FSOT Pq - World History And Geography

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FSOT PQ - World History and Geography

Beware of the typos! They're there to keep you on your toes. OK, not really. Just keep an eye out and let me know.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In the 1978 Iranian Revolution, which overthrew the shah and resulted in the establishment of an Islamic Republic, 

    • A.

      Took Western diplomats largely by surprise

    • B.

      Was driven by frustration with Iran's lack of economic development and modernization.

    • C.

      Was sparked by President Jimmy Carter's decision to admit the shah to the United States for medical treatment.

    • D.

      Put Sunni Muslim clerics in control of the government.

    Correct Answer
    A. Took Western diplomats largely by surprise
    Explanation
    Most diplomats were taken by surprise by the depth and swift speed of the revolution. The shah was not admitted to the United States for treatment until after he had fled the country, although this incident did incite the kidnapping of the 52 American hostages at the U.S. Embassy. Iran came to be controlled by Shi'ite rather than Sunni clerics.

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  • 2. 

    Although the 1917 Balfour Declaration pledged British support for an eventual Jewish state, Britain strictly limited Jewish immigration to Palestine before 1948

    • A.

      To placate anti-Zionist sentiments in Britain.

    • B.

      To encourage Jewish immigration to the less contentious British colony of Uganda.

    • C.

      To keep from alienating Arab leaders.

    • D.

      To maintain pressure on the United States to accept higher numbers of refugees.

    Correct Answer
    C. To keep from alienating Arab leaders.
    Explanation
    The British government had many motives for limiting Jewish immigration to Palestine, but the most compelling was the desire to not antagonize Arab leaders.

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  • 3. 

    With the expulsion of the Kuomintang from China in 1949,

    • A.

      The Chinese Communist Party moved quickly to secure its power in China by instituting the Cultural Revolution.

    • B.

      Chaing Kai-shek was overthrown as leader of the Kuomintang.

    • C.

      The Nationalists withdrew to the Island of Formosa.

    • D.

      Chairman Mao initiated conversations with the Truman Administration to normalize relations.

    Correct Answer
    C. The Nationalists withdrew to the Island of Formosa.
    Explanation
    The Nationalists, or the Kuomintang Party, led by Chaing Kai-shek, fled to the Island of Formosa.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following countries never belonged to the Warsaw Pact?

    • A.

      Burgaria.

    • B.

      Hungary.

    • C.

      Czechoslovakia.

    • D.

      Yugoslavia.

    Correct Answer
    D. Yugoslavia.
    Explanation
    Yugoslavia's leader, Josip Broz Tito, won power in Yugoslavia with minimal assistance from the Soviets, and thus was able to resist Stalin's pressure to join the Soviet Bloc military alliance.

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  • 5. 

    Although it came to symbolize the entire Cold War conflict, the Berlin Wall was built with what narrower purpose?

    • A.

      To stop residents of the Soviet sector of Germany from fleeing to the West.

    • B.

      As a preliminary step to imposing the Berlin Blockade.

    • C.

      To embarrass President Truman.

    • D.

      To undermine efforts by the East German government to improve relations with the West.

    Correct Answer
    A. To stop residents of the Soviet sector of Germany from fleeing to the West.
    Explanation
    Throughout the 1950s, residents of the Soviet sector of Berlin had been able to flee to the West by doing little more than crossing the street or catching a bus. In order to stem this embarrassing flow of defectors, the Berlin Wall, cutting off West Berlin from the rest of East Germany, was built in 1961.

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  • 6. 

    With international recognition of the Congo Free State by the Berlin congress in 1885, responsibility for governing the Congo

    • A.

      Fell by default to the government of Belgium.

    • B.

      Was returned to the tribal chiefs of the Congo.

    • C.

      Was shared by Belgium, France, and Britain.

    • D.

      Was held personally by Belgium's King Leopold II.

    Correct Answer
    D. Was held personally by Belgium's King Leopold II.
    Explanation
    Leopold, not the Belgian government, was recognized as sovereign over the Congo Free State until 1908 when, after an international outcry about human rights abuses, sovereignty was transferred to Belgium.

