DNA, RNA, & Protein Synthesis Test B

Approved & Edited by ProProfs Editorial Team
The editorial team at ProProfs Quizzes consists of a select group of subject experts, trivia writers, and quiz masters who have authored over 10,000 quizzes taken by more than 100 million users. This team includes our in-house seasoned quiz moderators and subject matter experts. Our editorial experts, spread across the world, are rigorously trained using our comprehensive guidelines to ensure that you receive the highest quality quizzes.
Learn about Our Editorial Process
| By John Mitchell
J
John Mitchell
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 100 | Total Attempts: 132,373
Questions: 30 | Attempts: 112

SettingsSettingsSettings
DNA, RNA, & Protein Synthesis Test B - Quiz

Welcome to the 21st Century electronic biology classroom. Using flashcards "DNA, RNA, & protein synthesis" found on Mitchell's Cosmic Adventure science web site. You will need to interpret important research leading to the current knowledge of molecular genetics. Analyze the process of DNA replication, transcription, and translation.
The test will allow unlimited number of attempts to improve your learning and TEST-TAKING skills.
GOOD LUCK and I wish you earn high marks!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    _____ is a gram negative, rod-shaped bacterium present in the intestinal tract of animals, soil and water.  It was the first organism used for cloning and propagating genes of other species.

    • A.

      Escherischia coli

    • B.

      Abiotrophica defective

    • C.

      Escherischia rhusiophiae

    • D.

      Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Correct Answer
    A. Escherischia coli
    Explanation
    Escherichia coli is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the intestinal tract of animals, as well as in soil and water. It is known for its role in various biological processes and has been extensively studied in scientific research. Escherichia coli was also the first organism to be used for cloning and propagating genes of other species, making it a crucial tool in genetic engineering and biotechnology.

    Rate this question:

  • 2. 

    Which research team used a protease enzyme to destroy proteins, RNase to destroy RNA and DNase to destroy DNA.

    • A.

      Avery

    • B.

      Chase

    • C.

      Crick

    • D.

      Watson

    • E.

      Hershey

    Correct Answer
    A. Avery
    Explanation
    Avery is the correct answer because his research team used a protease enzyme to destroy proteins, RNase to destroy RNA, and DNase to destroy DNA.

    Rate this question:

  • 3. 

    Crick and Watson determined that DNA molecules have the shape of a double_____.  (Please enter answer in lower case.)

    Correct Answer
    helix
    Explanation
    Crick and Watson's discovery revealed that DNA molecules have a double helix structure. This means that the DNA molecule consists of two strands that are twisted around each other in a spiral shape, resembling a twisted ladder. The double helix structure is crucial for DNA's ability to store and transmit genetic information.

    Rate this question:

  • 4. 

    Due to the strict pairing of nitrogenous bases in DNA molecules, the two strand are said to be _____ to each other.  (Please enter answer in all lower case.)

    Correct Answer
    complementary
    Explanation
    The two strands of DNA are said to be complementary to each other because they have a specific pairing of nitrogenous bases. Adenine always pairs with thymine, and cytosine always pairs with guanine. This complementary base pairing allows the DNA strands to bond together and form a stable double helix structure.

    Rate this question:

  • 5. 

    The transfer of genetic material from one cell to another, which Frederick Griffith studied, is called_____.

    • A.

      Transduction

    • B.

      Transformation

    • C.

      Transportation

    • D.

      Recombination

    • E.

      Genetic transfer

    Correct Answer
    B. Transformation
    Explanation
    Frederick Griffith studied the transfer of genetic material from one cell to another, which is known as transformation. This process involves the uptake and incorporation of foreign DNA into a recipient cell, leading to a change in its genetic makeup. Transduction refers to the transfer of genetic material through a virus, transportation is not a term used in this context, recombination involves the rearrangement of genetic material, and genetic transfer is a general term that can encompass various mechanisms including transformation.

    Rate this question:

  • 6. 

    The human genome contains 23 chromosomes, 3.2 billion base pairs, and 200,000 genes.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because the human genome actually contains 46 chromosomes, not 23. Each human cell typically contains two sets of 23 chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent. Additionally, while it is true that the human genome contains approximately 3.2 billion base pairs, the number of genes is estimated to be around 20,000-25,000, not 200,000.

    Rate this question:

  • 7. 

    According to base-pairing for DNA, adenine pairs with ______ and guanine pairs with _____.

    • A.

      Adenine ; guanine

    • B.

      Thymine ; cytosine

    • C.

      Cytosine ; uracil

    • D.

      Thymine ; adenine

    Correct Answer
    B. Thymine ; cytosine
    Explanation
    According to base-pairing for DNA, adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine. This is based on the complementary base pairing rule in DNA, where adenine always pairs with thymine through two hydrogen bonds, and guanine always pairs with cytosine through three hydrogen bonds. This pairing is essential for DNA replication and maintaining the genetic code.

