Med Oradea - Anatomy II - Digestive System - Large Intestine And Rectum

25 Questions | Total Attempts: 148

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Digestive System Quizzes & Trivia

Med Oradea - Anatomy II - Digestive System - Large Intestine and Rectum


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The large intestine
    • A. 

      Continues the ileum

    • B. 

      Is situated between the ileocecal valve to the rectum region (S4)

    • C. 

      Has 1,6-1,8m and 8-9cm in diameter (the distal part decreases to 3-3,5cm in diameter)

    • D. 

      It presents teniae coli, haustrae coli, and epiploic coli

    • E. 

      Teniae coli are 3 muscular bands that start at the cecum

  • 2. 
    Regarding the large intestine:
    • A. 

      One of the teniae coli is free (no insertions) and is called the free taenia

    • B. 

      Haustrae coli are dilations of the intestinal wall delimited from one another by vertical folds, formed from the intestinal wall

    • C. 

      Epiploic appendices are formed by fat and peritoneum, and look like yellow tassels

    • D. 

      The structure is: serous peritoneum, muscular coat, submucous coat, and mucous layer with vessels and nerves

  • 3. 
    Regarding the large intestine:
    • A. 

      The mucous layer has Lieberkuhn glands and lymphoid formations

    • B. 

      The first part is the cecum, and is from the ileocecal valve to the left iliac fossa

    • C. 

      The vermiform appendix is attached to the cecum and usually oriented downwards

    • D. 

      The cecum has relations behind with the peritoneum, iliac fascia, psoas muscle, and branches from the lumbar plexus

  • 4. 
    Regarding the cecum:
    • A. 

      Medially, it has relations with the ileum

    • B. 

      It has fewer halfstrae, except in the first part

    • C. 

      Vermiform appendix is above the ileocecal valve

    • D. 

      The ileocecal valve is horizontal with an upper and lower labium, united at their ends, so that the small orifice, being oriented towards the cecum, prevents intestinal content from returning to the ileum

    • E. 

      The vermiform appendix is a cylindrical tube with 12-15cm, and can be oriented descending, lateral, medial, or retrocecal

  • 5. 
    The cecum:
    • A. 

      Is vascularized by the ileocolic artery and veins.

    • B. 

      Receives blood from the upper mesenteric artery

    • C. 

      Ileocolic artery divides into anterior and posterior cecal branches, and appendicular artery branches from the upper mesenteric

    • D. 

      Ileocolic veins drain to the hemorrhoidal veins

  • 6. 
    Innervation of the cecum:
    • A. 

      Is from the upper mesenteric plexus

    • B. 

      The upper mesenteric plexus carries post synaptic parasympathetic fibers from the celiac plexus

    • C. 

      Thoracic splanchnic nerves join the upper mesenteric plexus

    • D. 

      The cecum receives parasympathetic innervation from the vagus nerve

  • 7. 
    Let's test our concepts.  Since the upper mesenteric plexus follows the upper mesenteric artery, what organs does the upper mesenteric plexus innervate? (think about what the upper mesenteric artery supplies)
    • A. 

      Cecum

    • B. 

      Pancreas

    • C. 

      Small intestine

    • D. 

      The source of the upper mesenteric plexus also supplies the duodenum, stomach, and liver

  • 8. 
    The colon:
    • A. 

      Has a right colic flexure and renal angle

    • B. 

      Presents the transverse mesocolon, which is inclined upwards to the left

    • C. 

      Has an ascending, descending, and transverse part

    • D. 

      Has relations behind with the psoas muscle and the right kidney

    • E. 

      Has relations above with the duodenum, pancreas, and lower surface of the liver

  • 9. 
    The transverse colon:
    • A. 

      Behind it is the second part of the duodenum

    • B. 

      The transverse mesocolon determines its mobility

    • C. 

      Above is the stomach, with the gastrocolic ligament separating them

    • D. 

      The duodenojejunal flexure is in front

  • 10. 
    The descending colon:
    • A. 

      Extends from the left colic flexure to the left iliac crest

    • B. 

      It is shorter than the ascending colon

    • C. 

      It has relations with the small intestine medially and in front

    • D. 

      Behind it is the left kidney and the iliohypogastric and iloinguinal nerves

  • 11. 
    The sigmoid colon:
    • A. 

      Extends from the iliac crest to the rectum at the level of S4

    • B. 

      Is also called the ileo-pelvin colon

    • C. 

      Its haustrae aren't well represented and it has only 2 teniae

    • D. 

      It has 4 divisions

  • 12. 
    The sigmoid colon:
    • A. 

      Its 3rd part is the pelvin colon

    • B. 

      The first part is mobile, the second part is fixed

    • C. 

      The first part, iliac colon, is situated between the lliac crest and the internal border of the psoas muscle

    • D. 

      The last part is rectosigmoid

  • 13. 
    The sigmoid colon:
    • A. 

      The iliac part has relations behind with the iliac muscle, genital vessels, iliac vessels, and uterus

    • B. 

      The bladder is in front of the pelvin part and the uterus is behind it

    • C. 

      The right iliac vessels and small intestine are behind the pelvin part

    • D. 

      The iliac part has relations in front with the small intestine and greater omentum

    • E. 