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  • 7. 

    The Fashoda Crisis of 1896 brought which two great powers to the brink of war?

    • A.

      Russia and Britain.

    • B.

      France and Germany.

    • C.

      France and Britain.

    • D.

      Britain and the United States.

    Correct Answer
    C. France and Britain.
    Explanation
    French troops under Marchand, hoping to stymie Britain's plans for a Cape to Cairo railroad, made their stand at the remote Sudanese village of Fashoda. British troops under Kitchener contested their presence until an international agreement defused the crisis and averted war.

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  • 8. 

    Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) advocated what broad goal for British involvement in Africa?

    • A.

      The establishment of autonomous English-speaking dominions, on the model of Australia and Canada.

    • B.

      The creation of a continuous line of British possessions connecting Capetown with Cairo.

    • C.

      Greater respect for indigenous African institutions.

    • D.

      Greater cooperation with other European powers.

    Correct Answer
    B. The creation of a continuous line of British possessions connecting Capetown with Cairo.
    Explanation
    The most outspoken of British imperialists, the South African magnate and politician advocated a line of British colonies, eventually linked by rail, connecting the Cape of Good Hope with the Mediterranean.

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  • 9. 

    The French decision to support the nascent United States against Britain in the American Revolutionary War was most decisively motivated by

    • A.

      French Enlightenment thinking.

    • B.

      French perceptions that an independent United States would counterbalance British power in the Atlantic.

    • C.

      French hostility to Britain in the aftermath of the Seven Years War.

    • D.

      French confidence that the Americans would win with or without French support.

    Correct Answer
    C. French hostility to Britain in the aftermath of the Seven Years War.
    Explanation
    The French monarchy was aware of, but not much influenced by, the Enlightenment's political demands. Few in Europe or America thought that the United States could win without French support. France aided the American revolutionaries out of an abiding hostility to England that was reinforced in the Seven Years War.

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  • 10. 

    The Seven Years War (1756-1763) went by what name in North America?

    • A.

      King William's War.

    • B.

      Queen Anne's War.

    • C.

      The French and Indian War.

    • D.

      The War of Jenkin's Ear.

    Correct Answer
    C. The French and Indian War.
    Explanation
    Unlike earlier Continental wars that spilled over into North America and the Caribbean, the Seven Years War was motivated by conflicting colonial aims. Thus, the Americans came to know it as the French and Indian Wars.

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  • 11. 

    During the Tokugawa Shogunate (1603-1868), Japan's government

    • A.

      Sought to keep outside influences from reaching Japan as much as possible.

    • B.

      Was frustrated in its efforts to expand Japanese influence into Asia.

    • C.

      Encouraged immigration in order to limit population growth.

    • D.

      Encouraged the efforts of Jesuit and other Christian missionaries.

    Correct Answer
    A. Sought to keep outside influences from reaching Japan as much as possible.
    Explanation
    The Tokugawa shoguns adopted a policy of cultural, economic, and political isolation and allowed minimal and very controlled, contacts between Japanese merchants and the outside world. Christian missions were forbidden altogether.

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  • 12. 

    A fundamental difference between the colonialism of the 18th century and that of the 19th was that

    • A.

      19th century colonial policies, unlike those of the 18th, focused on controlling raw materials and markets.

    • B.

      19th century colonial powers, unlike those of the 18th, often claimed land simply to keep it away from the competing power.

    • C.

      19th century colonial powers, unlike those of the 18th, established colonies in locations that were unlikely to ever support a substantial European population.

    • D.

      19th century colonial policies were more efficient to the presence of indigenous people than were those of the 18th.

    Correct Answer
    C. 19th century colonial powers, unlike those of the 18th, established colonies in locations that were unlikely to ever support a substantial European population.
    Explanation
    18th century colonies, such as those in North America, Australia, and Cape Colony, were seen as extensions of the home country; indigenous people were swept aside or enslaved. 19th century colonization focused on places such as Africa and Southeast Asia, where Europeans would likely never live in substantial numbers. Most such colonies remained indifferent to indigenous people, but were not more indifferent.

