CSQA Prep - Chapter 7 Quality Control Practices

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CSQA Quizzes & Trivia

This quiz goes over chapter 7 of the CBOK for the CSQA exam.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What are the 4 main testing stages (7.2/7.3)

    • A.

      System

    • B.

      UAT

    • C.

      End to End

    • D.

      Unit

    • E.

      Integration

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. System
    B. UAT
    D. Unit
    E. Integration
    Explanation
    There are four main testing stages in a structured software development process. They are:
    Unit Testing
    These tests demonstrate that a single program, module, or unit of code function as designed.
    For example, observing the result when pressing a function key to complete an action. Tested
    units are ready for testing with other system components such as other software units,
    hardware, documentation, or users.
    Integration Testing
    These tests are conducted on tasks that involve more than one application or database, or on
    related programs, modules, or units of code, to validate that multiple parts of the system
    interact according to the system design. Each integrated portion of the system is then ready for
    testing with other parts of the system.
    System Testing
    These tests simulate operation of the entire system and confirm that it runs correctly. Upon
    completion, the validated system requirements result in a tested system based on the
    specification developed or purchased.
    User Acceptance Testing
    This real-world test is the most important to the business, and it cannot be conducted in
    isolation. Internal staff, customers, vendor, or other users interact with the system to ensure that
    it will function as desired regardless of the system requirements. The result is a tested system
    based on user needs.

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  • 2. 

    Independent test team is comprised of: (choose 3)(7.4)

    • A.

      Test Owner

    • B.

      Additional Testers

    • C.

      Key Testers

    • D.

      Test Manager

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Additional Testers
    C. Key Testers
    D. Test Manager
    Explanation
    An independent test team is usually comprised of a Test Manager or team leader, Key Testers, and
    additional Testers.

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  • 3. 

    Name one thing that the Testers are not responsible for (7.4)

    • A.

      Planning, capturing and conditioning test data

    • B.

      Executing Tests

    • C.

      Preparing test documentation

    • D.

      Updating analyst and design artifacts

    • E.

      Tracking and reporting defects

    Correct Answer
    D. Updating analyst and design artifacts
    Explanation
    Testers are usually responsible for:
    • Developing test cases and procedures
    • Planning, capturing, and conditioning test data
    • Reviewing analysis and design artifacts
    • Executing tests
    • Utilizing automated test tools for regression testing
    • Preparing test documentation
    • Tracking and reporting defects

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  • 4. 

    What is the definition of validation (7.5)

    • A.

      Ensures the system operates

    • B.

      Ensures the system operates according to plan

    • C.

      Ensures the system is defect free

    Correct Answer
    B. Ensures the system operates according to plan
    Explanation
    Validation physically ensures that the system operates according to plan

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  • 5. 

    What is the definition of verification (7.5)

    • A.

      Ensures the system complies with the plan

    • B.

      Ensures the system is compliant

    • C.

      Ensures the system is organized

    • D.

      Ensures the system complies with an organization standard and process

    Correct Answer
    D. Ensures the system complies with an organization standard and process
    Explanation
    Verification ensures that the system (software, hardware, documentation, and personnel) complies
    with an organization’s standards and processes,

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  • 6. 

    Verification requires 5 types of reviews.  Which one is not one of the review types? (7.5)

    • A.

      Code inspection

    • B.

      Design

    • C.

      Test Review

    • D.

      Functional

    • E.

      Requirements

    Correct Answer
    D. Functional
    Explanation
    Verification requires several types of reviews, including requirements reviews, design reviews,
    code walkthroughs, code inspections, and test reviews.

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  • 7. 

    True or false Static testing is done with executing code (7.5)

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Static testing is another name for in-process reviewing. It means that the test is being performed
    without executing the code

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  • 8. 

    What is the definition of stress test? (7.9)

    • A.

      Tests the systems ability to process very large amounts of data

    • B.

      Tests the built in constraints of the system such as internal table size

    • C.

      Tests the systems ability to meet performance standards

    Correct Answer
    B. Tests the built in constraints of the system such as internal table size
    Explanation
    stress testing tests the built-in constraints of the system, such as internal table size

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  • 9. 

    What is the definition of Volume testing? (7.9)

    • A.

      Tests the systems ability to process very large amounts of data

    • B.

      Tests the systems ability to meet performance standards

    • C.

      Tests the built in constraints of the system such as internal table size

    Correct Answer
    A. Tests the systems ability to process very large amounts of data
    Explanation
    volume testing tests the system’s ability in an operating environment to process very large amounts
    of data.

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  • 10. 

    What is the definition of performance testing? (7.9)

    • A.

