DNA, RNA, And Protein Synthesis Test A

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DNA, RNA, And Protein Synthesis Test A - Quiz

Welcome to the 21st Century electronic biology classroom. Using flashcards "DNA, RNA, & protein synthesis" found on Mitchell's Cosmic Adventure science web site. You will need to interpret important research leading to the current knowledge of molecular genetics. Analyze the process of DNA replication, transcription, and translation.
The test will allow unlimited number of attempts inorder to help you with learning and test-taking skills.
GOOD LUCK and I wish you earn high marks!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Each organism has a unique combination of characteristics encoded in molecules of_____.

    • A.

      Protein

    • B.

      Carbohydrate

    • C.

      Lipids

    • D.

      DNA

    • E.

      Enzymes

    • F.

      RNA

    Correct Answer
    D. DNA
    Explanation
    DNA is the correct answer because it is the molecule that carries the genetic information in all living organisms. It contains the instructions for the development, functioning, and reproduction of an organism. DNA is made up of nucleotides and is organized into genes, which determine the traits and characteristics of an organism. Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, enzymes, and RNA are all important molecules in cells, but DNA specifically encodes the unique combination of characteristics found in each organism.

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  • 2. 

    What is the primary function of DNA?

    • A.

      Compose carbohydrates

    • B.

      Compose lipids

    • C.

      Control chemical processes within cells

    • D.

      Store and transmit genetic data

    • E.

      Prevent mutations

    Correct Answer
    D. Store and transmit genetic data
    Explanation
    DNA's primary function is to store and transmit genetic data. It carries the instructions necessary for the development, functioning, and reproduction of all living organisms. DNA molecules contain genes, which are segments of DNA that encode specific traits and characteristics. Through processes like replication and transcription, DNA is able to pass on this genetic information from one generation to the next, ensuring the continuity and diversity of life. DNA is not involved in composing carbohydrates or lipids, controlling chemical processes within cells, or preventing mutations.

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  • 3. 

    Molecules of DNA are composed of long chains of_____.

    • A.

      Amino acids

    • B.

      Fatty acids

    • C.

      Monosaccharides

    • D.

      Nucleotides

    • E.

      Lipids

    Correct Answer
    D. Nucleotides
    Explanation
    Molecules of DNA are composed of long chains of nucleotides. Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA, consisting of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. These nucleotides link together through phosphodiester bonds to form the backbone of the DNA molecule. The sequence of these nucleotides along the DNA chain determines the genetic information encoded in the DNA molecule. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, fatty acids are components of lipids, monosaccharides are simple sugars, and lipids are a diverse group of molecules that include fats and oils.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following are not part of a molecule of DNA?   (Please give notice of multiple answers.)

    • A.

      Deoxyribose

    • B.

      Nitrogenous bases

    • C.

      Phosphate

    • D.

      Ribose

    • E.

      MRNA

    • F.

      Uracil

    Correct Answer(s)
    D. Ribose
    E. MRNA
    F. Uracil
    Explanation
    The correct answer is ribose, mRNA, and uracil. Ribose is a sugar that is found in RNA, not DNA. mRNA, or messenger RNA, is a type of RNA molecule that is involved in protein synthesis and is not a part of DNA. Uracil is a nitrogenous base that is found in RNA, but not in DNA. DNA instead contains the nitrogenous base thymine.

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  • 5. 

    The part of the molecule for which deoxyribonucleic acid is named is the_____.

    • A.

      Phosphate group

    • B.

      Sugar

    • C.

      Hydrogen bond number

    • D.

      Nitrogenous base

    • E.

      Frederick Griffith's experiment

    Correct Answer
    B. Sugar
    Explanation
    The correct answer is sugar because deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) gets its name from the sugar molecule it contains, which is called deoxyribose. DNA is composed of a sugar-phosphate backbone, with the nitrogenous bases attached to the sugar molecule. The sugar molecule plays a crucial role in the structure and stability of the DNA molecule.

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  • 6. 

    Refer to the illustration below. The entire molecule shown in the image is called a(n)_____.

    • A.

      Amino acid

    • B.

      Nucleotide

    • C.

      Polysaccharide

    • D.

      Pryimidine

    • E.