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  • 13. 

    The French Revolution bore what relation to the American Revolution?

    • A.

      It preceded and partially shaped the American Revolution.

    • B.

      Like the American Revolution, it was inspired by Enlightenment thinking.

    • C.

      It bore only a superficial relationship to the American Revolution.

    • D.

      Unlike the American Revolution, which was political and economic in nature, it was a product of the Enlightenment.

    Correct Answer
    B. Like the American Revolution, it was inspired by Enlightenment thinking.
    Explanation
    Both the American and French Revolutions were inspired and shaped by Enlightenment thinking. The American Revolution started in 1776; the French Revolution began 13 years later. Both were motivated and shaped in part by political and economic factors, as well as Enlightenment ideology.

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  • 14. 

    The First Opium War (1839-1842) was a result of

    • A.

      The Chinese government's efforts to halt the importation of opium into China by British and other merchants.

    • B.

      The British government's efforts to halt the export of opium from China to India.

    • C.

      American efforts to monopolize legal drug imports from China.

    • D.

      The Chinese government's refusal to control the production of opium.

    Correct Answer
    A. The Chinese government's efforts to halt the importation of opium into China by British and other merchants.
    Explanation
    During the first decades of the 19th century, British merchants were profiting handsomely from exchanging opium grown in India for tea grown in China. When the Chinese government tried to crack down on this illegal trade, British merchants appealed to the British government, which responded by attacking China in support of the drug trade.

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  • 15. 

    The Boxer Uprising, while aimed against Western influences in China,

    • A.

      Won the admiration and support of President Theodore Roosevelt.

    • B.

      Was also directed against corruption and incompetence with the Ch'ing government.

    • C.

      Was openly supported by Tz'u Hsi, the Dowager Empress.

    • D.

      Shared the same progressive goals that the deposed emperor Kuang-Hsu had supported.

    Correct Answer
    C. Was openly supported by Tz'u Hsi, the Dowager Empress.
    Explanation
    Was Western influences, including Christian missions, pervaded China, a militant organization called the Harmonious Society of Fists -- The Boxers -- Launched attacks on Western missionaries, Christian converts, and other symbols of Western imperialism. The dowager empress, Tz'u Hsi, openly supported the Boxers.

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  • 16. 

    America's Open Door Policy toward China

    • A.

      Sought to prevent the partitioning of China by outside powers.

    • B.

      Sought to prevent Chinese workers from competing with American labor.

    • C.

      Sought to regulate immigration from China.

    • D.

      Promised citizenship to Chinese immigrants after a four-year waiting period.

    Correct Answer
    A. Sought to prevent the partitioning of China by outside powers.
    Explanation
    The Open Door Policy sought to keep the door open to China for American merchants and missionaries, and thus opposed partitioning. The door for Chinese immigration remained firmly closed.

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  • 17. 

    The French colonial presence in Vietnam became unsupportable

    • A.

      After the establishment of the Fifth Republic in France.

    • B.

      After the Japanese conquest of southeast Asia in 1941.

    • C.

      After the death of President DeGaulle.

    • D.

      After the battle of Dien Bien Phu.

    Correct Answer
    D. After the battle of Dien Bien Phu.
    Explanation
    After French forces were defeated at Dien Bien Phu, the French started looking for a way out. Eventually, the French recognized the partitioning of Vietnam between north and south, and American advisors replaced French troops on the ground.

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  • 18. 

    Relations between the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union

    • A.

      Remained friendly from 1949 until the end of the Soviet Union.

    • B.

      Although initially friendly, quickly turned hostile and remained so into the 1970s.

    • C.

      Although initially hostile, quickly turned friendly because both states shared a common enemy.

    • D.

      Were adversarial at times, but were never hostile.

    Correct Answer
    B. Although initially friendly, quickly turned hostile and remained so into the 1970s.
    Explanation
    Although the Soviet Union supported the Chinese Communist Party's ascent to power, the two socialist states embodied different visions of how to achieve communism. Sino-Soviet tensions flared into open conflict several times during the Cold War era.

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  • 19. 

