Trivia Quiz: Molecular Genetics And Diagnostics

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Diagnostic Quizzes & Trivia

Molecular genetics is the branch of biology in which the scientific study of the structure and function of genes are done at a molecular level and engages methods of both molecular biology and genetics. To understand and diagnose genetic disorders, variations, mutations, its necessary to know about Molecular Genetics. This quiz has been designed to test your knowledge about the diagnosis of genetic diseases. Read the questions carefully. And learn more!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    To detect large deletions use

    • A.

      Southern blot or FISH

    • B.

      Southern blot with ASO

    • C.

      DNA sequencing

    • D.

      Northern blot

    • E.

      Western blot

    Correct Answer
    A. Southern blot or FISH
    Explanation
    To detect large deletions, Southern blot or FISH can be used. Southern blot is a technique that involves the separation of DNA fragments by gel electrophoresis, followed by transfer to a membrane and hybridization with a labeled probe. This technique can detect the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences, including large deletions. FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization) is a cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes to bind to specific DNA sequences on chromosomes. It can be used to visualize and detect large deletions in the chromosomes. Both techniques are commonly used in molecular biology to detect genetic abnormalities.

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  • 2. 

    To detect many possible mutations

    • A.

      Use a DNA chip

    • B.

      Use PCR hybridization followed by a panel of ASO

    • C.

      Use DNA sequencing

    • D.

      A and B only

    • E.

      A,B, and C

    Correct Answer
    E. A,B, and C
    Explanation
    To detect many possible mutations, using a DNA chip, PCR hybridization followed by a panel of ASO, and DNA sequencing are all viable options. A DNA chip allows for the simultaneous detection of multiple mutations in a single experiment. PCR hybridization followed by a panel of ASO (allele-specific oligonucleotide) can identify specific mutations by hybridizing the PCR product with specific probes. DNA sequencing provides the most comprehensive approach by directly sequencing the DNA to identify any mutations present. Therefore, options A, B, and C are all suitable methods for detecting many possible mutations.

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  • 3. 

    Aminocentesis and Chorionic villus sampling are used for ___________________________

    • A.

      Preimplantation genetic diagnostics

    • B.

      Prenatal diagnosis

    • C.

      IVF

    • D.

      Sex determination

    Correct Answer
    B. Prenatal diagnosis
    Explanation
    Aminocentesis and Chorionic villus sampling are both medical procedures used during pregnancy to diagnose genetic disorders or abnormalities in the fetus. These tests involve collecting samples of cells from the amniotic fluid or the placenta, respectively, and analyzing them for any chromosomal or genetic abnormalities. Therefore, they are specifically used for prenatal diagnosis, allowing healthcare professionals to provide appropriate medical care or counseling to expectant parents based on the test results.

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  • 4. 

    Children should be tested for adult-onset genetic diseases

    • A.

      When they're born

    • B.

      If there is timely medical benefit to the child

    • C.

      After the age of 5

    • D.

      At puberty

    • E.

      When they turn 13

    Correct Answer
    B. If there is timely medical benefit to the child
    Explanation
    The correct answer is if there is timely medical benefit to the child. This means that children should only be tested for adult-onset genetic diseases if there is a potential medical benefit that can be provided to them in a timely manner. This suggests that testing should be done when there is a clear advantage to the child's health and well-being, rather than simply testing for the sake of knowing their genetic predispositions.

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  • 5. 

    The most common CF mutation is:

    • A.

      Delta F508

    • B.

      G542X

    • C.

      R553X

    • D.

      W1282X

    • E.

      N1303K

    Correct Answer
    A. Delta F508
    Explanation
    Delta F508 is the most common CF mutation because it is a deletion of three nucleotides in the CFTR gene, resulting in the loss of a phenylalanine residue at position 508. This mutation leads to a misfolded and dysfunctional CFTR protein, which impairs the movement of chloride ions across cell membranes. As a result, the mucus in the respiratory and digestive systems becomes thick and sticky, leading to the characteristic symptoms of cystic fibrosis. The Delta F508 mutation accounts for approximately 70% of all CFTR mutations and is found in people of various ethnic backgrounds.

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  • 6. 

    An ASO (allele specific oligonucleotide) is

    • A.

      A short DNA probe that will specifically hybridize to either the normal gene sequence or to a particular mutant sequence

    • B.

      Used to detect specific mutations in known disease genes

    • C.

      Hybridization of a DNA probe to a target specimen

    • D.

      Technique for tracking a mutant gene within a family

    • E.

      Technique for probing gene structure

    Correct Answer
    A. A short DNA probe that will specifically hybridize to either the normal gene sequence or to a particular mutant sequence
    Explanation
    An ASO (allele specific oligonucleotide) is a short DNA probe that is used to detect specific mutations in known disease genes. It specifically hybridizes to either the normal gene sequence or to a particular mutant sequence, allowing for the identification of specific genetic variations associated with diseases. This technique is commonly used in genetic testing and research to identify and track mutations within families or populations.

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  • 7. 

    There are ________ different kinds of amino acids.

    • A.

      20

    • B.

      46

    • C.

      100

    • D.

      20,000-25,000

    Correct Answer
    A. 20
    Explanation
    There are 20 different kinds of amino acids.

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  • 8. 

    The most massive molecules in our bodies are:

    • A.

      Chromosomes

    • B.

      Proteins

    • C.

      Chromosomes

    • D.

      Amino acids

    Correct Answer
    A. Chromosomes
    Explanation
    Chromosomes are the most massive molecules in our bodies. They are composed of DNA and proteins, and they carry our genetic information. Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of our cells and play a crucial role in cell division and inheritance. Proteins, on the other hand, are macromolecules made up of amino acids and are involved in various cellular functions, but they are not as massive as chromosomes. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are smaller molecules compared to both chromosomes and proteins.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following statements is true about DNA?

    • A.

      At the beginning of protein synthesis, a section of a DNA molecule unwinds and unzips.

    • B.

      All of our DNA is normally located in the nucleus of our cells

    • C.

      DNA is composed of amino acids, phosphates, sugars, and bases.

    Correct Answer
    A. At the beginning of protein synthesis, a section of a DNA molecule unwinds and unzips.
    Explanation
    At the beginning of protein synthesis, a section of a DNA molecule unwinds and unzips. This is true because during the process of protein synthesis, the DNA molecule needs to be accessed in order to transcribe the genetic information into RNA. The unwinding and unzipping of the DNA molecule allows the RNA polymerase enzyme to bind to the DNA strand and initiate the transcription process. This step is essential for the synthesis of proteins as it provides access to the genetic information encoded in the DNA molecule.

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