      Purine

    Correct Answer
    B. Nucleotide
    Explanation
    The correct answer is nucleotide. A nucleotide is a molecule that consists of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. In the given illustration, we can see all three components present in the molecule. The sugar is shown as the pentagon-shaped structure, the phosphate group is represented by the circle with a P, and the nitrogenous base is shown as the rectangular structure. Therefore, the entire molecule shown in the image is a nucleotide.

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  • 7. 

    Which scientists are credited with establishing the structure of DNA molecule?

    • A.

      Avery and Chargaff

    • B.

      Hershey and Chase

    • C.

      Mendel and Griffith

    • D.

      Watson and Crick

    • E.

      Crick and Chase

    Correct Answer
    D. Watson and Crick
    Explanation
    Watson and Crick are credited with establishing the structure of the DNA molecule. In 1953, they proposed the double helix structure of DNA, which consists of two strands that are twisted around each other. Their discovery was based on the work of other scientists, including Rosalind Franklin, Maurice Wilkins, and Linus Pauling. Watson and Crick's model of DNA provided a crucial understanding of how genetic information is stored and transmitted in living organisms.

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  • 8. 

    X-ray diffraction photographs by Franklin and Wilkins suggested that DNA and RNA are the same molecule.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because X-ray diffraction photographs by Franklin and Wilkins actually suggested that DNA and RNA are different molecules. Franklin and Wilkins' research provided evidence for the double helix structure of DNA, while also showing that RNA has a different structure. Therefore, the photographs did not suggest that DNA and RNA are the same molecule.

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  • 9. 

    X-Ray diffraction photographs by Franklin and Wilkins suggested that_____.

    • A.

      DNA and RNA are the same molecule

    • B.

      DNA is composed of either purines or pyrimidines, not both

    • C.

      DNa molecules are arranged as a tightly coiled helix

    • D.

      DNA and proteins have the same basic structure

    Correct Answer
    C. DNa molecules are arranged as a tightly coiled helix
    Explanation
    X-ray diffraction photographs by Franklin and Wilkins suggested that DNA molecules are arranged as a tightly coiled helix. This conclusion was based on the characteristic X-ray diffraction pattern observed in the photographs, which indicated a helical structure. This discovery played a crucial role in understanding the structure of DNA and ultimately led to the development of the double helix model by Watson and Crick.

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  • 10. 

    Crick and Watson built models that demonstrated....

    • A.

      DNA and RNA have the same structure

    • B.

      DNA is composed of 2 chains in a single helix

    • C.

      RNA is composed of 2 chains in a double helix

    • D.

      DNA is composed of 2 chains in a double helix

    • E.

      Thymine forms hydrogen bond to cytosine

    Correct Answer
    D. DNA is composed of 2 chains in a double helix
    Explanation
    The correct answer is DNA is composed of 2 chains in a double helix. Crick and Watson built models that demonstrated the structure of DNA as a double helix, with two chains of nucleotides running in opposite directions and held together by hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous bases. This discovery revolutionized our understanding of genetics and provided a basis for the replication and transmission of genetic information.

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  • 11. 

    Chargaff's rules, the base-pairing in DNA...  (Please note this is a multiple answer question.)

    • A.

      Amount of adenine equals amount of cytosine

    • B.

      Amount of guanine equals amount of cytosine

    • C.

      Amount of thymine equals amount of adenine

    • D.

      Amount of phosphate equals amount of uracil

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Amount of guanine equals amount of cytosine
    C. Amount of thymine equals amount of adenine
    Explanation
    Chargaff's rules state that in DNA, the amount of guanine (G) always equals the amount of cytosine (C), and the amount of thymine (T) always equals the amount of adenine (A). This is due to the complementary base pairing between these nucleotides. In DNA, G always pairs with C through three hydrogen bonds, and A always pairs with T through two hydrogen bonds. Therefore, the amounts of G and C are always equal, as well as the amounts of A and T.

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  • 12. 

    The base-pairing rules state that the following are base pairs in DNA:

    • A.

      Adenine - thymine; uracil - cytosine

    • B.

      Adenine - thymine; guanine - cytosine

    • C.

      Guanine - adenine; adenine - thymine

    • D.