    Rate this question:

  • 8. 

    Which of the following is the series of amino acids encoded by the piece of mRNA shown below?  CUC-AAG-UGC-UUC

    • A.

      Ser - Tyr - Arg - Gly

    • B.

      Val - Asp - pro - His

    • C.

      Leu - Lys - Cys - Phe

    • D.

      Pro - Glu - Leu - Val

    Correct Answer
    C. Leu - Lys - Cys - Phe
    Explanation
    The given mRNA sequence CUC-AAG-UGC-UUC translates to Leu - Lys - Cys - Phe. Each codon in the mRNA sequence corresponds to a specific amino acid, and when translated, the sequence of amino acids is Leu - Lys - Cys - Phe.

    Rate this question:

  • 9. 

    Which of the following would represent the strand of DNA from which the mRNA strand was made?  CUC AAG UGC  UUC

    • A.

      CUC AAG UGC UUC

    • B.

      GAG UUC ACG AAG

    • C.

      GAG TTC ACG AAG

    • D.

      AGA CCT GTA GGA

    Correct Answer
    C. GAG TTC ACG AAG
    Explanation
    The correct answer is GAG TTC ACG AAG. This is because the process of transcription involves the synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template. During transcription, the DNA strand is used as a template to create a complementary mRNA strand. In RNA, the base thymine (T) is replaced by uracil (U). Therefore, the mRNA strand would have the sequence GAG TTC ACG AAG, which is the same as the given answer.

    Rate this question:

  • 10. 

    DNA is replicated before_____.

    • A.

      Crossing-over

    • B.

      Cell division

    • C.

      Cell death

    • D.

      G1 phase

    • E.

      S phase

    Correct Answer
    B. Cell division
    Explanation
    DNA replication occurs before cell division because during cell division, the DNA needs to be duplicated so that each new cell receives a complete set of genetic information. This process ensures that the genetic material is accurately passed on to the daughter cells. The S phase of the cell cycle is specifically dedicated to DNA replication, where the DNA is unwound and new strands are synthesized. Therefore, DNA replication is a crucial step that occurs before cell division.

    Rate this question:

  • 11. 

    Which of the following happens last in replication?

    • A.

      Two new DNA molecules form.

    • B.

      Two original strands of DNA separate.

    • C.

      A replication fork forms.

    • D.

      DNA polymerase added nucleotides to each DNA strand

    Correct Answer
    A. Two new DNA molecules form.
    Explanation
    In DNA replication, the two original strands of DNA first separate, creating a replication fork. Then, DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to each DNA strand, creating two new DNA molecules. Therefore, the formation of two new DNA molecules happens last in replication.

    Rate this question:

  • 12. 

    The areas where DNA separates during replication are called a(n)_____.

    • A.

      Helicases

    • B.

      Polymerases

    • C.

      Replication forks

    • D.

      Proofreaders

    Correct Answer
    C. Replication forks
    Explanation
    During DNA replication, the two strands of the double helix separate to allow for the synthesis of new DNA strands. This separation occurs at specific regions known as replication forks. At the replication forks, helicases unwind the DNA strands, creating a Y-shaped structure where the DNA is being replicated. Therefore, the correct answer is replication forks.

    Rate this question:

  • 13. 

    Replication forks tend to. . . .

    • A.

      Slow down replication process

    • B.

      Increase errors during replication

    • C.

      Speed up replication process

    • D.

      Be more plentiful in prokaryotic DNA

    • E.

      Be more plentiful in prokaryotic RNA

    Correct Answer
    C. Speed up replication process
    Explanation
    Replication forks, which are the points where DNA strands separate and new strands are synthesized, play a crucial role in DNA replication. They actually speed up the replication process by allowing the simultaneous synthesis of new DNA strands in both directions. This means that replication can occur at a faster rate, enabling the efficient and timely duplication of the entire DNA molecule. Therefore, the presence of replication forks enhances the speed of the replication process.

    Rate this question:

  • 14. 

    At the end of replication, each new DNA molecule is composed of. . .

    • A.

      Two new strands of RNA

    • B.

      Two new strands of DNA

    • C.

      Two original strands of DNA

    • D.

      Either two new or two original strands of DNA

    • E.

      A new and an original strand of DNA

    Correct Answer
    E. A new and an original strand of DNA
    Explanation
    At the end of replication, each new DNA molecule is composed of a new strand and an original strand of DNA. This is because DNA replication is a semi-conservative process, where each of the two resulting DNA molecules contains one original strand and one newly synthesized complementary strand. This ensures that the genetic information is faithfully passed on to the daughter cells during cell division.

