Edfd 121 Study Guide And Answers

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Complete study guide from Xavier University's Human Development course. Answers are correct


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Different theorists conceptualize intelligence differently, but most agree that intelligence

    • A.

      Is largely the result of inherited abilities

    • B.

      Involves many different cognitive processes

    • C.

      Is an entity quite separate and distinct from learning ability

    • D.

      Is almost exclusively a function of accumulated knowledge

    Correct Answer
    B. Involves many different cognitive processes
    Explanation
    The given answer suggests that intelligence involves many different cognitive processes. This means that intelligence is not solely determined by inherited abilities or accumulated knowledge, but rather a combination of various cognitive processes. This aligns with the understanding that intelligence is a complex and multifaceted concept that encompasses a range of mental abilities such as problem-solving, reasoning, memory, and creativity.

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  • 2. 

     A girl at an Inuit school in northern Canada is quite a chatterbox in the classroom; in fact, she is often found talking to a classmate when she should be working quietly. Based on their cultural beliefs, her Inuit teachers are likely to think that this girl

    • A.

      Has low intelligence

    • B.

      Has strong leadership skills

    • C.

      Has little respect for authority figures

    • D.

      Might benefit from special educational services for the gifted

    Correct Answer
    A. Has low intelligence
  • 3. 

    Max is quite skilled in cartography, the art of making maps. Without knowing anything else about Max, in which of Gardner's multiple intelligences would you expect him to be strong?

    • A.

      Bodily-kinesthetic

    • B.

      Linguistic

    • C.

      Naturalist

    • D.

      Spatial

    Correct Answer
    D. Spatial
    Explanation
    Based on the information provided, Max is skilled in cartography, which involves creating maps. This requires a strong understanding and ability to work with spatial relationships and visualizing objects in space. Therefore, Max would be expected to be strong in spatial intelligence, as it involves skills related to visualizing and manipulating objects in the mind.

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  • 4. 

    If teachers consider Gardner's view of intelligence, they would be most likely to conclude that

    • A.

      They can bring about dramatic improvements in students' IQs in a year or two if they provide a stimulating classroom environment.

    • B.

      Regardless of cultural background, students with high intelligence will do well in school.

    • C.

      Most students are likely to be "intelligent" in one way or another.

    • D.

      Students who are fluent in two or three languages will be more intelligent than students who are fluent in just one.

    Correct Answer
    C. Most students are likely to be "intelligent" in one way or another.
    Explanation
    According to Gardner's view of intelligence, there are multiple intelligences, such as linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. Each individual may excel in one or more of these intelligences. Therefore, teachers considering Gardner's view would be most likely to conclude that most students are likely to be "intelligent" in one way or another, as intelligence is not limited to a single measure or domain.

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  • 5. 

    Which one of the following statements best reflects Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence?

    • A.

      Intelligent behavior is a function of how well people draw on prior experiences and cognitively process information in order to adapt to a new situation.

    • B.

      Intelligence is due to heredity, environment, and a complex interaction between the two; ultimately, researchers can never disentangle the effects of these factors.

    • C.

      Intelligent behavior evolves in three stages: concrete thought, abstract thought, and automatization

    • D.

      To be truly intelligent, one must show competence in creativity and social skills as well as in traditional academic tasks.

    Correct Answer
    A. Intelligent behavior is a function of how well people draw on prior experiences and cognitively process information in order to adapt to a new situation.
    Explanation
    Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence suggests that intelligent behavior is determined by how effectively individuals utilize their prior experiences and cognitive abilities to adapt to new situations. This means that intelligence is not solely based on innate abilities or environmental factors, but rather on the individual's capacity to apply their knowledge and problem-solving skills in a practical context. This theory emphasizes the importance of practical intelligence and the ability to effectively apply knowledge in real-world situations.

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  • 6. 

    The original purpose of intelligence tests is still their main purpose today–that is, to:

    • A.

      Assess youngsters' ability to solve abstract problems

    • B.

      Measure people's innate ability to adapt to a complex environment

    • C.

      Identify children who may require special services or interventions

    • D.

      Predict how well youngsters are likely to perform in various professional careers

    Correct Answer
    C. Identify children who may require special services or interventions
    Explanation
    The original purpose of intelligence tests is to identify children who may require special services or interventions. These tests are designed to assess a child's cognitive abilities and identify any potential learning disabilities or developmental delays. By identifying these children early on, appropriate interventions and support can be provided to help them reach their full potential.

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  • 7. 

    Judging from what you have learned about how intelligence is typically measured, which one of the following would you be least likely to find on an intelligence test?

    • A.

      How many friends do you have?

    • B.

      What does the word candid mean?

    • C.

      In what way are a tree and a flower alike?

    • D.

      What does the expression Leave no stone unturned mean?

    Correct Answer
    A. How many friends do you have?
    Explanation
    Intelligence tests typically measure cognitive abilities such as problem-solving, logical reasoning, and verbal comprehension. The question "How many friends do you have?" does not directly assess these cognitive abilities and is more related to social skills and personal relationships. Therefore, it would be least likely to be found on an intelligence test.