    The United States and the People's Republic of China started to normalize relations during the

    • A.

      Eisenhower administration.

    • B.

      Kennedy administration.

    • C.

      Johnson administration.

    • D.

      Nixon administration.

    Correct Answer
    D. Nixon administration.
    Explanation
    President Nixon, long an opponent of communism, became the first American president to visit China in 1972, when talks continued over the normalization of relations and an end to China's isolation.

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  • 20. 

    In traditional Chinese political thinking, the Mandate of Heaven can be lost

    • A.

      If the emperors lack virtue and can no longer maintain a proper relationship with Heaven.

    • B.

      If the people lack virtue.

    • C.

      If the emperor dies without a legitimate male heir.

    • D.

      If the army suffers a military defeat.

    Correct Answer
    A. If the emperors lack virtue and can no longer maintain a proper relationship with Heaven.
    Explanation
    The Mandate of Heaven can be lost if the population believes that the emperor no longer maintains right relations with heaven. Thus, a series of bad harvests, drought, flood, or other signs that Heaven is displeased can be enough to bring about the downfall of a dynasty that has, in the eyes of the people, lost the Mandate of Heaven.

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  • 21. 

    Augusto Sandino, whose name came to be associated with the left-leaning Sandinistas, became famous for resisting the United States military intervention in

    • A.

      Guatemala.

    • B.

      Cuba.

    • C.

      Nicaragua.

    • D.

      The Philippines.

    Correct Answer
    C. Nicaragua.
    Explanation
    Sandino fought for Nicaraguan freedom and resisted American intervention in the 19th century.

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  • 22. 

    Although intended as a term of derision, banana republic reflected

    • A.

      The political and economic power of the United Fruit Company in much of Central America.

    • B.

      The power of the pumpen proletariat in Honduras.

    • C.

      The autarkic policies of several Central American countries that restricted the growing of export products, like bananas and coffee.

    • D.

      The power of a few wealthy landowning families in many Central American countries.

    Correct Answer
    A. The political and economic power of the United Fruit Company in much of Central America.
    Explanation
    The United Fruit Company so completely controlled the economies in several Central American countries that their governments came to be seen as serving the interests of the company and of American consumers.

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  • 23. 

    During the bloodiest phase of the Mexican Revolution, American troops fought a series of cross-border skirmishes with this revolutionary leader.

    • A.

      Pancho Villa.

    • B.

      Emiliano Zapata.

    • C.

      Alvero Obreson.

    • D.

      Lazaro Cardenas.

    Correct Answer
    A. Pancho Villa.
    Explanation
    Pancho Villa made several daring cross-border raids into the United States and was pursued fruitlessly for months by American troops.

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  • 24. 

    During its first decades, the success of the Monroe Doctrine depended largely on

    • A.

      Britain's desire to keep France and Spain out of the New World.

    • B.

      France's desire to regain control of Canada.

    • C.

      The failure of the European powers to discover the value of Latin America as a market.

    • D.

      The absorption of the European powers with East Asia and Africa.

    Correct Answer
    A. Britain's desire to keep France and Spain out of the New World.
    Explanation
    During most of the 19th century, British and American interests in keeping France, Spain, and other European powers out of Latin America coincided, but it was the overwhelming power of the British navy, not the Monroe Doctrine, that enforced the exclusion.

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  • 25. 

    The United States emerged as a self consciously colonial power as a result of

    • A.

      The 1867 purchase of Alaska.

    • B.

      American intervention in Cuba and Guatemala.

    • C.

      The Monroe Doctrine.

    • D.

      The Spanish American War.

    Correct Answer
    D. The Spanish American War.
    Explanation
    American success in the Spanish American War gave the United States control of the Philippines and Cuba and, for the first time, gave the United States a minor, but quite real, stake in global imperialism.

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  • 26. 

    The Japanese attack on the American Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor had only a limited strategic effect largely because

    • A.

      The American aircraft carriers were at sea and escaped harm.

    • B.

      The newest battle ships (with a few exceptions) escaped unharmed.

    • C.

      Hawaii proved to be of minimal strategic value.

    • D.