      Tests the build in constraints of the system such as internal table size

    • B.

      Tests the systems ability to process very large amounts of data

    • C.

      Tests the systems ability to meet performance standards

    Correct Answer
    C. Tests the systems ability to meet performance standards
    Explanation
    Performance testing tests the systems ability to meet performance standards

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  • 11. 

    What are the 3 types of review formats? (7.10)

    • A.

      Informal, Semiformal, Formal

    • B.

      Unofficial, Proper, Reserved

    • C.

      Start, Mid, Final

    Correct Answer
    A. Informal, Semiformal, Formal
    Explanation
    There are three review formats as follows:
    Informal Review
    This review is generally a one-on-one meeting between the producer of a work product and a
    peer or co-worker, and is initiated as a request for input regarding a particular artifact or
    problem. There is no agenda, no preparation time, and results are not formally reported. These
    reviews occur on an as needed basis throughout each phase of a project.
    Semiformal Review (or Walkthrough)
    This review is facilitated by the producer of the material being reviewed (e.g., documentation
    or code). The participants are led through the material in one of two formats: the presentation is
    made without interruptions and comments are given at the end, or comments are made
    throughout. In either case, the issues raised are captured and published in a report distributed to
    the participants. Possible solutions for uncovered defects are typically not discussed during the
    review. Semiformal reviews should occur multiple times during a phase for segments or
    “packages” of work.
    Formal Review (or Inspection)
    This review is facilitated by a knowledgeable individual called a moderator, who is not the
    producer or a team member of the product under review. The meeting is planned in advance,
    and material is distributed to participants before the review so they will be familiar with the

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  • 12. 

    There are 3 rules that apply to all reviews, which one is not one of them?  (7.11)

    • A.

      All members of the review team are responsible for the results of the review

    • B.

      Identify who is going to be accountable for what actions.

    • C.

      The product is reviewed not the producer

    • D.

      Defects and issues are identified, not corrected during the session

    Correct Answer
    B. Identify who is going to be accountable for what actions.
    Explanation
    Regardless of the format, three rules apply to all reviews:
    1. The product is reviewed, not the producer
    2. Defects and issues are identified, not corrected during the session
    3. All members of the review team are responsible for the results of the review

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  • 13. 

    This type of review is used to examine a product during a specific time period of it's life cycle. (7.11)

    • A.

      Checkpoint

    • B.

      In Process

    • C.

      Phase End

    • D.

      Test Readiness

    Correct Answer
    B. In Process
    Explanation
    In-Process reviews are used to examine a product during a specific time period of its life cycle,

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  • 14. 

    This review's objective is to evaluate a system as it is being specified, designed, implemented and tested. (7.11)

    • A.

      Critical Design

    • B.

      In Process

    • C.

      Software Requirements

    • D.

      Checkpoint

    Correct Answer
    D. Checkpoint
    Explanation
    Checkpoint Reviews
    These are facilitated reviews held at predetermined points in the development process. The
    objective is to evaluate a system as it is being specified, designed, implemented, and tested.

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  • 15. 

    This review looks at the product for the main purpose of determining whether to continue with planned activities. (7.11)

    • A.

      Checkpoint Reviews

    • B.

      Phase End Review

    • C.

      Critical Design Review

    • D.

      Test Readiness Review

    Correct Answer
    B. Phase End Review
    Explanation
    Phase-end reviews (also called Decision-Point or Gate reviews) look at the product for the main
    purpose of determining whether to continue with planned activities

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  • 16. 

    This review verifies and approved the documented software requirements for the purpose of establishing a baseline and identifying analysis package (7.12)

    • A.

      Test Readiness Review

    • B.

      Critical Design Review

    • C.

      Software Requirements Review

    • D.

      Checkpoint Review

    Correct Answer
    C. Software Requirements Review
    Explanation
    Software Requirements Review
    This review is aimed at verifying and approving the documented software requirements for the
    purpose of establishing a baseline and identifying analysis packages

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  • 17. 

    This review baselines the detailed design specification (7.12)

    • A.

      In Process Review

    • B.

      Test Readiness Review

    • C.

      Checkpoint Review

    • D.

      Critical Design Review

    Correct Answer
    D. Critical Design Review
    Explanation
    Critical Design Review
    This review baselines the Detailed Design Specification (the “build to” document).

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  • 18. 

    This review is performed when the appropriate application components are near completion.  It determines the readiness of the application or project for system and acceptance testing.(7.12)

    • A.

      Phase End Review

    • B.

      Test Readiness Review

    • C.

      Critical Design Review

    • D.