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  • 8. 

     Which one of the following statements is consistent with B. F. Skinner's view of language development?

    • A.

      "Children initially use language primarily in their interactions with other people, but increasingly they also use it to help them think more effectively."

    • B.

      "From a very early age, children are motivated to learn how to speak, because speech enables them to interact with other people and, ultimately, to get what they want."

    • C.

      Although children can learn the specific vocabulary and syntax of their native language only by hearing the people around them speak it, they seem to have some built-in knowledge of the form that any language should take."

    • D.

      "To foster children's language development, parents and other adults praise them first for making speech like sounds ('Da-da'), later for saying recognizable words ('More!'), and still later for forming understandable sentences ('Can I have candy?')."

    Correct Answer
    D. "To foster children's language development, parents and other adults praise them first for making speech like sounds ('Da-da'), later for saying recognizable words ('More!'), and still later for forming understandable sentences ('Can I have candy?')."
    Explanation
    Skinner's view of language development is based on the principles of operant conditioning. According to Skinner, children learn language through reinforcement and shaping. In this answer choice, it is consistent with Skinner's view because it suggests that parents and adults praise children for their speech-like sounds, recognizable words, and understandable sentences. This positive reinforcement helps children to develop their language skills further, as they are encouraged to continue using language in a more effective and meaningful way.

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  • 9. 

     Which one of the following statements is consistent with anativist view of language development?

    • A.

      "Children initially use language primarily in their interactions with other people, but increasingly they also use it to help them think more effectively."

    • B.

      "From a very early age, children are motivated to learn how to speak, because speech enables them to interact with other people and, ultimately, to get what they want."

    • C.

      "Although children can learn the specific vocabulary and syntax of their native language only by hearing the people around them speak it, they seem to have some built-in knowledge of the form that any language should take."

    • D.

      "To foster children's language development, parents and other adults praise them first for making speechlike sounds ('Da-da'), later for saying recognizable words ('More!'), and still later for forming understandable sentences ('Can I have candy?')."

    Correct Answer
    C. "Although children can learn the specific vocabulary and syntax of their native language only by hearing the people around them speak it, they seem to have some built-in knowledge of the form that any language should take."
    Explanation
    This statement is consistent with a nativist view of language development because it suggests that children have some innate knowledge of the structure and rules of language. It acknowledges that children learn specific vocabulary and syntax from their environment, but also implies that they have a predisposition or innate capacity for language acquisition. This aligns with the nativist perspective, which argues that language development is influenced by innate biological factors.

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  • 10. 

    Which one of the following statements most accurately describes what developmental theorists mean when they talk about alanguage acquisition device?

    • A.

      A built-in mechanism that makes language learning especially easy for human beings

    • B.

      A culture-specific symbolic system that encompasses all the syntactic rules of a particular language

    • C.

      A particular area of the human cortex that seems to "hold" all of the words that a child learns

    • D.

      A hand held computer that enables people who speak very different languages to communicate easily with one another

    Correct Answer
    A. A built-in mechanism that makes language learning especially easy for human beings
    Explanation
    The term "language acquisition device" refers to a built-in mechanism that facilitates language learning in human beings. This device is believed to be innate and specific to humans, making the process of acquiring language easier for them compared to other species. It is not a culture-specific symbolic system or a particular area of the human cortex. Additionally, it is not a handheld computer for facilitating communication between people who speak different languages.

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  • 11. 

    If you were to apply the concept ofworking memory to language development, you would be most likely to suggest that:

    • A.

      Producing adult like speech is virtually impossible before age 7.

    • B.

      Children cannot be effective communicators until they learn the sociolinguistic conventions of their culture.

    • C.

      Children acquire complex language abilities only after they automatize many of the simpler aspects of language.

    • D.

      Over time, children's knowledge of vocabulary expands considerably, enabling them to express themselves with increasing precision.

    Correct Answer
    C. Children acquire complex language abilities only after they automatize many of the simpler aspects of language.
    Explanation
    The concept of working memory suggests that children acquire complex language abilities only after they automatize many of the simpler aspects of language. This means that as children become more proficient in basic language skills, such as vocabulary and grammar, they are able to free up cognitive resources to focus on more complex language tasks. This explanation aligns with the idea that language development is a gradual process, with children building upon their existing language skills to acquire more advanced abilities over time.

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  • 12. 

    As you work with 2-year-old Effie, you keep track of all the new words she uses. You find that, on average, Effie uses two or three new words every week over a period of several months. Based on this information, Effie's language development:

    • A.

      Is slower than what you would expect for a 2-year-old

    • B.

      Is about average for what you would expect for a 2-year-old

    • C.

      Is slighter faster than what you would expect for a 2-year-old

    • D.

      Indicates exceptionally high intelligence

    Correct Answer
    A. Is slower than what you would expect for a 2-year-old
    Explanation
    Effie's language development is slower than what you would expect for a 2-year-old because she is only using two or three new words every week over a period of several months. Typically, a 2-year-old's language development involves a rapid expansion of vocabulary and the ability to learn and use new words at a faster rate.