      The Japanese failed to take advantage of the attack in the rest of the Pacific.

    Correct Answer
    A. The American aircraft carriers were at sea and escaped harm.
    Explanation
    Hawaii was of great strategic value, but was too well defended for the Japanese to have launched a successful invasion. Even the battleships that survived the attack on Pearl Harbor proved to be of limited value. It was the aircraft carrier force that eventually turned the tide of war in the Pacific.

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  • 27. 

    The Roosevelt Corollary of 1904 held that

    • A.

      The United States had the right to collect debts and maintain order in countries that failed to do so on their own.

    • B.

      The United States was obligated to protect the sovereignty of Central and South American states.

    • C.

      The United States would refrain from interfering in the internal affairs of its Latin American neighbors.

    • D.

      The United States would intervene in Latin America only if a European power intervened first.

    Correct Answer
    A. The United States had the right to collect debts and maintain order in countries that failed to do so on their own.
    Explanation
    In order to keep European states from gaining influence in Latin America and to assert U.S. dominance in the region, Roosevelt claimed for the United States the right to intervene in Latin America to collect debts and restore order, a policy that came to be known as the Big Stick.

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  • 28. 

    The Horn of Africa includes all of the following countries except

    • A.

      Eritrea.

    • B.

      Ethiopia.

    • C.

      Somalia.

    • D.

      Kenya.

    Correct Answer
    D. Kenya.
    Explanation
    Kenya is farther south and west, and is also culturally different from, the countries in the horn of Africa, the region in West Africa vaguely resembling the horn of a rhinoceros.

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  • 29. 

    The modern state of Bangladesh won its independence in 1971 from

    • A.

      Pakistan.

    • B.

      India.

    • C.

      The British Empire.

    • D.

      Indonesia.

    Correct Answer
    A. Pakistan.
    Explanation
    When predominantly Muslim Pakistan separated from India in 1949, its two halves were separated by the bulk of India. In the 1971 revolution, the eastern of Bangladesh declared and won its independence.

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  • 30. 

    Among the sites holy to Islam, this is associated with the Prophet Muhammad's ascension to heaven:

    • A.

      Mecca.

    • B.

      Medina.

    • C.

      Jerusalem.

    • D.

      Baghdad.

    Correct Answer
    C. Jerusalem.
    Explanation
    The prophet Muhammad reported that he was elevated into the heavens and returned to earth at the site that had once been the Jerusalem Temple and is now marked by the Mosque of Omar.

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  • 31. 

    As a result of the Lateran Treaty of 1929, 

    • A.

      The papacy gave up its claim to sovereignty over the city of Rome.

    • B.

      The papacy agreed not to interfere in Italian politics.

    • C.

      Pope Pius IX agreed to recognize the legitimacy of the Fascist state.

    • D.

      The Nazis agreed not to suppress the Catholic Church in Germany.

    Correct Answer
    A. The papacy gave up its claim to sovereignty over the city of Rome.
    Explanation
    The papacy, which had refused to acknowledge its loss of the papal states to the new Kingdom of Italy in 1872, made peace with the Fascists in exchange for guaranteed sovereignty over the Vatican.

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  • 32. 

    During the 1980s, the Soviet experience in this country was compared to the American experience in Vietnam.

    • A.

      Uzbekistan.

    • B.

      Kazakhstan.

    • C.

      Afghanistan.

    • D.

      Azerbaijan.

    Correct Answer
    C. Afghanistan.
    Explanation
    Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan in 1979 to prop up a failing socialist regime, leading to a debilitating, decade-long conflict from which the Soviets eventually had to withdraw in humiliating defeat.

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  • 33. 

    Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) was the basis of what policy?

    • A.

      Nuclear deterrence.

    • B.

      Chemical weapons ban.

    • C.

      Biological weapons ban.

    • D.

      The Geneva Convention.

    Correct Answer
    A. Nuclear deterrence.
    Explanation
    MAD assumed that as long as neither the Soviet Union nor the United States could hope to survive a nuclear exchange, neither country would be tempted to launch a pre-emptive strike.

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  • 34. 

