Environmental And Nutritional Pathology! Trivia Quiz

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Environmental And Nutritional Pathology! Trivia Quiz - Quiz

Do you want to test your knowledge about environmental and nutritional pathology? This quiz can be of assistance. With this quiz, you must learn about vitamin deficiency, such as B-12, C, D, and E. It would be best if you find out what the cause of these deficiencies is. You must also know about thyroid metabolism, cardiomyopathy, paracetamol poisoning, copper and zinc, and Menke’s disease. This quiz will help you understand environmental and nutritional pathology.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following disease(s) is caused by Vitamin A deficiency?

    • A. 

      Beriberi and Wernicke syndrome

    • B. 

      Blindness, susceptability to infection and squamous metaplasia

    • C. 

      Scurvy

    • D. 

      Spinal degeneration

    • E. 

      Pellagra

    • F. 

      Cheilosis, stomatitis, glossitis and corneal vascularization

    Correct Answer
    B. Blindness, susceptability to infection and squamous metaplasia
    Explanation
    Functions as a visual pigment, protects against infection - especially measles, involved in to specialised epithelium.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following disease(s) is caused by Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency?

    • A. 

      Beriberi and Wernicke syndrome

    • B. 

      Blindness, susceptability to infection and squamous metaplasia

    • C. 

      Scurvy

    • D. 

      Spinal degeneration

    • E. 

      Pellagra

    • F. 

      Cheillosis, stomatitis, glossitis and corneal vascularization

    Correct Answer
    A. Beriberi and Wernicke syndrome
    Explanation
    Coenzyme

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following disease(s) is caused by Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) deficiency?

    • A. 

      Beriberi and Wernicke syndrome

    • B. 

      Megaloblastic anaemia and neural tube defects

    • C. 

      Scurvy

    • D. 

      Spinal degeneration

    • E. 

      Pellagra

    • F. 

      Cheilosis, stomatitis, glossitis, dermatitis and corneal vascularization

    Correct Answer
    F. Cheilosis, stomatitis, glossitis, dermatitis and corneal vascularization
    Explanation
    Coenzyme

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following disease(s) is caused by Niacin deficiency?

    • A. 

      Beriberi and Wernicke syndrome

    • B. 

      Megaloblastic anaemia and neural tube defects

    • C. 

      Scurvy

    • D. 

      Spinal degeneration

    • E. 

      Pellagra

    • F. 

      Cheilosis, stomatitis, glossitis and corneal vascularization

    Correct Answer
    E. Pellagra
    Explanation
    Pellagra is caused by a deficiency of niacin. It is a disease characterized by symptoms such as cheilosis (cracked lips), stomatitis (inflammation of the mouth), glossitis (inflammation of the tongue), and corneal vascularization (abnormal blood vessel growth in the cornea). These symptoms are a result of the body's inability to convert the amino acid tryptophan into niacin. Pellagra can also cause dermatitis, diarrhea, and mental disturbances.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following disease(s) is caused by Folate deficiency?

    • A. 

      Beriberi and Wernicke syndrome

    • B. 

      Megaloblastic anaemia and neural tube defects

    • C. 

      Scurvy

    • D. 

      Spinal degeneration

    • E. 

      Pellagra

    • F. 

      Cheillosis, stomatitis, glossitis and corneal vascularization

    Correct Answer
    B. Megaloblastic anaemia and neural tube defects
    Explanation
    Coenzyme in nucleotide & amino acid metabolism - it is essential for DNA synthesis.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following disease(s) is caused by Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) deficiency?

    • A. 

      Cheilosis, glossitis, dermatitis and peripheral neuropathy

    • B. 

      Megaloblastic anaemia and neural tube defects

    • C. 

      Scurvy

    • D. 

      Spinal degeneration

    • E. 

      Pellagra

    • F. 