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  • 13. 

    Which strategy is most likely to be effective in promoting semantic development?

    • A.

      Encouraging underextension in the preschool years

    • B.

      Teaching children the meanings of words related to topics they are studying

    • C.

      Allowing children to make up their own meanings for words to encourage invention and creativity

    • D.

      Allowing children to use words incorrectly in the early elementary grades to promote linguistic self-efficacy

    Correct Answer
    B. Teaching children the meanings of words related to topics they are studying
    Explanation
    Teaching children the meanings of words related to topics they are studying is most likely to be effective in promoting semantic development. This strategy allows children to learn the meanings of words in a meaningful context, which enhances their understanding and retention of the words. By connecting new vocabulary to familiar topics, children can make connections and build upon their existing knowledge, leading to a deeper understanding of word meanings. This approach also promotes active engagement and interest in learning, as children are more likely to be motivated to learn words that are relevant to their current studies.

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  • 14. 

     Most children in the early elementary grades think that being a "good listener" is:

    • A.

      Asking the speaker a lot of questions

    • B.

      Remembering what the speaker says

    • C.

      Sitting quietly and looking at the speaker

    • D.

      Being able to tell somebody else what the speaker has said

    Correct Answer
    C. Sitting quietly and looking at the speaker
    Explanation
    Most children in the early elementary grades think that being a "good listener" is sitting quietly and looking at the speaker because this behavior demonstrates attentiveness and respect. By sitting quietly, children show that they are focused on the speaker and are not distracting others. Looking at the speaker indicates that they are giving their full attention and are actively engaged in the conversation. While asking questions and remembering what the speaker says are also important aspects of being a good listener, these actions may not be as commonly associated with young children's understanding of listening skills.

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  • 15. 

    Which one of the following best illustrates babbling as developmental theorists typically use the term?

    • A.

      "Eeeeeeeeee."

    • B.

      "Buh-buh-buh-buh."

    • C.

      "Allgone milk."

    • D.

      Roscoe often talks to himself as he plays by himself in the sandbox.

    Correct Answer
    B. "Buh-buh-buh-buh."
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Buh-buh-buh-buh." Babbling is a stage in language development where infants produce repetitive syllables, such as "baba" or "dada." This stage typically occurs between 6 to 9 months of age and is considered a precursor to actual words. The repetition of "buh-buh-buh-buh" in the answer choice represents this babbling behavior. The other options, "Eeeeeeeeee" and "Allgone milk," do not demonstrate the repetitive syllables characteristic of babbling. The additional information about Roscoe talking to himself in the sandbox is irrelevant to the question.

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  • 16. 

    Research indicates that a major advantage of giving children multiple experiences with books during the preschool years is that they:

    • A.

      Develop greater awareness of syllables than they would otherwise

    • B.

      Usually learn to read on their own before they reach school age

    • C.

      Develop more advanced visual-spatial skills

    • D.

      Learn to read more easily once they begin school

    Correct Answer
    D. Learn to read more easily once they begin school
    Explanation
    Research indicates that giving children multiple experiences with books during the preschool years helps them develop a strong foundation for reading. By exposing children to books and reading activities at an early age, they become familiar with the sounds, words, and concepts of reading. This early exposure enhances their language skills, phonemic awareness, and comprehension abilities, making it easier for them to learn to read once they begin school. Therefore, the correct answer is that children who have multiple experiences with books during the preschool years learn to read more easily once they begin school.

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  • 17. 

    Mr. Simon is curious about the experiences the children in his preschool class have had with printed materials. Three of the following behaviors will give Mr. Simon useful information about the children's emergent literacy skills. Which behavior is least likely to yield useful information?

    • A.

      Ability to handle book correctly

    • B.

      Willingness to share books with peers

    • C.

      Frequency of looking at books independently

    • D.

      Degree of attentiveness as an adult reads a storybook

    Correct Answer
    B. Willingness to share books with peers
    Explanation
    The least likely behavior to yield useful information is the willingness to share books with peers. While it is a positive social behavior, it does not directly provide information about the children's emergent literacy skills. The other behaviors mentioned - ability to handle a book correctly, frequency of looking at books independently, and degree of attentiveness during storybook reading - all directly relate to the children's engagement with printed materials and their emergent literacy skills.

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  • 18. 

    Phonological awareness can best be described as:

    • A.

      A child's ability to hear the individual sounds within a spoken word

    • B.

      A child's ability to distinguish between words that sound similar but have different meanings

    • C.

      A child's knowledge that people who speak different dialects may pronounce the same word differently

    • D.

      A child's ability to describe what letters typically represent different sounds in words and to apply them in sounding out written words

    Correct Answer
    A. A child's ability to hear the individual sounds within a spoken word
    Explanation
    Phonological awareness refers to a child's ability to hear and identify the individual sounds or phonemes within a spoken word. This includes recognizing and manipulating sounds such as blending, segmenting, and deleting them in words. It is an important skill for developing reading and spelling abilities as it helps children understand the relationship between sounds and letters.