    In the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, Chinese students called for

    • A.

      A return to traditional Taoist and Confuscianist values.

    • B.

      Freedom and democracy.

    • C.

      A recovery of Maoist Communism.

    • D.

      The overthrow of the Chinese Communist Party.

    Correct Answer
    B. Freedom and democracy.
    Explanation
    The protesters in Tiananmen Square were careful not to call publicly for an end to Communist Party rule, but their demands for freedom and democracy, symbolized by a Chinese version of the Status of Liberty, appeared to be a fundamental challenge to the Chinese Communist Party's hold on power.

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  • 35. 

    After the fall of the Soviet Union, Fidel Castro

    • A.

      Attempted to appease American demands without giving up power.

    • B.

      Softened his hardline commitment to communism.

    • C.

      Offered to send Cuban troops to replace Soviet forces in Africa.

    • D.

      Eased restrictions on religion and looked for new trading partners while maintaining one-party control of the state.

    Correct Answer
    D. Eased restrictions on religion and looked for new trading partners while maintaining one-party control of the state.
    Explanation
    Having lost the support of his most important trading partner and military guarantor, Castro invited Pope John Paul II to visit Cuba while looking for other markets for Cuban sugar and cigars.

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  • 36. 

    The Aral Sea in Central Asia has shrunk dramatically in the last several decades due largely to

    • A.

      Irrigation.

    • B.

      Changing weather patterns.

    • C.

      Dams and channels that divert the sea's upstream sources.

    • D.

      Geophysical changes that have raised the sea level in the region.

    Correct Answer
    C. Dams and channels that divert the sea's upstream sources.
    Explanation
    Diversion of the Aral Sea's waters by upstream dams and channels has left much of its former basin a desert.

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  • 37. 

    Although they are identified largely with Iraq, the Tigris and Euphrates rivers originate in

    • A.

      Jordan.

    • B.

      Iran.

    • C.

      Syria.

    • D.

      Turkey.

    Correct Answer
    D. Turkey.
    Explanation
    The Tigris and Euphrates rivers find their sources in the heights of Turkey's eastern highlands, from which they flow through Iraq into the Persian Gulf.

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  • 38. 

    Although three-fourths of the world's surface is covered by water, how much of the world's water is fresh?

    • A.

      15 percent.

    • B.

      10 percent.

    • C.

      5 percent.

    • D.

      2 percent.

    Correct Answer
    D. 2 percent.
    Explanation
    Only two percent of the world's water is fresh. Approximately one-quarter of one percent is available for human use.

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  • 39. 

    The Basque people are indigenous to 

    • A.

      Spain.

    • B.

      Italy.

    • C.

      Switzerland.

    • D.

      Romania.

    Correct Answer
    A. Spain.
    Explanation
    The Basque, with a language unrelated to any other, were indigenous to the Iberian Peninsula for a millennia before the Celts, Phoenicians, and Romans arrived.

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  • 40. 

    Qat (or khat), a relatively mild stimulant, is most widely used in

    • A.

      Yemen.

    • B.

      South Africa.

    • C.

      Brazil.

    • D.

      Mexico.

    Correct Answer
    A. Yemen.
    Explanation
    Qat is increasingly popular in West Africa, but appears to be most widely used in Yemen.

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  • 41. 

    The Brezhnev Doctrine was enunciated in response to

    • A.

      The Prague Spring.

    • B.

      The Hungarian Uprising.

    • C.

      The Polish Uprising.

    • D.

      The Cultural Revolution in China.

    Correct Answer
    A. The Prague Spring.
    Explanation
    After the 1968 Prague Spring, which attempted to put a human face on socialism, was crushed by Soviet tanks, Brezhnev declared it the obligation of all Socialist states to prevent backsliding.

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  • 42. 

    Since its introduction in 2002, which country has not adopted Europe's common currency, the Euro.

    • A.

      Britain.

    • B.

      Germany.

    • C.

      France.

    • D.

      Greece.

    Correct Answer
    A. Britain.
    Explanation
    Britain has elected to retain the pound sterling as its currency and has, to date, not accepted Europe's common currency.

