Took Western diplomats largely by surprise
Was driven by frustration with Iran's lack of economic development and modernization.
Was sparked by President Jimmy Carter's decision to admit the shah to the United States for medical treatment.
Put Sunni Muslim clerics in control of the government.
To placate anti-Zionist sentiments in Britain.
To encourage Jewish immigration to the less contentious British colony of Uganda.
To keep from alienating Arab leaders.
To maintain pressure on the United States to accept higher numbers of refugees.
The Chinese Communist Party moved quickly to secure its power in China by instituting the Cultural Revolution.
Chaing Kai-shek was overthrown as leader of the Kuomintang.
The Nationalists withdrew to the Island of Formosa.
Chairman Mao initiated conversations with the Truman Administration to normalize relations.
To stop residents of the Soviet sector of Germany from fleeing to the West.
As a preliminary step to imposing the Berlin Blockade.
To embarrass President Truman.
To undermine efforts by the East German government to improve relations with the West.
Fell by default to the government of Belgium.
Was returned to the tribal chiefs of the Congo.
Was shared by Belgium, France, and Britain.
Was held personally by Belgium's King Leopold II.
Russia and Britain.
France and Germany.
France and Britain.
Britain and the United States.
The establishment of autonomous English-speaking dominions, on the model of Australia and Canada.
The creation of a continuous line of British possessions connecting Capetown with Cairo.
Greater respect for indigenous African institutions.
Greater cooperation with other European powers.
French Enlightenment thinking.
French perceptions that an independent United States would counterbalance British power in the Atlantic.
French hostility to Britain in the aftermath of the Seven Years War.
French confidence that the Americans would win with or without French support.
King William's War.
Queen Anne's War.
The French and Indian War.
The War of Jenkin's Ear.
Sought to keep outside influences from reaching Japan as much as possible.
Was frustrated in its efforts to expand Japanese influence into Asia.
Encouraged immigration in order to limit population growth.
Encouraged the efforts of Jesuit and other Christian missionaries.
19th century colonial policies, unlike those of the 18th, focused on controlling raw materials and markets.
19th century colonial powers, unlike those of the 18th, often claimed land simply to keep it away from the competing power.
19th century colonial powers, unlike those of the 18th, established colonies in locations that were unlikely to ever support a substantial European population.
19th century colonial policies were more efficient to the presence of indigenous people than were those of the 18th.
It preceded and partially shaped the American Revolution.
Like the American Revolution, it was inspired by Enlightenment thinking.
It bore only a superficial relationship to the American Revolution.
Unlike the American Revolution, which was political and economic in nature, it was a product of the Enlightenment.
The Chinese government's efforts to halt the importation of opium into China by British and other merchants.
The British government's efforts to halt the export of opium from China to India.
American efforts to monopolize legal drug imports from China.
The Chinese government's refusal to control the production of opium.
Won the admiration and support of President Theodore Roosevelt.
Was also directed against corruption and incompetence with the Ch'ing government.
Was openly supported by Tz'u Hsi, the Dowager Empress.
Shared the same progressive goals that the deposed emperor Kuang-Hsu had supported.
Sought to prevent the partitioning of China by outside powers.
Sought to prevent Chinese workers from competing with American labor.
Sought to regulate immigration from China.
Promised citizenship to Chinese immigrants after a four-year waiting period.
After the establishment of the Fifth Republic in France.
After the Japanese conquest of southeast Asia in 1941.
After the death of President DeGaulle.
After the battle of Dien Bien Phu.
Remained friendly from 1949 until the end of the Soviet Union.
Although initially friendly, quickly turned hostile and remained so into the 1970s.
Although initially hostile, quickly turned friendly because both states shared a common enemy.
Were adversarial at times, but were never hostile.
If the emperors lack virtue and can no longer maintain a proper relationship with Heaven.
If the people lack virtue.
If the emperor dies without a legitimate male heir.
If the army suffers a military defeat.
The political and economic power of the United Fruit Company in much of Central America.
The power of the pumpen proletariat in Honduras.
The autarkic policies of several Central American countries that restricted the growing of export products, like bananas and coffee.
The power of a few wealthy landowning families in many Central American countries.
Britain's desire to keep France and Spain out of the New World.
France's desire to regain control of Canada.
The failure of the European powers to discover the value of Latin America as a market.
The absorption of the European powers with East Asia and Africa.
The 1867 purchase of Alaska.
American intervention in Cuba and Guatemala.
The Monroe Doctrine.
The Spanish American War.