Laws about rights contained in the Australian Constitution
The existence of UN peacekeeping forces around the world
Basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled
The rights to freedom of speech and religion
The International Court of Justice
The Magna Carta
The Universal Declaration on Human Rights
When Australia signs a treaty domestic law is made
A treaty is not valid in Australian law until it is ratified
No legal rights arise under Australian law until elements of a treaty are incorporated into Australian legislation.
States which sign treaties must pass domestic laws incorporating all aspects of those treaties.
An optional essay worth 20% of the paper
A mandatory essay worth 20% of the paper
Three short answer questions totaling 6 marks (6%)
Four short and extended answer questions totaling 15 marks (15%)
The right of a country to appoint a King or Queen
The right of a country to make its own laws
The right of a country to negotiate and enter into treaties with other countries
By international legal measures enforcing international laws
By domestic legal measures enforcing international laws
By international legal measures enforcing domestic laws
By domestic legal measures enforcing international laws
Amendments to the Australian Constitution
A treaty signed at the UN
A report by a non government organisation
A decision of the Administrative Appeals Tribunal
Describe human rights and the various ways human rights have been protected over time, including the role of the UN
Establish several criteria to assess effectiveness, apply those criteria to how international legal measures have protected human rights, and make a judgement supported by that assessment
Provide an opinion on the effectiveness of human rights in society, providing at least three case studies
Outline in detail the background to a human rights issue and whether it has been successfully resolved using legal measures.
The Bill of Rights
The International Declaration of Human Rights
The Australian Constitution
The NSW Crimes Act
Australia has signed a wide range of Human Rights treaties and conventions which are ratified by the UN and enforced by the International Criminal Court.
Human rights are contained in state and federal legislation, which incorporate all aspects of international treaties signed by Australia
Aspects of human rights are contained in state and federal legislation, and the common law.
Human rights are contained solely in state and federal legislation, which do not incorporate all aspects of international treaties signed by Australia
A document outlining the responsibilities of citizens in a community
A document proposing that Australia reduce immigration
A bill from the UN for Australia's contribution to UN peacekeeping forces addressing human rights breaches around the world
A legal document enshrining human rights in a country
Carefully read the question, then mark the first answer that you think answers the question. Do not read other responses as it will take time you can use for the essays.
Read the question, then read every answer, identify possibles and then select the answer that best answers the question.
Read the question, read each answer, and then select any answer which answers the question - sometimes there are two correct answers and either gets the mark.
Be logical and complete by only moving to the next question when you have answered the previous question. You do not need to manage time when answering multiple choice questions.
The Bill of Rights is a part of the Commonwealth Constitution
The Bill of Rights was introduced when Indigenous peoples received the vote in 1967
The Rudd Government has rejected recommendations to introduce a Bill of Rights in Australia
The Bill of Rights is a common law concept enabling human rights to be protected by the Judiciary
The extended response questions include detailed information about international case studies for candidates to analyse.
The extended response questions require candidates to evaluate the effectiveness of non legal measures, and legal measures under domestic and international law in the promotion and protection of human rights.
The extended response questions require candidates to evaluate the effectiveness of legal measures under domestic and international law in the promotion and protection of human rights.
The extended response questions require candidates to evaluate the effectiveness of legal measures under domestic law in the promotion and protection of human rights.
Parties to treaties are prevented from breaching human rights conventions by UN peace keeping forces
Countries are sovereign states, which means that they can make laws inconsistent with treaties they have signed - even in breach of human rights treaties
Parties can only sign human rights conventions if there are no current breaches of human rights in their country.
Countries breaching human right conventions have their names removed from the treaty, however the process is slow.
Increasing globalisation has led to the UN making human rights laws which are enforceable in all member states
International law can only be legally enforced by international legal measures, and not domestic legal measures
No legal measures arise in relation to international law: treaties are statements of intention and the UN has no legal measures available to allege breach
Once tabled in the Australian Parliament, International Laws become incorporated into Australian domestic law
The right to vote, protection against acquisition of property on unjust terms and the right to trial by jury
The right to vote and freedom of religion
Freedom of religion
The right to vote, protection against acquisition of property on unjust terms, trial by jury, freedom of religion and prohibition of discrimination on the basis of State of residency
The number of human rights treaties, the number of court cases alleging breaches,
Relevance, consistency, adequacy of procedures, cost-effectiveness, impact (both intended and unintended), sustainability, replicability, visibility
Cost-effectiveness, impact, equity, fairness
Number of human rights breaches, number of times a country is prosecuted by the International Court of Justice, number of media articles mentioning human rights in a google search
Australia is a leader in human rights, has incorporated all human rights treaties into domestic law, and has never been the subject of mention at the Human Rights Council
Since 1990 the UN Human Rights Council has heard almost 50 complaints against Australia, and in 17 cases a breach of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights was found
The Human Rights Council only considers actions of the Commonwealth government and does not hear complaints in relation to state laws.
Any breaches of human rights found by the UN Human Rights Council are enforced by the Australian Federal Police