      Cheillosis, stomatitis, glossitis, dermatitis and corneal vascularization

    Correct Answer
    A. Cheilosis, glossitis, dermatitis and peripheral neuropathy
    Explanation
    Cheilosis, glossitis, dermatitis, and peripheral neuropathy are all symptoms of Vitamin B6 deficiency. Cheilosis refers to the inflammation and cracking of the corners of the mouth, glossitis is the inflammation of the tongue, dermatitis is the inflammation of the skin, and peripheral neuropathy is damage to the peripheral nerves. These symptoms can occur when there is a lack of Vitamin B6 in the diet, as this vitamin is necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system and the maintenance of healthy skin and mucous membranes.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following disease(s) is caused by Vitamin B12 deficiency?

    • A. 

      Cheillosis, glossitis, dermatitis and peripheral neuropathy

    • B. 

      Megaloblastic anaemia and neural tube defects

    • C. 

      Scurvy

    • D. 

      Spinal degeneration

    • E. 

      Pellagra

    • F. 

      Megaloblastic anaemia and degeneration of posterior/lateral spinal cord tracts

    Correct Answer
    F. Megaloblastic anaemia and degeneration of posterior/lateral spinal cord tracts
    Explanation
    Megaloblastic anemia is a condition characterized by the production of abnormally large red blood cells due to a deficiency in vitamin B12. This deficiency affects the production of DNA in red blood cells, leading to their abnormal size and decreased ability to carry oxygen. Degeneration of the posterior/lateral spinal cord tracts is also caused by vitamin B12 deficiency and can result in neurological symptoms such as numbness, tingling, and difficulty with coordination. Therefore, the correct answer is "Megaloblastic anemia and degeneration of posterior/lateral spinal cord tracts."

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following disease(s) is caused by Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency?

    • A. 

      Cheillosis, glossitis, dermatitis and peripheral neuropathy

    • B. 

      Megaloblastic anaemia and neural tube defects

    • C. 

      Scurvy

    • D. 

      Spinal degeneration

    • E. 

      Bleeding diathesis

    • F. 

      Megaloblastic anaemia and degeneration of posterior/lateral spinal cord tracts

    Correct Answer
    C. Scurvy
    Explanation
    Vitamin C is required for the hydroxylation of procollagen.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following disease(s) is caused by Vitamin D deficiency?

    • A. 

      Cheillosis, glossitis, dermatitis and peripheral neuropathy

    • B. 

      Megaloblastic anaemia and neural tube defects

    • C. 

      Scurvy

    • D. 

      Spinocerebellar degeneration

    • E. 

      Bleeding diathesis

    • F. 

      Rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults

    Correct Answer
    F. Rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults
    Explanation
    Technically not a vitamin - it is a steroid hormone.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following disease(s) is caused by Vitamin E deficiency?

    • A. 

      Cheillosis, glossitis, dermatitis and peripheral neuropathy

    • B. 

      Megaloblastic anaemia and neural tube defects

    • C. 

      Scurvy

    • D. 

      Spinocerebellar degeneration

    • E. 

      Bleeding diathesis

    • F. 

      Rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults

    Correct Answer
    D. Spinocerebellar degeneration
    Explanation
    Antioxidant

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following disease(s) is caused by Vitamin K deficiency?

    • A. 

      Cheillosis, glossitis, dermatitis and peripheral neuropathy

    • B. 

      Megaloblastic anaemia and neural tube defects

    • C. 

      Beriberi and Wernicke syndrome

    • D. 

      Spinocerebellar degeneration

    • E. 

      Bleeding diathesis

    • F. 

      Rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults

    Correct Answer
    E. Bleeding diathesis
    Explanation
    Cofactor in hepatic carboxylation of clotting factors.

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  • 12. 

    Serum folate is an indicator of recent folate intake, whilst red cell folate indicates a more long term picture of folate stores.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Serum folate levels reflect recent intake of folate, as it is the form of folate that is circulating in the blood. Red cell folate, on the other hand, indicates the amount of folate that has been stored in the red blood cells over a longer period of time. Therefore, measuring both serum folate and red cell folate provides a comprehensive assessment of folate status, with serum folate indicating short-term intake and red cell folate reflecting long-term stores.

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  • 13. 

    Homocystein is known to be raised in folate deficiency.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Homocysteine is an amino acid that is produced during the metabolism of methionine. Folate is required for the conversion of homocysteine back to methionine. Therefore, a deficiency in folate can lead to an accumulation of homocysteine in the blood. This is why it is true that homocysteine is known to be raised in folate deficiency.