    Rate this question:

  • 15. 

    Which of the following proofreads the new DNA molecule during replication?

    • A.

      DNA polymerases

    • B.

      RNA polymerases

    • C.

      Replication forks

    • D.

      DNA helicases

    • E.

      The original strand of DNA

    Correct Answer
    A. DNA polymerases
    Explanation
    DNA polymerases are enzymes that are responsible for synthesizing new DNA strands during replication. They have a proofreading function, which means they can detect and correct errors that occur during DNA replication. This proofreading activity helps to maintain the accuracy of the DNA sequence. Therefore, DNA polymerases are the correct answer as they proofread the new DNA molecule during replication.

    Rate this question:

  • 16. 

    _____ was a British bacteriologists whose focus was the epidemiology and pathology of bacterial pneumonia.

    • A.

      Griffth, Frederick

    • B.

      Chase, Martha

    • C.

      Hershey, Alfred

    • D.

      Oswald, Avery

    • E.

      Crick, Francis

    Correct Answer
    A. Griffth, Frederick
    Explanation
    Frederick Griffith was a British bacteriologist who specialized in studying the epidemiology and pathology of bacterial pneumonia.

    Rate this question:

  • 17. 

    _____ is also known as 5-methyluracil, a pyrimidine nucleobase.

    • A.

      Adenine

    • B.

      Thymine

    • C.

      Guanine

    • D.

      Cytosine

    Correct Answer
    B. Thymine
    Explanation
    Thymine is also known as 5-methyluracil, a pyrimidine nucleobase.

    Rate this question:

  • 18. 

    Any organism that is capable of causing disease or a toxic response in another organism is a(n)_____.  (Please enter your answer in all lower case.)

    Correct Answer
    pathogen
    Explanation
    A pathogen is any organism that is capable of causing disease or a toxic response in another organism. It can be a bacterium, virus, fungus, parasite, or any other microorganism. Pathogens invade the body and disrupt normal bodily functions, leading to illness or infection. They can be transmitted through various means such as direct contact, airborne droplets, contaminated food or water, or vectors like mosquitoes or ticks. Understanding pathogens and their mechanisms of infection is crucial for preventing and treating diseases.

    Rate this question:

  • 19. 

    Griffith discovered that a harmless strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae could be made virulent after being exposed to heat-killed virulent strains. What is the process known as______?  (Please enter your enter answer in lower case.)

    Correct Answer
    transformation
    Explanation
    Griffith's discovery that a harmless strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae could become virulent after exposure to heat-killed virulent strains is known as transformation. This process involves the transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another, resulting in the acquisition of new traits.

    Rate this question:

  • 20. 

    A virus that infects bacteria; viral genome is injected into a bacterium and controls the metabolism of the host is called a(n)_____.

    • A.

      Escherichia coli

    • B.

      Bacteriophage

    • C.

      Virus

    • D.

      Fungus

    Correct Answer
    B. Bacteriophage
    Explanation
    A virus that infects bacteria is called a bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are composed of genetic material (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat. When a bacteriophage infects a bacterium, it injects its genetic material into the host cell. The viral genome then takes control of the bacterium's metabolism, forcing it to produce more copies of the virus. Eventually, the bacterium bursts, releasing the newly formed bacteriophages to infect other bacteria.

    Rate this question:

  • 21. 

    _____ - _____ _____ in DNA, cytosine on one strand pairs with guanine on the opposite strand, and adenine pairs with thymine.

    • A.

      Base - pairing rules

    • B.

      Base - pairing procotol

    • C.

      Nitrogenous - molecule rules

    • D.

      DNA - RNA rules

    • E.

      RNA - DNA rules

    Correct Answer
    A. Base - pairing rules
    Explanation
    In DNA, cytosine on one strand pairs with guanine on the opposite strand, and adenine pairs with thymine. This is known as base-pairing rules, where specific nitrogenous bases form complementary pairs with each other. The bases always pair in a specific way, with cytosine always pairing with guanine and adenine always pairing with thymine. These base-pairing rules are fundamental to the structure and function of DNA.

    Rate this question:

  • 22. 

    _____ _____ is the process by which DNA is copied in a cell before mitosis, meiosis, or binary fission.  (Please make reference to the flashcards for this topic.)

    Correct Answer
    DNA Replication, DNA replication
    Explanation
    DNA replication is the process by which DNA is copied in a cell before mitosis, meiosis, or binary fission. During DNA replication, the double-stranded DNA molecule unwinds and separates into two strands. Each strand serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand, resulting in two identical DNA molecules. This process ensures that each daughter cell receives an exact copy of the parent cell's DNA during cell division.

    Rate this question:

  • 23. 