      Adenine - uracil; guanine - cytosine

    Correct Answer
    B. Adenine - thymine; guanine - cytosine
    Explanation
    The correct answer is adenine - thymine; guanine - cytosine. This is because the base-pairing rules in DNA state that adenine always pairs with thymine, and guanine always pairs with cytosine. This is due to the complementary nature of the bases, where adenine and thymine form two hydrogen bonds between them, and guanine and cytosine form three hydrogen bonds between them.

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  • 13. 

    During DNA replication, a complementary strand of DNa is made for each original DNA strand. If a portion of the original strand is CCTAGCT, then the new strand will be_____.

    • A.

      TTGCATC

    • B.

      AAGTATC

    • C.

      CCTAGCT

    • D.

      GGATCGA

    • E.

      AGCTAGG

    Correct Answer
    D. GGATCGA
    Explanation
    During DNA replication, a complementary strand is created by pairing each nucleotide with its complementary base. In the original strand, the sequence is CCTAGCT. The complementary base for C is G, for T is A, for A is T, and for G is C. Therefore, the new strand will have the sequence GGATCGA, which is the correct answer.

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  • 14. 

    What enzyme is responsible for adding nucleotides to the exposed DNA template bases?

    • A.

      Replicases

    • B.

      DNA polymerases

    • C.

      RNA polymerases

    • D.

      Helicases

    • E.

      Nucleotidases

    Correct Answer
    B. DNA polymerases
    Explanation
    DNA polymerases are enzymes responsible for adding nucleotides to the exposed DNA template bases during DNA replication. These enzymes catalyze the formation of phosphodiester bonds between adjacent nucleotides, resulting in the synthesis of a new DNA strand complementary to the template strand. DNA polymerases are essential for accurate and efficient DNA replication, as they ensure the faithful transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next. Replicases, RNA polymerases, helicases, and nucleotidases do not have the specific function of adding nucleotides to the DNA template during replication.

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  • 15. 

    What is the function of tRNA?

    • A.

      Synthesize DNA

    • B.

      Synthesize RNA

    • C.

      Form ribosomes

    • D.

      Transfer amino acids to ribosomes

    • E.

      Transfer amino acids to nucleus

    Correct Answer
    D. Transfer amino acids to ribosomes
    Explanation
    tRNA, or transfer RNA, is responsible for transferring amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis. It acts as a carrier molecule, binding to a specific amino acid and then delivering it to the ribosome, where it is incorporated into the growing polypeptide chain. This process ensures that the correct amino acids are added in the correct order, as dictated by the sequence of the mRNA molecule. Therefore, the function of tRNA is to transfer amino acids to the ribosomes.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following types of RNA carries instructions for making proteins?

    • A.

      MRNA

    • B.

      TRNA

    • C.

      RRNA

    • D.

      MDNA

    • E.

      RDNA

    Correct Answer
    A. MRNA
    Explanation
    mRNA, or messenger RNA, carries the instructions for making proteins. It is synthesized from DNA during transcription and then travels from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where it is translated into proteins. mRNA carries the genetic code from the DNA to the ribosomes, which read the code and assemble the corresponding amino acids into a protein. tRNA, rRNA, mDNA, and rDNA do not carry instructions for making proteins.

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  • 17. 

    During translation, a ribosome binds to____.

    • A.

      DNA

    • B.

      MRNA

    • C.

      TRNA

    • D.

      Protein chain

    • E.

      RRNA

    Correct Answer
    B. MRNA
    Explanation
    During translation, a ribosome binds to mRNA. This is because mRNA carries the genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis. The ribosome reads the sequence of nucleotides on the mRNA molecule and translates it into a specific sequence of amino acids, forming a protein chain. Therefore, the binding of ribosome to mRNA is a crucial step in the process of protein synthesis.

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  • 18. 

    Identify the incorrect type of RNA from list the below.

    • A.

      Carrier RNA

    • B.

      Transfer RNA

    • C.

      Ribosomal RNA

    • D.

      Messenger RNA

    • E.

      Nuclear RNA

    Correct Answer
    A. Carrier RNA
    Explanation
    The incorrect type of RNA from the list provided is "carrier RNA." Carrier RNA is not a recognized type of RNA. The correct types of RNA are transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), and nuclear RNA (nRNA).