      In Process Review

    Correct Answer
    B. Test Readiness Review
    Explanation
    Test Readiness Review
    This review is performed when the appropriate application components are near completion.
    The review determines the readiness of the application or project for system and acceptance
    testing.

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  • 19. 

    Validation represents __________ Testing (7.20)

    Correct Answer
    Dynamic
    dynamic
    DYNAMIC
    Explanation
    Verification and validation represents both static testing (verification) and dynamic testing
    (validation).

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  • 20. 

    Verification represents ___________ Testing (7.20)

    Correct Answer
    Static
    STATIC
    static
    Explanation
    Verification and validation represents both static testing (verification) and dynamic testing
    (validation).

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  • 21. 

    What are the different types of verification techniques? (7.20)

    • A.

      Code Walk Thru's

    • B.

      Design Walk Thru's

    • C.

      Requirements tracing

    • D.

      Feasability Reviews

    • E.

      Code Inspections

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Code Walk Thru's
    C. Requirements tracing
    D. Feasability Reviews
    E. Code Inspections
    Explanation
    Verification Techniques
    Verification is the process of confirming that interim deliverables have been developed according
    to their inputs, process specifications, and standards. Verification techniques are listed below.
    Quality Control Practices
    Version 6.2 7-21
    Feasibility Reviews
    Tests for this structural element verify the logic flow of a unit of software (e.g., verifying that
    the software could conceivably perform after the solution is implemented the way the
    developers expect). Output from this review is a preliminary statement of high-level market
    requirements that becomes input to the requirements definition process (where the detailed
    technical requirements are produced).
    Requirements Reviews
    These reviews examine system requirements to ensure they are feasible and that they meet the
    stated needs of the user. They also verify software relationships; for example, the structural
    limits of how much load (e.g., transactions or number of concurrent users) a system can handle.
    Output from this review is a statement of requirements ready to be translated into system
    design.
    Design Reviews
    These structural tests include study and discussion of the system design to ensure it will support
    the system requirements. Design reviews yield a system design, ready to be translated into
    software, hardware configurations, documentation and training.
    Code Walkthroughs
    These are informal, semi-structured reviews of the program source code against specifications
    and standards to find defects and verify coding techniques. When done, the computer software
    is ready for testing or more detailed code inspections by the developer.
    Code Inspections or Structured Walkthroughs
    These test techniques use a formal, highly structured session to review the program source code
    against clearly defined criteria (System Design Specifications, product standards) to find
    defects. Completion of the inspection results in computer software ready for testing by the
    developer.
    Requirements Tracing
    At each stage of the life cycle (beginning with requirements or stakeholder needs) this review is
    used to verify that inputs to that stage are correctly translated and represented in the resulting
    deliverables. Requirements must be traced throughout the rest of the software development life
    cycle to ensure they are delivered in the final product. This is accomplished by tracing the
    functional and non-functional requirements into analysis and design models, class and sequence diagrams, and test plans and code. The level of traceability also enables project teams
    to track the status of each requirement throughout the development and test process.

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  • 22. 

    When you can see everything from branch to branch that is called __________ box testing (7.22)

    Correct Answer(s)
    White
    white
    WHITE
    Explanation
    White-box testing (logic driven) assumes that the path of logic in a unit or program is known.
    White-box testing consists of testing paths, branch by branch, to produce predictable results.

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  • 23. 

    Name some different types of Validation Techniques (7.22)

    • A.

      System Test

    • B.

      String Test

    • C.

      Acceptance Test

    • D.

      Integraions Test

    • E.

      Unit Test

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. System Test
    B. String Test
    C. Acceptance Test
    D. Integraions Test
    E. Unit Test
    Explanation
    Table 7-4 Validation Techniques Used in Test Stages
    Unit Test
    String/Integration Test
    System Test
    Acceptance Test

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  • 24. 

    The Post Implementation review focuses on what questions (choose 2)  (7.12)

    • A.

      Did we overspend our budget?

    • B.

      Was the quality what we expected?

    • C.

      Did we make it on schedule?

    • D.

      Did the process work?

    • E.

      Was there any fallout?

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Was the quality what we expected?
    D. Did the process work?
    Explanation
    Post-Implementation Reviews
    Post-implementation reviews (also known as "postmortems") are conducted in a formal format up
    to six months after implementation is complete, in order to audit the process based on actual results.
    They are held to assess the success of the overall process after release, and to identify any
    opportunities for process improvement.
    These reviews focus on questions such as: “Is the quality what was expected?” “Did the process
    work?” “Would buying a tool have improved the process?” or “Would automation have sped up
    the process?” Post-implementation reviews are of value only if some use is made of the findings.
    The quality assurance practitioner draws significant insight into the processes used and their
    behaviors.