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  • 19. 

     Five-year-old Harry is blind. Which one of the following aspects of literacy is Harry likely to have the least knowledge about?

    • A.

      Irregular verb forms

    • B.

      Letter-sound relationships

    • C.

      The left-to-right progression of words in print

    • D.

      Common English idioms and expressions (e.g., "neat as a pin")

    Correct Answer
    C. The left-to-right progression of words in print
    Explanation
    Since Harry is blind, he is unable to see the words on a page or the layout of text. Therefore, he is likely to have the least knowledge about the left-to-right progression of words in print.

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  • 20. 

     Imagine that you are a second-grade teacher. If you were looking for signs of possibledyslexia in one or more of your students, which one of the following would you be most likely to look for?

    • A.

      Unusual difficulty hearing individual sounds in spoken words

    • B.

      Grammatically incorrect speech (e.g., "Shegoed to the store")

    • C.

      A tendency to read words backwards (e.g., readingball as "lab")

    • D.

      Mispronunciations of everyday words (e.g., pronouncingschool as "schtool")

    Correct Answer
    A. Unusual difficulty hearing individual sounds in spoken words
    Explanation
    If a second-grade student is having unusual difficulty hearing individual sounds in spoken words, it could be a sign of possible dyslexia. Dyslexia is a learning disorder that affects a person's ability to read, write, and spell. Difficulty in hearing individual sounds, also known as phonological awareness, is a common characteristic of dyslexia. This difficulty can make it challenging for students to decode words and understand the relationships between sounds and letters. Therefore, as a teacher, it would be important to look for this sign as it could indicate the need for further evaluation and support for the student.

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  • 21. 

    Three of the following strategies are recommended for helping children acquire mathematical concepts and skills. Which one is not recommended?

    • A.

      Illustrate abstract procedures with concrete objects

    • B.

      Encourage children to do problems entirely in their heads whenever possible

    • C.

      Encourage children to use their fingers if they find that their fingers help them.

    • D.

      Encourage children to invent some of their own strategies for solving problems.

    Correct Answer
    B. Encourage children to do problems entirely in their heads whenever possible
    Explanation
    Encouraging children to do problems entirely in their heads whenever possible is not recommended. This is because relying solely on mental calculations can be challenging for young learners, especially when dealing with complex mathematical concepts. It is important to provide concrete objects or visual aids to help them understand and visualize abstract procedures. Additionally, encouraging children to use their fingers can be beneficial as it helps them develop a better understanding of number relationships and enhances their spatial awareness. Lastly, allowing children to invent their own problem-solving strategies promotes critical thinking and creativity in mathematics.

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  • 22. 

    When do most youngsters begin to understand historical time and attach meaning to historical dates?

    • A.

      Usually by kindergarten or first grade

    • B.

      About second grade

    • C.

      About fifth grade

    • D.

      About ninth grade

    Correct Answer
    C. About fifth grade
    Explanation
    Most youngsters begin to understand historical time and attach meaning to historical dates around fifth grade. This is typically the age when children start to develop a deeper understanding of history and can grasp concepts such as timelines and the significance of specific dates. By this stage, they have likely been exposed to basic historical knowledge and have the cognitive abilities to connect events and dates together.

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  • 23. 

    Which one of the following best describes Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development?

    • A.

      A series of stages, each of which has a unique developmental task to be addressed

    • B.

      A process of becoming increasingly self-confident through the years as one's competence improves

    • C.

      A series of stages in which people develop increasingly more sophisticated social skills

    • D.

      A progression of increasingly abstract understandings of social situations

    Correct Answer
    A. A series of stages, each of which has a unique developmental task to be addressed
    Explanation
    Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development proposes that individuals go through a series of stages, and at each stage, they face a unique developmental task that needs to be addressed. These tasks are crucial for the individual's psychological and social growth. Erikson believed that successful completion of these tasks leads to healthy development, while failure to address them can result in negative outcomes. Therefore, his theory emphasizes the importance of each stage and the specific challenges that individuals must navigate to achieve optimal psychosocial development.

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  • 24. 

    In Erik Erikson's view, children in the initiative versus guilt stage ideally learn to:

    • A.

      Control their bodily functions so they don't feel guilty about having "accidents"

    • B.

      Take initiative in feeding and dressing themselves

    • C.

      Plan and carry out some of their own activities

    • D.

      Persevere at difficult tasks

    Correct Answer
    C. Plan and carry out some of their own activities
    Explanation
    In Erik Erikson's view, children in the initiative versus guilt stage ideally learn to plan and carry out some of their own activities. This stage occurs during early childhood, typically between the ages of 3 and 6 years old. During this stage, children develop a sense of initiative and begin to take on more responsibility for their actions. They start to plan and engage in activities independently, which helps them develop a sense of purpose and accomplishment. By successfully planning and carrying out their own activities, children gain confidence and a sense of autonomy, which is crucial for their psychosocial development.

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  • 25. 

    If we consider Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, then which one of the following issues would we expect high school students to be most concerned about?

