dividing

    Correct Answer
    B. DNA is spread out, not dividing
    Explanation
    Chromatin in the nucleus refers to the state of DNA when it is spread out and not dividing. During this phase, the DNA is in a relaxed and accessible form, allowing for gene expression and various cellular processes to occur. In contrast, when DNA is condensed, it is tightly packed and not actively being transcribed or replicated. The answer choice "DNA is spread out, not dividing" accurately describes the state of chromatin in the nucleus.

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  • 17. 

    What does chromosomes in the nucleus mean?

    • A.

      DNA is condensed, not dividing

    • B.

      DNA is spread out, not dividing

    • C.

      DNA is condensed, dividing

    • D.

      DNA is spread out, dividing

    Correct Answer
    C. DNA is condensed, dividing
    Explanation
    Chromosomes in the nucleus refer to the state of DNA during cell division. When DNA is condensed, it means that it is tightly packed and organized into structures called chromosomes. This occurs during cell division when the DNA needs to be replicated and distributed equally to daughter cells. Therefore, the correct answer is that chromosomes in the nucleus mean that DNA is condensed and dividing.

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  • 18. 

    What is another name for the nuclear membrane (membrane of the nucleus)

    • A.

      Nuclear lumen

    • B.

      Nuclear letter

    • C.

      Nuclear container

    • D.

      Nuclear envelope

    Correct Answer
    D. Nuclear envelope
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Nuclear envelope". The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure that surrounds the nucleus of a cell. It separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm and regulates the passage of molecules in and out of the nucleus. It is also known as the nuclear membrane.

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  • 19. 

    What are the nucleolous used for?

    • A.

      Make DNA

    • B.

      Make RNA

    • C.

      Make peroxisomes

    • D.

      Make ribosomes

    Correct Answer
    D. Make ribosomes
    Explanation
    The nucleolus is responsible for making ribosomes. Ribosomes are cellular structures that are involved in protein synthesis. Inside the nucleolus, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is synthesized and combined with proteins to form ribosomes. These ribosomes are then transported out of the nucleolus and into the cytoplasm, where they play a crucial role in protein production. Therefore, the nucleolus is primarily used for the production of ribosomes.

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  • 20. 

    What do ribosomes do?

    • A.

      Make ATP

    • B.

      Detoxify

    • C.

      Help create proteins

    • D.

      Carry out cell division

    Correct Answer
    C. Help create proteins
    Explanation
    Ribosomes are responsible for the synthesis of proteins in the cell. They are small organelles that read the genetic information stored in the DNA and use it to assemble amino acids into chains, which then fold into functional proteins. This process, known as translation, occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell. Therefore, the correct answer is "Help create proteins."

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  • 21. 

    Describe the RER (Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum)

    • A.

      Closest to nucleus, covered with ribosomes

    • B.

      Closest to nucleus, has no ribosomes

    • C.

      Farthest from nucleus, covered with ribosomes

    • D.

      Farthest from nucleus, has no ribosomes

    Correct Answer
    A. Closest to nucleus, covered with ribosomes
    Explanation
    The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) is a network of membrane-bound sacs and tubules found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. It is called "rough" because it is studded with ribosomes on its surface. The ribosomes on the RER are responsible for protein synthesis. The RER is located close to the nucleus, allowing for efficient transport of newly synthesized proteins to other parts of the cell.

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  • 22. 

    Describe the SER (Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum)

    • A.

      Closest to nucleus, covered with ribosomes

    • B.

      Closest to nucleus, has no ribosomes

    • C.

      Farthest from nucleus, covered with ribosomes

    • D.

      Farthest from nucleus, has no ribosomes

    Correct Answer
    D. Farthest from nucleus, has no ribosomes
    Explanation
    The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) is located farthest from the nucleus and does not have ribosomes attached to its surface. This organelle is involved in various functions such as lipid synthesis, detoxification, and calcium storage. The absence of ribosomes on its surface allows the SER to have a smoother appearance compared to the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER), which is covered with ribosomes.

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  • 23. 

    What is a lumen?

    • A.

      Filled in space

    • B.

      Free space

    • C.

      A type of membrane

    • D.