      The uterus is below and in front of the pelvin part, and the douglas excavation is also below

  • 14. 
    Regarding the colon:
    • A. 

      It can be divided by an oblique line into two parts- the right colon formed by the cecum, ascending, and the first 1/3 of the transverse colon; the left by the last 2/3 of the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon

    • B. 

      The right colon is irrigated by the upper mesenteric artery and the left colon by the lower mesenteric

    • C. 

      The upper mesenteric artery gives off the ileocolic, right colic, and middle colic

    • D. 

      The right colic artery supplies the first 2/3 of the transverse colon, whereas the ileocolic is for the cecum

    • E. 

      The veins accompany the arteries except for the right colic vein

  • 15. 
    Regarding the colon:
    • A. 

      The left colon is irrigated by the left colic artery and sigmoidean trunk

    • B. 

      The sigmodean trunk branches into the upper, middle, and posterior sigmoidean artery

    • C. 

      The left colic artery has an ascending branch for the last 1/3 of the transverse colon and a descending branch for the descending colon

    • D. 

      Venous drainage for the left colon is to the sigmoidean veins (which accompany the sigmoidean arteries) and the left colic vein (which goes to the lower mesenteric)

  • 16. 
    Innervation of the colon:
    • A. 

      Is from the celiac plexus and the upper and lower mesenteric plexus

    • B. 

      The lower mesenteric plexus surrounds the lower mesenteric artery

    • C. 

      Splanchnic nerves provide parasympathetic innervation

    • D. 

      The celiac plexus is the source of the upper and lower mesenteric plexi

    • E. 

      The vagus provides parasympathetic innervation to the proximal 2/3 of the transverse colon

  • 17. 
    Regarding some arteries of the colon:
    • A. 

      The right colic is a branch of the lower mesenteric

    • B. 

      The ileocolic is from the upper mesenteric

    • C. 

      The anterior and posterior cecal arteries are from the right colic artery

    • D. 

      The sigmoid trunk is from the left colic artery

    • E. 

      The right colic supplies the first half of the transverse colon, the left colic the second half

  • 18. 
    The rectum:
    • A. 

      It's lower limit is the ano-cutaneous line (where the anal mucous unites with the skin of the perineum)

    • B. 

      Its upper limit is at the end of the sigmoid colon (S3)

    • C. 

      It has a pelvic and perineal part

    • D. 

      The second part is the anal canal, which looks like a curve with the concavity forward

    • E. 

      The first part is the rectal ampoule, which is inside the sacral concavity

  • 19. 
    The rectum:
    • A. 

      The pelvin part is a cylindrical tube, but without the characteristics of the colon

    • B. 

      The muscular fibers of the pelvin part create a uniform layer, unlike the teniae of the colon

    • C. 

      On the external surface of the pelvin part, there are 2-3 transverse grooves that are determined by the Houston valves from the outer surface

    • D. 

      In the perineal part, it is surrounded by the levator ani muscule and sphincters

  • 20. 
    The rectum:
    • A. 

      The perineal part presents two sagital flexures

    • B. 

      The sacral flexure is the second flexure, with concavity forwards

    • C. 

      The perineal flexure is the second flexure, with concavity backwards

    • D. 

      The pelvin part is called the ampuole

  • 21. 
    The internal configuration of the rectum:
    • A. 

      It's layers are: serous (external) coat, muscular coat, submucous layer, and mucous layer

    • B. 

      In the ampoule, there are 5 transversal folds, called Houston valves

    • C. 

      Valves 1, 3, and 4 are on the left; 2 and 5 are on the right

    • D. 

      The perineal part has longitudinal folds called anal columns

  • 22. 
    Some relations of the pelvin part of the rectum:
    • A. 

      Douglas pouch is in front, urinary bladder is behind

    • B. 

      In men, the prostate is in front

    • C. 

      The middle sacral artery, sympathetic sacral trunks, and cowper glands are behind

    • D. 

      Levator ani and the pudendal vessels and nerves are behind

  • 23. 
    Some relations of the pudendal part of the rectum:
    • A. 

      The bladder and vagina (in women) are in front

    • B. 

      In men, the prostate, urethra, and cowper glands are in front

    • C. 

      Behind is the levator ani muscle

    • D. 

      Pudendal vessels and nerves are lateral

  • 24. 
    Vascularization of the rectum:
    • A. 

      Is from the upper hemorrhoidal artery

    • B. 

      Is from the middle hemorrhoidal artery

    • C. 

      Is from the anterior hemorrhoidal artery

    • D. 

      Is from branches of the internal pudendal, hypogastric, and lower mesenteric arteries

    • E. 

      The middle hemorrhoidal artery is a branch from the internal pudendal artery (a branch of the internal iliac artery)

  • 25. 
    Regarding venous drainage of the rectum:
    • A. 

      The upper hemorrhoidal vein drains to the inferior mesenteric vein

    • B. 

      The inferior mesenteric vein drains to the splenic vein

    • C. 

      The splenic vein drains to the inferior vena cava

    • D. 

      The drainage is via the upper, middle, and lower hemorrhoidal veins

    • E. 

      The lower hemorrhoidal vein drains to the internal pudendal vein and from there ultimately ends up at the portal system (don't worry about any intermediate veins)

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