    • A.

      Wanting to form a close and intimate relationship with another human being

    • B.

      Trying to decide who they really are and what role they will play in adult society

    • C.

      Needing to gain the recognition of parents and teachers through their academic activities and achievements

    • D.

      Finding a way to wiggle out of doing difficult tasks

    Correct Answer
    B. Trying to decide who they really are and what role they will play in adult society
    Explanation
    According to Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, adolescents are in the stage of identity versus role confusion. During this stage, high school students are expected to be most concerned about trying to decide who they really are and what role they will play in adult society. This is a critical period where individuals explore and develop their own identity, including their values, beliefs, and aspirations. They may experiment with different roles and explore various career paths to gain a sense of purpose and direction in their lives.

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  • 26. 

    Which one of the following best describes attachment in the early years?

    • A.

      An enduring emotional bond between an infant and a caregiver

    • B.

      A mother's innate tendency to protect her young offspring

    • C.

      A predisposition by infants to behave in certain ways and not in others

    • D.

      An affectionate relationship between marital partners, thought by ethological theorists to be important for young children's emotional well-being

    Correct Answer
    A. An enduring emotional bond between an infant and a caregiver
    Explanation
    Attachment in the early years refers to the development of a strong and lasting emotional bond between an infant and their primary caregiver. This bond is crucial for the infant's emotional and social development, as it provides them with a sense of security and trust in their caregiver. The attachment relationship allows the infant to explore their environment, knowing that their caregiver will be there to provide comfort and support when needed. This enduring emotional bond forms the foundation for future relationships and influences the child's overall well-being.

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  • 27. 

     Which one of the following emotions are young infants least likely to feel?

    • A.

      Pride

    • B.

      Interest

    • C.

      Distress

    • D.

      Contentment

    Correct Answer
    A. Pride
    Explanation
    Young infants are least likely to feel pride because pride is a complex emotion that typically requires a sense of accomplishment or achievement. Infants at a young age do not possess the cognitive and social skills necessary to experience pride in the same way that older children or adults do. They are still in the early stages of development and have limited abilities to understand and evaluate their own actions or accomplishments. Therefore, pride is not a common emotion observed in young infants.

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  • 28. 

    Which one of the following best describes empathy?

    • A.

      Being able to "step into someone else's shoes"

    • B.

      Understanding what another person must be thinking

    • C.

      Feeling sorry for someone who faces exceptional life challenges

    • D.

      Experiencing the same feelings as someone in unfortunate circumstances

    Correct Answer
    D. Experiencing the same feelings as someone in unfortunate circumstances
    Explanation
    Empathy is the ability to understand and share the feelings of another person. It involves being able to emotionally connect with someone and experience their emotions, especially in difficult or unfortunate situations. This goes beyond simply understanding what someone might be thinking or feeling, or feeling sorry for them. Empathy allows individuals to truly relate to and feel the same emotions as someone else, fostering a sense of connection and compassion.

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  • 29. 

    Which one of the following statements is most accurate regarding gender differences in emotion?

    • A.

      On average, male infants are more emotionally volatile than female infants almost from birth.

    • B.

      After age 2, girls are more likely to show anger than boys

    • C.

      As early as age 4, more boys than girls show signs of serious depression.

    • D.

      In the elementary school years, many boys begin to hide their true feelings.

    Correct Answer
    D. In the elementary school years, many boys begin to hide their true feelings.
    Explanation
    In the elementary school years, many boys begin to hide their true feelings. This statement suggests that boys, as they grow older, tend to suppress or conceal their emotions. This can be attributed to societal expectations and cultural norms that discourage boys from openly expressing their feelings. It implies that boys may feel pressured to appear strong and stoic, leading to a tendency to hide their true emotions.

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  • 30. 

    Mike desperately wants to do well on the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), as his scores will affect his chances of getting into his first-choice college. He also knows that many students at his school think that SAT scores are good indicators of how "smart" a person is. Yet the night before the test, rather than get a good night's sleep, Mike goes out with his friends, has a few beers, comes home late, and wakes up with a hangover. With this information in mind, we might suspect that Michael:

    • A.

      Is engaging in self-socialization

    • B.

      Is engaging in self-handicapping

    • C.

      Has fallen victim to the imaginary-audience phenomenon

    • D.

      Has poorly developed social information processing skills

    Correct Answer
    B. Is engaging in self-handicapping
    Explanation
    Mike's behavior of going out with friends, drinking alcohol, and staying out late the night before an important test suggests that he is engaging in self-handicapping. Self-handicapping is a strategy where individuals create obstacles or excuses for themselves that can potentially explain or justify poor performance. In this case, Mike's decision to engage in activities that can negatively impact his performance on the SAT, such as drinking alcohol and not getting enough sleep, can be seen as a way to protect his self-esteem. By engaging in self-handicapping, Mike can attribute any potential poor performance on the test to external factors, such as his hangover, rather than his own abilities or intelligence.

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  • 31. 

    The formation of children's sense of self is most strongly influenced by:

    • A.

      The self-concepts of their parents

    • B.