      A type of protein

    Correct Answer
    B. Free space
    Explanation
    A lumen refers to free space. It is a term used to describe the cavity or empty space within a tubular structure such as a blood vessel or a duct. In other words, it is the open area or channel within a structure where fluid or air can flow. It is not a type of membrane or protein, nor does it refer to a filled-in space.

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  • 24. 

    What do ribosomes do?

    • A.

      Help push substances through the ER

    • B.

      Create DNA

    • C.

      Put primary proteins into nucleus to become quarternary

    • D.

      Put primary proteins into lumen of ER to become quarternary

    Correct Answer
    D. Put primary proteins into lumen of ER to become quarternary
    Explanation
    Ribosomes are responsible for putting primary proteins into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to become quarternary proteins. This process is essential for the proper folding and modification of proteins before they are transported to their final destinations within the cell or secreted outside of the cell. The ribosomes act as molecular machines that read the genetic information in mRNA and synthesize proteins accordingly. By targeting the proteins to the ER, ribosomes ensure that they undergo further processing and folding in the ER lumen to acquire their functional quarternary structure.

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  • 25. 

    What is the difference between bound ribosome and free ribosome?

    • A.

      Bound are attached to ER, free float in cytoplasm

    • B.

      Bound float in cytoplasm, free are attached to ER

    • C.

      Neither of these

    • D.

      Both of these

    Correct Answer
    A. Bound are attached to ER, free float in cytoplasm
    Explanation
    Bound ribosomes are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), while free ribosomes are not attached to any specific organelle and float freely in the cytoplasm. This difference in location affects the functions of the ribosomes. Bound ribosomes are involved in the synthesis of proteins that are destined to be secreted or inserted into the cell membrane, while free ribosomes primarily synthesize proteins that function within the cytoplasm.

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  • 26. 

    What does the SER do?

    • A.

      Make proteins, detoxify poison

    • B.

      Make carbohydrates, detoxify poison

    • C.

      Make lipids, detoxify poison

    • D.

      Make nucleic acids, detoxify poison

    Correct Answer
    C. Make lipids, detoxify poison
    Explanation
    The SER, or smooth endoplasmic reticulum, is responsible for making lipids and detoxifying poison. It does not play a role in making proteins, carbohydrates, or nucleic acids.

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  • 27. 

    What will drug use do to SER?

    • A.

      Increase it

    • B.

      Decrease it

    • C.

      Nothing

    • D.

      This is not the answer

    Correct Answer
    A. Increase it
    Explanation
    Drug use can increase the activity of the serotonin reuptake transporter (SER), leading to an increase in the reuptake of serotonin. This can result in higher levels of serotonin being taken back up into the presynaptic neuron, reducing the amount available in the synaptic cleft for binding to postsynaptic receptors. As a result, drug use can lead to a decrease in serotonin signaling and potentially affect mood, behavior, and other physiological processes regulated by serotonin.

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  • 28. 

    What is the first step in the endomembrane system?

    • A.

      Ribosomes inject protein into lumen of ER

    • B.

      Ribsomes travel down and form vacuole, then break off of ER

    • C.

      Vacuole fuses with Golgi where carbs or lipids or added

    • D.

      The vacuole leaves the Golgi, where it fuses with other vacuoles or leaves cell

    Correct Answer
    A. Ribosomes inject protein into lumen of ER
    Explanation
    The first step in the endomembrane system is when ribosomes inject protein into the lumen of the ER. This process occurs during protein synthesis, where ribosomes attached to the ER membrane synthesize proteins and transport them into the ER lumen. This step is crucial for the proper folding and modification of proteins before they are transported to their final destinations within the cell or secreted outside of the cell.

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  • 29. 

    What is the second step in the endomembrane system?

    • A.

      Ribosomes inject protein into lumen of ER

    • B.

      Ribsomes travel down and form vacuole, then break off of ER

    • C.

      Vacuole fuses with Golgi where carbs or lipids or added

    • D.

      The vacuole leaves the Golgi, where it fuses with other vacuoles or leaves cell

    Correct Answer
    B. Ribsomes travel down and form vacuole, then break off of ER
  • 30. 

    What is the third step in the endomembrane system?

    • A.

      Ribosomes inject protein into lumen of ER

    • B.

      Ribsomes travel down and form vacuole, then break off of ER

    • C.

      Vacuole fuses with Golgi where carbs or lipids or added

    • D.