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  • 14. 

    Excess folate is generally safe except in which other conditions? 

    • A. 

      Iron deficiency

    • B. 

      Vitamon K deficiency

    • C. 

      Vitamin B12 deficiency

    • D. 

      Calcium deficiency

    • E. 

      Selenium deficiency

    • F. 

      Magnesium deficiency

    Correct Answer
    C. Vitamin B12 deficiency
    Explanation
    Exacerbates neurological symptoms caused by Vitamin B12 deficiency.

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  • 15. 

    Vitamin D3 is the active form of Vitamin D.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 is the active form - made from processing in the kidney.
    Vitamin D3 is the form found in meat and fish
    Vitamin D2 is the plant form of vitamin D

    Note - in most labs, the meaurement is of 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3

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  • 16. 

    What mineral has a role in thyroid metabolism (conversion of T3 to T4), acts as an antioxidant and has a potential role in cancer prevention?  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

    Correct Answer
    Selenium
    Explanation
    Selenium is a mineral that plays a crucial role in thyroid metabolism by aiding in the conversion of T3 to T4. It also acts as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Additionally, selenium has been studied for its potential role in cancer prevention, as it may help to reduce the risk of certain types of cancer.

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  • 17. 

    _ _ _ _ _ _   disease is endemic cardiomyopathy seen in areas of China caused by low selenium.

    Correct Answer
    Keshan
    Explanation
    Keshan disease is an endemic cardiomyopathy that is primarily found in certain regions of China. It is caused by a deficiency of selenium, which is an essential trace mineral. The low selenium levels in these areas lead to the development of cardiomyopathy, which is a disease that affects the heart muscle. The correct answer is Keshan because it accurately identifies the specific disease mentioned in the question and its association with low selenium levels in China.

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  • 18. 

    Blindness due to formate precipitation in the retina is a complication of poisoning with which of the following.

    • A. 

      Ethanol

    • B. 

      Ethylene glycol

    • C. 

      Methanol

    Correct Answer
    C. Methanol
    Explanation
    Methanol poisoning can lead to blindness due to formate precipitation in the retina. Methanol is metabolized in the body to formaldehyde and then to formic acid, which can cause damage to the optic nerve and retina. This damage can result in vision loss or blindness. Ethanol and ethylene glycol poisoning do not typically cause this specific complication.

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  • 19. 

    Paracetamol poisoning is associated with which of the following blood test findings?

    • A. 

      Low Bilirubin

    • B. 

      High Bilirubin

    • C. 

      Raised creatinine

    • D. 

      Raised phosphate

    • E. 

      Low phosphate

    • F. 

      Increased prothrombin time

    • G. 

      Decreased prothrombin time

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. High Bilirubin
    C. Raised creatinine
    E. Low phosphate
    F. Increased prothrombin time
    Explanation
    Paracetamol poisoning can lead to liver damage, which can cause an increase in bilirubin levels. Bilirubin is a waste product that is produced when red blood cells are broken down. When the liver is damaged, it may not be able to process bilirubin effectively, leading to its accumulation in the blood. Additionally, paracetamol poisoning can also cause kidney damage, which can result in raised creatinine levels. Phosphate levels may be low due to liver dysfunction. Lastly, paracetamol poisoning can affect blood clotting, leading to an increased prothrombin time.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following clinical manifestations is associated with zinc deficiency?

    • A. 

      Poor wound healing

    • B. 

      Irritability

    • C. 

      Hypogonadism

    • D. 

      Retardation

    • E. 

      Dairrhoea

    • F. 

      Poor immune function

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Poor wound healing
    B. Irritability
    C. Hypogonadism
    D. Retardation
    E. Dairrhoea
    F. Poor immune function
    Explanation
    Zinc deficiency can lead to poor wound healing because zinc is necessary for collagen synthesis and cell proliferation. Irritability can also be a manifestation of zinc deficiency as zinc is involved in neurotransmitter regulation. Hypogonadism, or decreased function of the gonads, can occur due to zinc deficiency as zinc is involved in the production and regulation of sex hormones. Retardation can be associated with zinc deficiency as zinc is important for brain development and cognitive function. Diarrhea can be a symptom of zinc deficiency as zinc is involved in maintaining the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract. Poor immune function can also be a manifestation of zinc deficiency as zinc is necessary for the development and function of immune cells.