      Their inherited temperaments

    • C.

      How other people treat them

    • D.

      Their athletic ability

    Correct Answer
    C. How other people treat them
    Explanation
    The formation of children's sense of self is most strongly influenced by how other people treat them. This is because children develop their self-concepts based on the feedback and interactions they receive from others. Positive and supportive interactions can boost their self-esteem and confidence, while negative or critical treatment can lead to low self-worth and insecurity. The way others treat children shapes their beliefs about themselves and influences their overall self-perception.

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  • 32. 

    As children grow older, they are more likely to

    • A.

      Be satisfied with low levels of performance

    • B.

      Hold themselves to unrealistically high standards for performance

    • C.

      Evaluate their own performance in terms of how it compares with that of their peers

    • D.

      Evaluate their own performance in terms of how much improvement it shows over time

    Correct Answer
    C. Evaluate their own performance in terms of how it compares with that of their peers
    Explanation
    As children grow older, they tend to evaluate their own performance in terms of how it compares with that of their peers. This is because they become more aware of others around them and start to develop a sense of competition. They may compare their achievements, skills, or abilities with those of their peers to gauge their own level of success or progress. This comparison helps them understand where they stand in relation to others and can motivate them to strive for improvement.

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  • 33. 

    Which one of the following appears earliest in the development of children's sense of self?

    • A.

      Personal fable

    • B.

      Imaginary audience

    • C.

      An autobiographical self

    • D.

      Recognition of oneself in the mirror

    Correct Answer
    D. Recognition of oneself in the mirror
    Explanation
    Recognition of oneself in the mirror appears earliest in the development of children's sense of self. This is because children begin to recognize their own reflection in a mirror at a very young age, usually around 18-24 months. This milestone indicates that they are starting to understand that the reflection they see is their own image, which is an important aspect of developing a sense of self. Personal fable, imaginary audience, and autobiographical self are all more complex psychological concepts that develop later in childhood and adolescence.

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  • 34. 

    Research on gender differences in children's and adolescents' sense of self tells us that:

    • A.

      In adolescence, girls rate their physical appearance more positively than boys do.

    • B.

      On average, girls have a better overall sense of self-worth than boys

    • C.

      Boys are more likely than girls to overrate their abilities.

    • D.

      Boys are more likely than girls to see themselves as being good readers.

    Correct Answer
    C. Boys are more likely than girls to overrate their abilities.
    Explanation
    Research on gender differences in children's and adolescents' sense of self suggests that boys are more likely than girls to overrate their abilities. This means that boys may have a tendency to overestimate their skills and capabilities, which can lead to overconfidence or unrealistic expectations. On the other hand, girls generally rate their physical appearance more positively than boys and have a better overall sense of self-worth. Additionally, boys are less likely than girls to see themselves as being good readers.

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  • 35. 

    Adults can most effectively enhance children's sense of self when they:

    • A.

      Talk about the advantages of having high self-esteem

    • B.

      Encourage children to think more positively about themselves

    • C.

      Hold high yet achievable expectations for children's performance

    • D.

      Hold expectations for performance that they know children can achieve with little or no effort

    Correct Answer
    C. Hold high yet achievable expectations for children's performance
    Explanation
    Holding high yet achievable expectations for children's performance allows them to strive for success and develop a sense of self-worth. It encourages them to push themselves and work towards their full potential. By setting realistic goals, adults can provide children with a sense of accomplishment and confidence in their abilities. This approach promotes a healthy sense of self and fosters a growth mindset, where children believe in their own abilities to succeed.

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  • 36. 

    Youngsters begin to think more systematically about what other people might be thinking about them during:

    • A.

      Early childhood

    • B.

      Middle childhood

    • C.

      Early adolescence

    • D.

      Late adolescence

    Correct Answer
    C. Early adolescence
    Explanation
    During early adolescence, youngsters go through significant cognitive and emotional changes. They become more self-aware and start to develop a sense of identity. This is a period when they become more concerned about how others perceive them and begin to think more systematically about what others might be thinking about them. They may become more self-conscious and start to compare themselves to their peers, seeking validation and acceptance. This shift in thinking is a normal part of their social and emotional development during early adolescence.

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  • 37. 

    Which one of the following adolescents is displaying intrinsic motivation?

    • A.

      Annette loves to play the viola and so practices for at least an hour every day.

    • B.

      Bob works hard in his classes because his parents have promised to buy him a car if he gets at least a 3.5 grade-point-average this year.

    • C.

      Cassie does her math homework faithfully every night because she likes her teacher and wants to please him.

    • D.

      Dennis takes physics because he wants to become an engineer and make a lot of money.

    Correct Answer
    A. Annette loves to play the viola and so practices for at least an hour every day.
    Explanation
    Annette is displaying intrinsic motivation because she loves to play the viola and practices for at least an hour every day out of her own enjoyment and personal interest in the activity.

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  • 38. 

    Primary reinforcers are stimuli or events that:

    • A.

      Satisfy biologically built-in needs

    • B.

      Become especially effective after puberty

    • C.

