AP Molecular Genetics Review

28 Questions | Total Attempts: 41

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AP Molecular Genetics Review

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    In nature, the purpose of restriction enzymes is to
    • A. 

      Protect the bacterium from virus attack by not allowing the virus to attach to the cell wall.

    • B. 

      Protect the bacterium from the DNA of other organisms the bacterium infects.

    • C. 

      Protect the bacterium from replicating its DNA at the wrong time.

    • D. 

      Protect the bacterium from virus attack by cutting up foreign DNA.

  • 2. 
    Restriction enzymes
    • A. 

      Bind together strands of DNA.

    • B. 

      Bind RNA fragments together.

    • C. 

      Cut DNA at specific sites.

    • D. 

      Stop transcription.

  • 3. 
    DNA ligase binds
    • A. 

      Introns together.

    • B. 

      Exons together.

    • C. 

      Polymerase to the promoter.

    • D. 

      Nucleotides together.

  • 4. 
    Based upon the picture provided, which of these are most likely to be true.
    • A. 

      The defendant may be not guilty. The recovered blood has too many bands.

    • B. 

      The defendant may be not guilty. The defendant's blood has one band not seen in the blood sample from the clothes.

    • C. 

      The defendant may be guilty. The bands from the blood on the clothes matches with the ones from the victim's blood.

    • D. 

      The defendant is may be guilty. The defendant's blood has one band not seen in the blood sample from the clothes.

  • 5. 
    A vector is
    • A. 

      Used to carry foreign genes or DNA fragments.

    • B. 

      Divided by the charge of the DNA.

    • C. 

      Carries restriction enzymes to their restriction sites.

    • D. 

      Only used in matching DNA samples.

  • 6. 
    What is the goal of transcription?
    • A. 

      To make ribosomes

    • B. 

      To make DNA

    • C. 

      To make a copy of DNA using mRNA

  • 7. 
    If you have a strand of DNA with the nitrogen bases of T A G    G C A   T C A, what would the mRNA look like?
    • A. 

      A U C G C T A G T

    • B. 

      A U G G C T T C A

    • C. 

      A U C C G U A G U

  • 8. 
    Messenger RNA (mRNA) can be best described as:
    • A. 

      A really cool way of rewriting RNA

    • B. 

      The atom that carries information to an RNA template

    • C. 

      A short lived RNA molecule that carries encoded information, transcribed from DNA.

    • D. 

      A chromosome that is only present in prokaryotes and is involved in DNA synthesis

    • E. 

      A molecule that has no life and is basically the news reporter of the cellular environment.

  • 9. 
    A gene is:
    • A. 

      A piece of clothing that is placed upon the bipedal legs of human.

    • B. 

      A chromosome carrier

    • C. 

      A section of DNA that codes for a protein or RNA molecule.

    • D. 

      A regulatory sequence

    • E. 

      An exon

  • 10. 
    What type of bond forms between complementary base pairs?
    • A. 

      Hydrogen

    • B. 

      Covalent

    • C. 

      Ionic

    • D. 

      Interkinetic

    • E. 

      Philial

  • 11. 
    What does PCR stand for?
    • A. 

      Pretty Crazy Racoon

    • B. 

      Protein Catalyse Reaction

    • C. 

      Polymerase Chain Reaction

    • D. 

      Phosopholipid Chitin Reasoning

  • 12. 
    The lac operon of E. coli is transcribed when:
    • A. 

      Lactose is present.

    • B. 

      Repressor protein is bound to the operator.

    • C. 

      Allolactose binds to the promoter.

    • D. 

      All of the above.

  • 13. 
    The diagram below represents Griffith's experiment on mice. Which of the following would be a logical conclusion to this experiment?
    • A. 

      The rough strain of bacteria is deadly after all.

    • B. 

      The rough strain of bacteria must have mutated to become deadly.

    • C. 

      Something inside the bacteria has the ability to instruct and control what the bacteria does. Therefore, changing a bacteria's behaviors if engulfed by that bacteria.

    • D. 