      The vacuole leaves the Golgi, where it fuses with other vacuoles or leaves cell

    Correct Answer
    C. Vacuole fuses with Golgi where carbs or lipids or added
    Explanation
    The third step in the endomembrane system is when the vacuole fuses with the Golgi, where carbohydrates or lipids are added.

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  • 31. 

    What is the fourth and final step in the endomembrane system?

    • A.

      Ribosomes inject protein into lumen of ER

    • B.

      Ribsomes travel down and form vacuole, then break off of ER

    • C.

      Vacuole fuses with Golgi where carbs or lipids or added

    • D.

      The vacuole leaves the Golgi, where it fuses with other vacuoles or leaves cell

    Correct Answer
    D. The vacuole leaves the Golgi, where it fuses with other vacuoles or leaves cell
    Explanation
    The fourth and final step in the endomembrane system is when the vacuole leaves the Golgi. At this stage, the vacuole may either fuse with other vacuoles or leave the cell altogether. This step marks the completion of the transport and modification of proteins and other molecules within the endomembrane system.

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  • 32. 

    What is the incoming part of the Golgi?

    • A.

      Cisforming part

    • B.

      Transmaturing part

    • C.

      Neither of these

    • D.

      Blah

    Correct Answer
    A. Cisforming part
    Explanation
    The incoming part of the Golgi is known as the cisforming part. This section of the Golgi apparatus receives materials from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for further processing and modification. It is responsible for sorting and directing these materials to the appropriate compartments within the Golgi apparatus for further processing and transport. The cisforming part plays a crucial role in the intracellular trafficking and modification of proteins and lipids.

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  • 33. 

    What is the outgoing part of the Golgi?

    • A.

      Cisforming part

    • B.

      Transmaturing part

    • C.

      Neither of these

    • D.

      Blah

    Correct Answer
    B. Transmaturing part
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the transmaturing part. The Golgi apparatus is composed of several compartments, including the cis-Golgi network, medial-Golgi, and trans-Golgi network. The transmaturing part refers to the trans-Golgi network, which is responsible for modifying and sorting proteins and lipids before they are transported to their final destinations within the cell or secreted outside of the cell. Therefore, the transmaturing part is the outgoing part of the Golgi.

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  • 34. 

    What do we call it when the golgi adds a carb to a protein?

    • A.

      Glycoprotein

    • B.

      Lipoprotein

    • C.

      Nucleoprotein

    • D.

      Animo-Protein

    Correct Answer
    A. Glycoprotein
    Explanation
    When the Golgi adds a carbohydrate to a protein, it forms a glycoprotein. Glycoproteins are proteins that have a carbohydrate attached to them. This process, known as glycosylation, is important for protein folding, stability, and function. Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell-cell recognition, immune response, and cell signaling. Therefore, the correct answer is glycoprotein.

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  • 35. 

    What do we call it when the golgi adds a lipid to a protein?

    • A.

      Glycoprotein

    • B.

      Lipoprotein

    • C.

      Nucleoprotein

    • D.

      Animo-Protein

    Correct Answer
    B. Lipoprotein
    Explanation
    When the Golgi adds a lipid to a protein, it forms a lipoprotein. Lipoproteins are complex molecules that consist of both proteins and lipids. The addition of lipids to proteins helps in their transportation and stability within the body. Lipoproteins play a crucial role in lipid metabolism and are involved in various physiological processes such as the transport of cholesterol and triglycerides in the bloodstream. Therefore, lipoprotein is the correct term to describe the process of adding a lipid to a protein by the Golgi.

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  • 36. 

    What is the central vacuole located in?

    • A.

      Plants

    • B.

      Animals

    • C.

      Bacteria

    • D.

      Fresh water Protists

    Correct Answer
    A. Plants
    Explanation
    The central vacuole is located in plants. Plants have a large central vacuole that takes up most of the space inside the cell. The central vacuole stores water, nutrients, and waste products. It also helps maintain the turgor pressure in plant cells, which is important for cell structure and support. Animals, bacteria, and fresh water protists do not have a central vacuole like plants do.

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  • 37. 

    What is the contractile vacuole located in?

    • A.

      Plants

    • B.

      Animals

    • C.

      Bacteria

    • D.