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  • 19. 

    In order for protein synthesis to occur, mRNA must migrate to the_____.  (Please enter your answer using all lower case letters.)

    Correct Answer
    ribosome, ribosomes
    Explanation
    Protein synthesis is the process by which cells make proteins. mRNA, or messenger RNA, carries the genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. Therefore, in order for protein synthesis to occur, mRNA must migrate to the ribosome or ribosomes. The ribosome is the site where the actual synthesis of proteins takes place, so it is crucial for mRNA to reach this organelle.

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  • 20. 

    Transcription is the process by which genetic information encoded in DNA is transferred to a(n)_____.

    • A.

      RNA molecule

    • B.

      DNA molecule

    • C.

      Transposon

    • D.

      Triple Codon

    • E.

      Lac operon

    Correct Answer
    A. RNA molecule
    Explanation
    Transcription is the process by which genetic information encoded in DNA is transferred to an RNA molecule. During transcription, a specific region of DNA is copied into a complementary RNA sequence, which can then be used to synthesize proteins. This process is essential for gene expression and plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular functions. RNA molecules act as messengers, carrying the genetic information from the DNA to the protein synthesis machinery in the cell.

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  • 21. 

    Hershey and Chase concluded that _____ is the hereditary material in viruses.  (Please enter your answers in upper case letters.)

    Correct Answer
    DNA
    Explanation
    Hershey and Chase concluded that DNA is the hereditary material in viruses. This conclusion was based on their famous experiment, known as the Hershey-Chase experiment, where they labeled the DNA and proteins of a virus with different radioactive isotopes. They found that only the DNA was transferred into the host cell, indicating that DNA is responsible for carrying genetic information in viruses.

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  • 22. 

    Martha Chase and Alfred Hershey set out to test whether DNA or protein was the hereditary material viruses transfer when it enters bacterium. Which one of the following aided their discovery to label DNA?

    • A.

      Radioactive sulfur

    • B.

      Radioactive calcium

    • C.

      Radioactive phosophorus

    • D.

      Radioactive carbon

    Correct Answer
    C. Radioactive phosophorus
    Explanation
    Martha Chase and Alfred Hershey used radioactive phosphorus to label DNA in their experiment. By infecting bacteria with viruses that had radioactive phosphorus-labeled DNA, they were able to track the transfer of genetic material. This allowed them to conclude that DNA, not protein, was the hereditary material transferred by viruses.

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  • 23. 

    Instead of the base thymine found in DNA, RNA has a base called a(n)_____.  (Please use lower case letters for your answer.)

    Correct Answer
    uracil
    Explanation
    RNA has a base called uracil instead of thymine found in DNA. Thymine and uracil are both pyrimidine bases, but they differ in structure. Thymine has a methyl group attached to its ring structure, while uracil lacks this methyl group. This structural difference allows RNA to form complementary base pairs with adenine using uracil, instead of thymine. Uracil pairs with adenine through hydrogen bonding, similar to how thymine pairs with adenine in DNA. Therefore, uracil plays a crucial role in RNA's ability to carry out its functions in protein synthesis and other cellular processes.

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  • 24. 

    What is the name of the five-carbon sugar that makes up a part of the backbone of DNA molecules_____?  (Please use all lower case letters in your answer.)

    Correct Answer
    deoxyribose
    Explanation
    Deoxyribose is the correct answer because it is a five-carbon sugar that is a key component of the DNA molecule's backbone. It forms the structural framework of DNA, linking together the nucleotide units through phosphodiester bonds. Deoxyribose is unique to DNA and is absent in RNA, where ribose is the sugar component.

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  • 25. 

    _____ _____ is the first codon of an mRNA transcript translated by a ribosome.

    • A.

      Avery Codon

    • B.

      Chase Codon

    • C.

      Start Codon

    • D.

      Hershey Codon

    • E.

      Franklin Codon

    Correct Answer
    C. Start Codon
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Start Codon". The start codon is the first codon of an mRNA transcript that is recognized by the ribosome during translation. It signals the beginning of protein synthesis and is usually represented by the codon AUG.

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