      Proteins inside the bacteria must have a transforming ability.

  • 14. 
    The following diagram represents what Hershey and Chase experimented in the 1950's. Which of the following hypotheses did they test and confirm? (make sure all the hypothesis is a true hypothesis first!)
    • A. 

      If DNA is truly the hereditary material emitted into the bacteria, then radioactively marked DNA will show up in the bacteria, not in the external liquid following the virus' activity.

    • B. 

      If a relationship exists between a virus' DNA and protein, then marking the protein with radioactive material will help identify the bacteria's life cycle.

    • C. 

      If a relationship exists between DNA and its ability to be transmitted, then tracking the DNA with radioactive material will note how the bacteria was changed in the mice.

    • D. 

      Protein and DNA could possibly be related to hereditary behaviors and therefore, marking each one will help identify which one causes the bacteria to be transformed.

  • 15. 
    Because one original strand of the double-stranded helix is found in each daughter cell, the replication process is called
    • A. 

      Proofreading.

    • B. 

      Semiconservative.

    • C. 

      Redundant.

    • D. 

      Freeing of DNA.

    • E. 

      Mutation positive.

  • 16. 
    Where does post-translational control take place?
    • A. 

      Nucleus

    • B. 

      Cytoplasm

  • 17. 
    To start the transciption process a large molecule ___, recognizes a _____.
    • A. 

      DNA polymerase; messenger RNA

    • B. 

      RNA polymerase; promoter site

    • C. 

      RNA polymerase: messenger RNA

    • D. 

      DNA polymerase; promoter site

  • 18. 
    Deletions and Substitutions are two types of point mutation. Which type is more likely to cause mistranslations of proteins?
    • A. 

      Substitution because they shift the reading frame and cause downstream amino acids to be changed.

    • B. 

      Deletions, because they shift the reading frame and downstream amino acids to be changed.

    • C. 

      Deletions because one protein is deleted.

    • D. 

      None of the above is correct

  • 19. 
    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR):
    • A. 

      Makes it possible to create huge numbers of copies of tiny pieces of DNA

    • B. 

      Utilizes RNA messenger RNA molecules from small pieces of DNA

    • C. 

      Can create messenger RNA molecules from small pieces of DNA

    • D. 

      Enables researchers to determine the sequence of a complementary strand of DNA when they have only single-stranded DNA

  • 20. 
    Regulatory proteins shut off transcription by binding to a site immediately in front of the promoter and often even overlapping the promotor. This site is referred to as the
    • A. 

      Suppressor site.

    • B. 

      Operator site.

    • C. 

      Repressor site.

    • D. 

      Regulatory site.

    • E. 

      Transcriptional control site.

  • 21. 
    RNA polymerase binds to a site on DNA called the
    • A. 

      Operator.

    • B. 

      Repressor.

    • C. 

      Footprint.

    • D. 

      Promoter.

    • E. 

      Operon.

  • 22. 
    Which of the following must happen for transcription to be initiated?
    • A. 

      DNA polymerase must have access to the DNA double helix and also must be capable of binding to the gene's promoter.

    • B. 

      RNA polymerase must have access to the DNA double helix and also must be capable of binding to the gene's promoter.

    • C. 

      DNA polymerase must have access to the RNA and also must be capable of binding to the gene's promoter.

    • D. 

      DNA ligase must have access to the DNA double helix and also must be capable of binding to the gene's promoter.

    • E. 

      DNA kinase must have access to the DNA double helix and also must be capable of binding to the gene's promoter.

  • 23. 
    Which lane(s) have the longest sections of DNA?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      1&2

    • D. 

      1, 2, and 3

    • E. 

      3&4

  • 24. 
    If the DNA sample being digested lane 1 was a bacterial plasmid, how many cuts were made by the restriction enzyme?
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      3

    • C. 

      4

    • D. 

      5

  • 25. 
    Which one do you like?
    • A. 

      Option 1

    • B. 

      Option 2

    • C. 

      Option 3

    • D. 

      Option 4

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