      Fresh water Protists

    Correct Answer
    D. Fresh water Protists
    Explanation
    The contractile vacuole is located in fresh water Protists. This organelle helps regulate the water balance within the cell by collecting excess water and expelling it from the cell. Fresh water Protists live in environments with lower salt concentrations than their internal cytoplasm, causing water to constantly enter the cell by osmosis. The contractile vacuole helps maintain the proper water balance and prevent the cell from bursting due to excessive water intake.

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  • 38. 

    What are mitochondria used for?

    • A.

      Transport

    • B.

      Detoxification

    • C.

      Photosynthesis

    • D.

      Cellular respiration

    Correct Answer
    D. Cellular respiration
    Explanation
    Mitochondria are used for cellular respiration. They are the powerhouses of the cell, producing energy in the form of ATP through a series of metabolic reactions. This process involves breaking down glucose and other molecules to release energy that can be used by the cell. Mitochondria have their own DNA and are believed to have originated from ancient bacteria that were engulfed by a eukaryotic cell. They are found in most eukaryotic cells and are essential for the survival and functioning of the cell.

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  • 39. 

    What are in the folds on the inside of a mitochondria?

    • A.

      Chitins

    • B.

      Cristae

    • C.

      Matrices

    • D.

      Foldulins

    Correct Answer
    B. Cristae
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Cristae." Cristae are the folds found on the inside of a mitochondria. These folds increase the surface area of the inner membrane, allowing for more space for chemical reactions to occur and ultimately increasing the efficiency of ATP production.

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  • 40. 

    What is the inner, most important part of a mitochondria called?

    • A.

      Cristae

    • B.

      Thylakoid

    • C.

      Stroma

    • D.

      Matrix

    Correct Answer
    D. Matrix
    Explanation
    The inner, most important part of a mitochondria is called the matrix. The matrix is the space inside the inner membrane of the mitochondria where many of the metabolic reactions take place. It contains enzymes that are involved in the citric acid cycle and the production of ATP, the main source of energy for the cell. The matrix also contains DNA, ribosomes, and other components necessary for the mitochondria to function properly.

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  • 41. 

    What are chloroplasts used for?

    • A.

      Transportation

    • B.

      Detoxification

    • C.

      Photosynthesis

    • D.

      Cellular Respiration

    Correct Answer
    C. Photosynthesis
    Explanation
    Chloroplasts are used for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, a pigment that absorbs sunlight and allows plants to capture energy from the sun. This energy is then used to produce glucose, which is the main source of energy for plants. Therefore, chloroplasts play a crucial role in the production of food and energy for plants.

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  • 42. 

    What is the inner, most important part of a choloroplast called?

    • A.

      Stroma

    • B.

      Thylakoid

    • C.

      Cristae

    • D.

      Matrix

    Correct Answer
    A. Stroma
    Explanation
    The stroma is the inner, most important part of a chloroplast. It is a gel-like substance that surrounds the thylakoid membranes. The stroma is where important metabolic reactions, such as the Calvin cycle, take place. It contains enzymes, DNA, and ribosomes, which are necessary for the synthesis of carbohydrates and other organic molecules through photosynthesis. The thylakoid membranes, on the other hand, contain chlorophyll and other pigments that capture light energy and convert it into chemical energy. The stroma and thylakoid membranes work together to carry out the process of photosynthesis in plants.

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  • 43. 

    What are the folds in the stroma of a chloroplast called?

    • A.

      Stroma

    • B.

      Thylakoid

    • C.

      Cristae

    • D.

      Matrix

    Correct Answer
    B. Thylakoid
    Explanation
    Thylakoids are the folds in the stroma of a chloroplast. They are flattened membrane sacs that contain chlorophyll and other pigments, as well as the proteins necessary for photosynthesis. Thylakoids are arranged in stacks called grana, and they play a crucial role in capturing light energy and converting it into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis.

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  • 44. 

    What is a granum?

    • A.

      Stack of matricies

    • B.

      Stack of stroma

    • C.

      Stack of cristae

    • D.

      Stack of thylakoids

    Correct Answer
    D. Stack of thylakoids
    Explanation
    A granum is a stack of thylakoids. Thylakoids are membrane-bound compartments found in chloroplasts, which are the organelles responsible for photosynthesis in plants. Thylakoids contain the pigment chlorophyll, which captures light energy and converts it into chemical energy. These thylakoids are arranged in stacks called granum, which allows for efficient light capture and energy production during photosynthesis.