    _____ _____ is a specific type of enzyme, that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond. (Please observe your answers as indicated on your flashcards.)

    Correct Answer
    DNA Ligase, DNA ligase
    Explanation
    DNA Ligase is a specific type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in DNA replication and repair. It catalyzes the formation of a phosphodiester bond between the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA strands, joining them together. The correct answer, "DNA Ligase, DNA ligase," indicates that DNA Ligase is the enzyme responsible for this process. The repetition of the term emphasizes its importance and specificity in DNA strand joining.

    Rate this question:

  • 24. 

    Translation is the process through which various types of RNA molecules are at work. Please place a check-mark in the box for the molecules used during translation.

    • A.

      TRNA

    • B.

      TDNA

    • C.

      MRNA

    • D.

      MDNA

    • E.

      MRNA

    • F.

      RRNA

    • G.

      RDNA

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. TRNA
    C. MRNA
    E. MRNA
    F. RRNA
    Explanation
    During translation, the process of protein synthesis, different types of RNA molecules are involved. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is responsible for bringing amino acids to the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs. Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, serving as a template for protein synthesis. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a component of the ribosome itself, where it helps in the assembly of amino acids into proteins. Therefore, the correct answer is tRNA, mRNA, mRNA, rRNA.

    Rate this question:

  • 25. 

    _____ is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome.

    • A.

      MRNA

    • B.

      TRNA

    • C.

      RRNA

    • D.

      MitRNA

    Correct Answer
    A. MRNA
    Explanation
    mRNA, or messenger RNA, is a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA to the ribosome. It serves as a template for protein synthesis by providing the instructions for assembling amino acids in the correct order. Unlike other types of RNA, mRNA is single-stranded and can be translated into proteins by the ribosome. Therefore, mRNA is the correct answer for this question.

    Rate this question:

  • 26. 

    Initiate transcription of a gene by enabling binding of RNA polymerase to promoter DNA. Please select the correct step from the list below.

    • A.

      Step 1

    • B.

      Step 2

    • C.

      Step 3

    • D.

      Step 4

    • E.

      Step 5

    • F.

      Step 6

    Correct Answer
    A. Step 1
    Explanation
    Step 1 is the correct answer because it is the initial step in the process of initiating transcription. It involves the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter DNA, which is necessary for the transcription of the gene to begin.

    Rate this question:

  • 27. 

    Helicase enzymes move a transcription bubble, like the slider of a zipper, which splits the double DNA molecule. Please select the correct step from the list below.

    • A.

      Step 1

    • B.

      Step 2

    • C.

      Step 3

    • D.

      Step 4

    • E.

      Step 5

    • F.

      Step 6

    Correct Answer
    B. Step 2
  • 28. 

    RNA polymerase adds matching RNA nucleotides that are paired with complementary DNA nucleotides of one DNA strand. Please select the correct step from the list below.

    • A.

      Step 1

    • B.

      Step 2

    • C.

      Step 3

    • D.

      Step 4

    • E.

      Step 5

    • F.

      Step 6

    Correct Answer
    C. Step 3
    Explanation
    Step 3 is the correct step because it states that RNA polymerase adds matching RNA nucleotides that are paired with complementary DNA nucleotides of one DNA strand. This step is crucial in the process of transcription, where DNA is used as a template to synthesize RNA. RNA polymerase recognizes the DNA sequence and adds RNA nucleotides that are complementary to the DNA template strand, resulting in the formation of an RNA molecule.

    Rate this question:

  • 29. 

    RNA sugar-phosphate backbone forms with assistance from RNA polymerase to form an RNA strand. Please select the correct step from the list below.

    • A.

      Step 1

    • B.

      Step 2

    • C.

      Step 3

    • D.

      Step 4

    • E.

      Step 5

    • F.

      Step 6

    Correct Answer
    D. Step 4
    Explanation
    RNA polymerase assists in the formation of the RNA sugar-phosphate backbone during transcription. This process involves the addition of nucleotides to the growing RNA strand, with the sugar and phosphate groups linking together to form the backbone. Step 4 is the correct answer as it suggests that the formation of the RNA sugar-phosphate backbone occurs at this step.

    Rate this question:

  • 30. 

    Transcription Step 7: Hydrogen bonds of the untwisted RNA + DNA helix break, freeing the newly synthesized RNA strand.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because in transcription, the hydrogen bonds between the RNA and DNA strands do not break. Instead, the RNA polymerase enzyme separates the DNA strands, allowing the RNA polymerase to synthesize the RNA strand using one of the DNA strands as a template. The hydrogen bonds between the DNA strands remain intact throughout the process.

    Rate this question:

Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 14, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 31, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    John Mitchell
Back to Top Back to top
Advertisement