      Work only with students in the lower elementary grades

    • D.

      Are effective only when presented before the desired response

    Correct Answer
    A. Satisfy biologically built-in needs
    Explanation
    Primary reinforcers are stimuli or events that satisfy biologically built-in needs. These needs are essential for survival and include things like food, water, and shelter. Primary reinforcers are considered to be inherently rewarding and do not require any learning or conditioning to be effective. They are universal and have a strong influence on behavior across different individuals and species.

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  • 39. 

    Curtis works hard at school because he knows it will lead to good grades, praise from his mother, and money from his father. It is clear that ________ are effective with Curtis.

    • A.

      Primary reinforcers

    • B.

      Situational interests

    • C.

      Vicarious reinforcers

    • D.

      Secondary reinforcers

    Correct Answer
    D. Secondary reinforcers
    Explanation
    Curtis is motivated by the expectation of good grades, praise from his mother, and money from his father. These are all outcomes or rewards that are not inherently pleasurable or satisfying, but they have become associated with positive experiences through conditioning. Secondary reinforcers are rewards that have acquired their value through association with primary reinforcers. In this case, the primary reinforcer could be the intrinsic satisfaction of doing well in school, while the secondary reinforcers are the external rewards that have become associated with academic success.

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  • 40. 

     Which one of the following statements best describes vicarious reinforcement?

    • A.

      Anticipating future reinforcement

    • B.

      Receiving reinforcement after behaving inappropriately

    • C.

      Watching someone else receive reinforcement for a behavior

    • D.

      Remembering reinforcement that one has previously received

    Correct Answer
    C. Watching someone else receive reinforcement for a behavior
    Explanation
    Vicarious reinforcement refers to the process of observing someone else being reinforced for a behavior. It involves learning from the consequences experienced by others, rather than through direct personal experience. By watching someone else receive reinforcement for a behavior, individuals can learn and potentially adopt that behavior themselves. This type of learning is often seen in social contexts, where individuals observe and imitate the actions of others based on the outcomes they observe.

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  • 41. 

    In adolescence, ________ is increasingly replaced by ________ as a basis for choosing activities.

    • A.

      Intrinsic appeal; future usefulness

    • B.

      Personal interest; situational interest

    • C.

      Self-efficacy; sense of self-determination

    • D.

      Internalized motivation; personal interest

    Correct Answer
    A. Intrinsic appeal; future usefulness
    Explanation
    During adolescence, the motivation for choosing activities shifts from being based on intrinsic appeal, which refers to the inherent enjoyment or interest in the activity itself, to future usefulness, which refers to the potential benefits or practical value the activity may have in the future. This suggests that as adolescents mature, they become more focused on the long-term outcomes and rewards of their activities rather than solely relying on personal interest or enjoyment.

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  • 42. 

    Which one of the following alternatives best describes differences between children with a mastery orientation and children with learned helplessness?

    • A.

      Children with a mastery orientation expect that they will have to work extremely hard to master new tasks. Children with learned helplessness usually overestimate their abilities.

    • B.

      Children with a mastery orientation set easily attainable goals and become frustrated when they don't attain those goals effortlessly. Children with learned helplessness set goals that are almost impossible to attain.

    • C.

      Children with a mastery orientation attribute their successes to external, uncontrollable factors. Children with an attitude of learned helplessness attribute failures to internal, controllable factors.

    • D.

      Children with a mastery orientation set high goals and seek challenges. Children with learned helplessness underestimate their ability and set low goals.

    Correct Answer
    D. Children with a mastery orientation set high goals and seek challenges. Children with learned helplessness underestimate their ability and set low goals.
    Explanation
    Children with a mastery orientation are described as setting high goals and seeking challenges, while children with learned helplessness are said to underestimate their ability and set low goals. This suggests that the two groups differ in their approach to goal-setting and their perception of their own abilities.

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  • 43. 

    A student who has developed learned helplessness about his or her spelling ability is most likely to say which one of the following?

    • A.

      "I have to work harder than my friends to learn to spell."

    • B.

      "I can learn how to spell words correctly without even trying."

    • C.

      "No matter how much I study words, I can't remember how to spell them."

    • D.

      "I would learn to spell eventually, but it's not worth the time it would take to do so."

    Correct Answer
    C. "No matter how much I study words, I can't remember how to spell them."
    Explanation
    This student's statement suggests that they have developed learned helplessness about their spelling ability. They believe that no matter how much effort they put into studying, they will not be able to remember how to spell words correctly. This indicates a lack of confidence in their own abilities and a belief that their efforts will not lead to success.

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  • 44. 

     When we see signs that a child feels ashamed or guilty about something that he or she has done, we can reasonably conclude that the child:

    • A.

      Has a poor sense of self-worth

    • B.

      Has developed a sense of right and wrong

    • C.

      Will show a temporary increase in aggressive behavior

    • D.