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  • 43. 

    The Truman Doctrine, which held that the United States would aid any country threatened with communist takeover, was first applied in

    • A.

      Vietnam.

    • B.

      Korea.

    • C.

      Greece.

    • D.

      Cuba.

    Correct Answer
    C. Greece.
    Explanation
    In 1947, the British government informed the Truman administration that they would no longer be able to support the Greek government's struggle against a Yugoslav-backed communist insurgency. President Truman, in an address to Congress, stated that it would be American policy to support free people everywhere in a struggle against communist subversion.

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  • 44. 

    In the United Nations Security Council, which country does not have a veto power?

    • A.

      The People's Republic of China.

    • B.

      France.

    • C.

      Japan.

    • D.

      Great Britain.

    Correct Answer
    C. Japan.
    Explanation
    The permanent members of the UN Security Council are the United States, Russia, France, China, and Britain.

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  • 45. 

    The Hungarian Uprising of 1954 was premised on the hope of American intervention.  What American policy made this intervention unlikely.

    • A.

      Containment.

    • B.

      Rollback.

    • C.

      Non-proliferation.

    • D.

      Avoidance.

    Correct Answer
    A. Containment.
    Explanation
    The policy of containment, first enunciated by George F. Kennan in 1947, was designed to keep communism within its current boundaries while avoiding armed confrontation with the Soviet Union -- a confrontation that could lead to nuclear war.

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  • 46. 

    The founder of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, sought to create

    • A.

      A secular multi-national state.

    • B.

      A religious national state.

    • C.

      A religious multi-national state.

    • D.

      A secular national state.

    Correct Answer
    D. A secular national state.
    Explanation
    Ataturk envisioned, and largely succeeded, in building a secular, Western-oriented, national state out of the heartland of the old multi-national Ottoman Empire.

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  • 47. 

    The Wahhabi interpretation of Islam

    • A.

      Tends to be more secular than other branches.

    • B.

      Focuses on encouraging spiritual transformation through meditation.

    • C.

      Calls for a return to the purity of the earliest years of Islam.

    • D.

      Tends to be more liberal than other branches.

    Correct Answer
    C. Calls for a return to the purity of the earliest years of Islam.
    Explanation
    Founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahab is Arabia in the 18th century, the Wahhabi interpretation of Islam regards all innovations in the faith after about 950 c.e. to be false. The Saudi royal family adheres to the Wahhabi interpretation of Islam.

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  • 48. 

    Hong Kong became a British possession as a result of

    • A.

      World War I.

    • B.

      World War II.

    • C.

      The Seven Years War.

    • D.

      The Opium Wars.

    Correct Answer
    D. The Opium Wars.
    Explanation
    Hong Kong first became a British colony as a result of the Opium Wars. China was forced to surrender the territory in 1859.

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  • 49. 

    Although the Dalai Lama claims sovereignty over Tibet, the People's Republic of China has ruled the country since China invaded Tibet in

    • A.

      1949.

    • B.

      1939.

    • C.

      1849.

    • D.

      1969.

    Correct Answer
    A. 1949.
    Explanation
    Chinese Communist forces invaded Tibet in 1949. The Dalai Lama slipped out of China in 1959 and from exile has continued to press his claim for Tibetan independence from China.

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  • 50. 

    Beginning in the 1980s, Peru has struggled with a particularly violent, terrorist group that wanted to transform Peru along Maoist lines.  This group is called

    • A.

      Tupac Amaru.

    • B.

      The Shining Path.

    • C.

      FARC.

    • D.

      Aum Shinrikyo.

    Correct Answer
    B. The Shining Path.
    Explanation
    The Maoist revolutionary force that has struggled against Peru's government is the Shining Path of Sendero Luminoso. The Tupac Amaru also seeks to overthrow Peru's government, but follows Castro's rather than Mao's example.

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Omar Ordonez |Army Veteran |
Omar, an Army Veteran, dedicated Biker, and skilled Woodworker, thrives on making impactful changes every day, showcasing determination and versatility.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 20, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Omar Ordonez
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