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  • 21. 

    Copper is an acute phase reactant.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Raised in infection and inflammation as well as pregnancy and OCP.

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  • 22. 

    _ _ _ _ _ _'s disease is an inherited disorder which causes excess copper to be deposited in various tissues of the body.

    Correct Answer
    wilson
    Explanation
    Wilson's disease is an inherited disorder that results in the accumulation of excess copper in different tissues of the body. This condition occurs due to a mutation in the ATP7B gene, which is responsible for regulating copper metabolism. As a result, copper builds up in the liver, brain, and other organs, leading to various symptoms such as liver disease, neurological problems, and psychiatric disturbances. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent further copper buildup and manage the symptoms effectively.

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  • 23. 

    Menke's disease is a deficiency of _ _ _ _ _ _ that causes cerebral and cerebellar degeneration.

    Correct Answer
    copper
    Explanation
    Menke's disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects copper metabolism in the body. Copper is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in the development and function of the brain and nervous system. In Menke's disease, there is a deficiency of a protein called ATP7A, which is responsible for transporting copper within the body. This deficiency leads to the accumulation of copper in certain tissues, while the brain and nervous system suffer from a lack of copper. As a result, cerebral and cerebellar degeneration occurs, leading to neurological symptoms such as developmental delays, seizures, and movement problems.

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  • 24. 

    Lead is ____ soluble.  It readily enters the brain and is deposited in the hippocampus and _____.   CNS symptoms include irritability, dullness, headache, tremor, fatigue, hallucinations, and __________.   It can also cause encephalopathy.   Other effects include lowered IQ and abnormal cognitive development and behavior in _______ with blood lead between 0.48 and 1.2 umol/L.

    • A. 

      Fat, hypothalamus, memory loss, elderly

    • B. 

      Fat, cortex, memory loss, children

    • C. 

      Water, ventricles, memory loss, elderly

    • D. 

      Water, cerebellum, memory loss, children

    Correct Answer
    B. Fat, cortex, memory loss, children
    Explanation
    Lead is fat soluble, meaning it can dissolve in fat. It easily enters the brain and is deposited in the hippocampus and cortex. CNS symptoms of lead poisoning include irritability, dullness, headache, tremor, fatigue, hallucinations, and memory loss. Lead exposure can also cause encephalopathy. Additionally, lead exposure in children with blood lead levels between 0.48 and 1.2 umol/L can lead to lowered IQ, abnormal cognitive development, and behavioral issues.

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  • 25. 

    Lead crosses the placenta and but is NOT terratogenic.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Lead crosses the placenta and it IS terratogenic, causing a variety of malformations, hydrocephalus and haemorrhage in rats.

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  • 26. 

    Lead absorption is _______ with low Fe, Zn, Mg, P04 and vitamin D.

    • A. 

      Increased

    • B. 

      Decreased

    • C. 

      Completely inhibited

    Correct Answer
    A. Increased
    Explanation
    Lead absorption is increased with low levels of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P04), and vitamin D. This means that when these nutrients are lacking in the body, the absorption of lead is enhanced, leading to higher levels of lead in the bloodstream. This can be problematic as lead is a toxic metal that can have harmful effects on various organs and systems in the body. Therefore, it is important to ensure adequate intake of these nutrients to minimize lead absorption.

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  • 27. 

    A 28-year-old woman has a history of recurrent pulmonary infections since childhood.  She has also noted bulky and awful smelling feces for the past 8 years.  laboratory studies show a high sweat chloride concentration.  If a nutrient deficiency was to be detected in this patient, which one of the following nutrients is it most likely to be?

    • A. 

      Calcium

    • B. 

      Iron

    • C. 

      Vitamin B1

    • D. 

      Vitamin C

    • E. 

      Vitamin D

    Correct Answer
    E. Vitamin D
    Explanation
    Because it is fat-soluble, absorption of vitamin D will be impaired in fat malabsorption, as in lipase deficiency secondary to pancreatic insufficiency which can be a complication of cystic fibrosis.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following is a likely cause of hypernatraemia?