      Will become socially withdrawn unless an adult intervenes

    Correct Answer
    B. Has developed a sense of right and wrong
    Explanation
    When a child feels ashamed or guilty about something they have done, it indicates that they have developed a sense of right and wrong. This suggests that the child is aware of their actions and understands that they have done something that goes against their understanding of what is right. This development of a moral compass is an important aspect of a child's cognitive and emotional growth.

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  • 45. 

    Youngsters at Kohlberg's preconventional level of moral reasoning are likely to define "right" behavior in terms of:

    • A.

      What people expect of them

    • B.

      What they can get away with

    • C.

      Abstract principles of morality

    • D.

      Society's standards regarding what's right or wrong

    Correct Answer
    B. What they can get away with
    Explanation
    Youngsters at Kohlberg's preconventional level of moral reasoning are likely to define "right" behavior in terms of what they can get away with. This means that their moral decisions are based on avoiding punishment or seeking personal rewards. They are primarily concerned with their own self-interest and do not consider abstract principles of morality or societal standards regarding what is right or wrong.

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  • 46. 

     Which one of the following is most typical of the moral development of high school students?

    • A.

      Reluctance to share possessions with others

    • B.

      Tendency to disregard rules if no authority figure is present

    • C.

      Empathy for the victims of a widespread famine or epidemic

    • D.

      Shame, but not guilt, about harm that one has unintentionally caused another

    Correct Answer
    C. Empathy for the victims of a widespread famine or epidemic
    Explanation
    High school students typically show empathy for the victims of a widespread famine or epidemic. This suggests that they are developing a sense of compassion and concern for others who are suffering. This is a positive moral development as it indicates their ability to understand and relate to the pain and suffering of others, and it shows their willingness to help and support those in need.

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  • 47. 

    Carol Gilligan's theory of moral development differs from Lawrence Kohlberg's theory in that it:

    • A.

      Focuses more on a "human rights" perspective of moral development

    • B.

      Proposes that girls exhibit more rapid moral development than boys

    • C.

      Proposes that boys exhibit more rapid moral development than girls

    • D.

      Focuses more on the development of caring and compassion

    Correct Answer
    D. Focuses more on the development of caring and compassion
    Explanation
    Carol Gilligan's theory of moral development differs from Lawrence Kohlberg's theory in that it focuses more on the development of caring and compassion. While Kohlberg's theory primarily emphasizes the development of moral reasoning and the ability to make ethical judgments based on principles, Gilligan's theory highlights the importance of relationships, empathy, and the consideration of others' needs and emotions in moral decision-making. Gilligan argues that women tend to prioritize caring and compassion in their moral reasoning, whereas Kohlberg's theory was based primarily on the moral development of men.

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  • 48. 

    Behaviors that are clearly interpersonal in nature are first seen:

    • A.

      In infancy (before age 2)

    • B.

      Somewhere around a child's second birthday

    • C.

      After age 21/2 at the earliest

    • D.

      At around age 2 if children have one or more older siblings; otherwise, at around age 3

    Correct Answer
    A. In infancy (before age 2)
    Explanation
    Behaviors that are clearly interpersonal in nature are first seen in infancy (before age 2). This means that babies start to exhibit behaviors that involve interaction with others, such as smiling, babbling, and responding to social cues. During this stage, infants begin to develop social skills and engage in basic forms of communication with their caregivers and others around them. These early interpersonal behaviors lay the foundation for future social interactions and relationships as the child grows and develops.

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  • 49. 

    Which one of the following statements is most accurate regarding the origins of prosocial and aggressive behavior?

    • A.

      Prosocial and aggressive behaviors are primarily determined by genetic heritage

    • B.

      Prosocial and aggressive behaviors are primarily determined by environmental influences.

    • C.

      Prosocial and aggressive behaviors are influenced by both genetic heritage and environmental influences.

    • D.

      Prosocial behaviors spring from environmental influences while aggressive behaviors are largely genetic in origin.

    Correct Answer
    C. Prosocial and aggressive behaviors are influenced by both genetic heritage and environmental influences.
    Explanation
    The most accurate statement regarding the origins of prosocial and aggressive behavior is that they are influenced by both genetic heritage and environmental influences. This suggests that both nature (genetics) and nurture (environment) play a role in shaping these behaviors. Genetic factors can predispose individuals to certain tendencies, while environmental factors such as upbringing, socialization, and cultural norms can also impact the development of prosocial and aggressive behaviors.

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  • 50. 

    Which one of the following forms of aggression are you most apt to see ingirls' behavior?

    • A.

      Pulling someone's hair

    • B.

      Poking a nearby classmate

    • C.

      Spreading a malicious rumor

    • D.

      Throwing a pencil at someone across the room

    Correct Answer
    C. Spreading a malicious rumor
    Explanation
    Spreading a malicious rumor is a form of aggression that is commonly observed in girls' behavior. Unlike physical forms of aggression like pulling hair or throwing objects, spreading rumors involves using words and social manipulation to harm someone's reputation or relationships. This behavior is often seen as more covert and indirect, which may be why it is more prevalent in girls. Rumor-spreading allows individuals to assert power and control over others without resorting to physical violence, making it a common form of aggression in girls' social interactions.

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