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  • 45. 

    What does the peroxisome do?

    • A.

      Detoxify

    • B.

      Cellular respiration

    • C.

      Photosynthesis

    • D.

      Transport proteins

    Correct Answer
    A. Detoxify
    Explanation
    The peroxisome is responsible for detoxifying harmful substances in the cell. It contains enzymes that break down toxic molecules and convert them into less harmful compounds. This process helps to protect the cell from damage caused by toxins and maintain cellular homeostasis. Cellular respiration is the process by which cells produce energy, photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy, and transport proteins are involved in the movement of molecules across cell membranes.

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  • 46. 

    Describe microtubules.

    • A.

      Hollow, used in cellular division and cilia/flagella

    • B.

      Hollow, used in muscle contraction

    • C.

      Solid, used in cellular division and cilia/flagella

    • D.

      Solid, used in muscle contraction

    Correct Answer
    A. Hollow, used in cellular division and cilia/flagella
    Explanation
    Microtubules are hollow structures that play important roles in cellular division and the movement of cilia and flagella. They provide structural support to the cell and help in the organization and movement of organelles. During cellular division, microtubules form the spindle apparatus, which helps in the separation of chromosomes. In cilia and flagella, microtubules form the core structure and provide the necessary support for their movement. Therefore, the correct answer is "Hollow, used in cellular division and cilia/flagella."

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  • 47. 

    Describe microfilaments

    • A.

      Hollow, used in cellular division and cilia/flagella

    • B.

      Hollow, used in muscle contraction

    • C.

      Solid, used in cellular division and cilia/flagella

    • D.

      Solid, used in muscle contraction

    Correct Answer
    D. Solid, used in muscle contraction
    Explanation
    Microfilaments are solid filaments found in cells that are involved in various cellular processes, including muscle contraction. They are composed of actin proteins and provide structural support to the cell. In muscle cells, microfilaments play a crucial role in the sliding filament mechanism, where they interact with myosin to generate muscle contractions. Unlike microtubules, which are hollow and involved in cellular division and the movement of cilia and flagella, microfilaments are solid and primarily responsible for muscle contraction.

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  • 48. 

    Describe intermediate filaments.

    • A.

      Hollow, used in cellular division and cilia/flagella

    • B.

      Solid, used in muscle contraction

    • C.

      Used to maintain cell shape and anchor organelles

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Used to maintain cell shape and anchor organelles
    Explanation
    Intermediate filaments are a type of cytoskeletal protein that are responsible for maintaining the structural integrity of cells. They provide mechanical support and help to anchor organelles within the cell. Unlike microfilaments and microtubules, which have a dynamic nature, intermediate filaments are more stable and less involved in cellular movement. Therefore, the correct answer is "Used to maintain cell shape and anchor organelles."

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  • 49. 

    What is the protein of microtubules?

    • A.

      Tubulin

    • B.

      Globular

    • C.

      Actin

    • D.

      Myosin

    • E.

      Keratin

    • F.

      A and B

    • G.

      C and D

    Correct Answer
    F. A and B
    Explanation
    Tubulin is the protein that makes up microtubules. Microtubules are important structures in cells that help maintain cell shape, provide support, and facilitate cell division. Tubulin proteins come together to form long, hollow tubes called microtubules, which are involved in various cellular processes such as intracellular transport and cell motility. Globular and Actin are not proteins of microtubules. Myosin and Keratin are not directly associated with microtubules either. Therefore, the correct answer is A and B, which means Tubulin is the protein of microtubules.

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  • 50. 

    What is the protein of microfilaments?

    • A.

      Tubulin

    • B.

      Globular

    • C.

      Actin

    • D.

      Myosin

    • E.

      Keratin

    • F.

      A and B

    • G.

      C and D

    Correct Answer
    G. C and D
    Explanation
    The proteins of microfilaments are actin and myosin. Actin is a globular protein that forms the main component of microfilaments, while myosin is a motor protein that interacts with actin to generate movement in cells. Therefore, the correct answer is C and D.

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  • Current Version
  • Aug 27, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 13, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    TheComputinator
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