    • A. 

      A high salt diet

    • B. 

      Stage IV or V chronic kidney disease

    • C. 

      Diabetes insipidus after a head injury

    • D. 

      Heart failure with secondary hyperaldosteronism

    • E. 

      Secretory diarrhoea

    Correct Answer
    C. Diabetes insipidus after a head injury
    Explanation
    CKD is more likely to cause hyponatraemia

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  • 29. 

    A patient is mistakenly given an intravenous infusion of hypotonic sodium chloride solution. The most likely result is:

    • A. 

      Movement of proteins across the capillary membranes to restore osmolality in the vascular compartment.

    • B. 

      No change in the electrolyte composition of the interstitial fluid.

    • C. 

      No change in the volume of cells bathed in the solution because the osmolality of the infuse solution is the same as the intracellular osmolality.

    • D. 

      Shrinkage of cells bathed in the solution due to the movement of water out of the cells to equalise the osmolality across the cell membrane.

    • E. 

      Swelling of cells bathed in the solution due to the movement of water into the cells to equalise the osmolality across the cell membrane.

    Correct Answer
    E. Swelling of cells bathed in the solution due to the movement of water into the cells to equalise the osmolality across the cell membrane.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Swelling of cells bathed in the solution due to the movement of water into the cells to equalize the osmolality across the cell membrane." When a hypotonic solution is administered intravenously, it has a lower concentration of solutes compared to the intracellular fluid. This creates a concentration gradient, causing water to move into the cells to balance the osmolality. As a result, the cells swell due to the influx of water.

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  • 30. 

    Worldwide, arsenic related disease in the 21st century is most commonly related to: ?

    • A. 

      Consumption of contaminated meat and dairy products.

    • B. 

      Excessive amounts in well and ground water.

    • C. 

      Exposure to arsenic treated wood.

    • D. 

      Industrial exposure.

    • E. 

      Over consumption of arsenic containing herbal medicines.

    Correct Answer
    B. Excessive amounts in well and ground water.
    Explanation
    Fish is often a source of heavy metal ingestion.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following is consistent with acute respiratory acidosis?

    • A. 

      High pCO2, normal bicarbonate, low pH

    • B. 

      Normal pCO2, high bicarbonate, low pH

    • C. 

      Low pCO2, high bicarbonate, low pH

    • D. 

      High pCO2, low bicarbonate, normal pH

    • E. 

      Normal pCO2, low bicarbonate, low pH

    Correct Answer
    A. High pCO2, normal bicarbonate, low pH
    Explanation
    In acute respiratory acidosis, there is an accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the bloodstream due to inadequate ventilation. This leads to high pCO2 levels. Normal bicarbonate levels indicate that the kidneys have not yet compensated for the acidosis by retaining bicarbonate. Low pH indicates acidosis. Therefore, the combination of high pCO2, normal bicarbonate, and low pH is consistent with acute respiratory acidosis.

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  • 32. 

    The classical biochemical findings in Addison's disease are: ?

    • A. 

      Hyperkalaemia, a mild acidosis and low aldosterone levels.

    • B. 

      Hyperkalaemia, a mild alkalosis and low cortisol levels.

    • C. 

      Hypokalaemia, a mild acidosis and high aldosterone levels.

    • D. 

      Hypokalaemia, a mild alkalosis and high cortisol levels.

    • E. 

      Hypokalaemia, a mild alkalosis and low aldosterone levels.

    Correct Answer
    A. Hyperkalaemia, a mild acidosis and low aldosterone levels.
    Explanation
    The classical biochemical findings in Addison's disease include hyperkalaemia, which is an elevated level of potassium in the blood, a mild acidosis, which is a slightly acidic pH of the blood, and low aldosterone levels. Aldosterone is a hormone that helps regulate potassium and sodium levels in the body. In Addison's disease, the adrenal glands do not produce enough aldosterone, leading to an imbalance in electrolytes, particularly an increase in potassium levels. This combination of hyperkalaemia, mild acidosis, and low aldosterone levels is characteristic of Addison's disease.

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