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  • 25. 

    There are 16 types of software systems name 3 of them (7.15)

    • A.

      Process Control

    • B.

      Data Manipulation

    • C.

      Computer Hardware

    • D.

      Sensor and Signal Processing

    • E.

      Advanced Mathmatical Models

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Process Control
    D. Sensor and Signal Processing
    E. Advanced Mathmatical Models
    Explanation
    There
    are sixteen different software system types; however, a single software system may incorporate
    more than one of these types. Identifying the specific combinations of software making up the
    project can help analyze lessons learned on past projects with similar types of software.
    Project Type Characteristics Test Tactics
    Traditional system
    development (and most
    perfective maintenance)
    Uses a system development methodology
    User knows requirements
    Development determines structure
    Test at end of each task, step and phase
    Verify that specs match need
    Test function and structure
    Iterative development,
    prototyping, CASE
    Requirements unknown
    Structure predefined
    Verify that CASE tools are used properly
    Test functionality
    System maintenance Modify structure
    Test structure
    Works best with release methods
    Requires regression testing
    Purchased or contracted
    software
    Structure unknown
    May contain defects
    Functionality defined in user documentation
    Documentation may vary from software
    Test functionality
    Verify functionality matches need
    Test fit into environment
    Batch (General) Can be run as a normal batch job and makes no unusual
    hardware or input-output actions (e.g., payroll program
    and wind tunnel data analysis program).
    Event Control Processes real-time data from external events, such as a
    computer program that processes telemetry data.
    Process Control Receives data from an external source and issues commands
    to that source to control its actions based on the
    received data.
    Procedure Control Controls other software; for example, an operating system
    that controls execution of time-shared and batch
    computer programs.
    Advanced Mathematical Models
    Resembles simulation and business strategy software,
    but has the additional complexity of heavy use of
    mathematics.
    Message Processing Handles input and output messages, processing the
    text, or information contained therein.
    Diagnostic Software Detects and isolates hardware errors in the computer
    where it resides, or in other hardware that can communicate
    with that computer.
    Sensor and Signal Processing Similar to message processing, but it requires greater
    processing to analyze and transform the input into a
    usable data processing format.
    Simulation Simulates an environment, mission situation, or other
    hardware. Uses inputs from these to enable a more
    realistic evaluation of a computer program or a piece of
    hardware.
    Database Management Manages the storage and access of (typically large)
    groups of data. Such software can also prepare reports
    in user-defined formats based on the contents of the
    database.
    Data Acquisition Receives information in real-time and stores it in some
    form suitable for later processing; for example, software
    that receives data from a space probe and files it
    for later analysis.
    Data Presentation Formats and transforms data, as necessary, for convenient
    and understanding displays; typically, such displays
    would be for some screen presentation.
    Decision and Planning Aids Uses artificial intelligence techniques to provide an
    expert system to evaluate data and provide additional
    information and consideration for decision and policy
    makers.
    Pattern and Image Processing Generates and processes computer images; such software
    may analyze terrain data and generate images
    based on stored data.
    Computer System Software Provides services to operational computer programs
    (i.e., coordinates processing of components required to
    meet need).
    Software Development Tools Provides services to aid in the development of software
    (e.g., compilers, assemblers, static and dynamic analyzers).

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  • 26. 

    Tactical risks are divided into 3 categories, what are they? (7.17)

    • A.

      Structure, technical, resource

    • B.

      Size, technical, structure

    • C.

      Resource, timeline, knowledge

    Correct Answer
    B. Size, technical, structure
    Explanation
    Tactical risks are divided into three categories:
    • Structural Risks
    • Technical Risks
    • Size risks

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  • 27. 

    The risks assoicated with the application and the methodes used to build it are called _______ risks

    Correct Answer
    structural
    Structural
    Explanation
    • Structural Risks
    These risks are associated with the application and the methods used to build it.

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  • 28. 

    When determining when testing should occur there are 4 phases, which one listed is not one of them? (7.18)

    • A.

      Maintenance

    • B.

      Program

    • C.

      Test

    • D.

      Design

    • E.

      Maintenance

    Correct Answer
    D. Design
    Explanation
    For new development projects, testing can, and should, occur throughout the phases of a project.
    For modifications to existing systems, any or all of these may be applicable, depending on the
    scope. Examples of test activities to be performed during these phases are:
    Requirements Phase Activities
    Program (Build) Phase Activities
    Test Phase Activities
    Maintenance Phase Activities

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  • 29. 

    The "V" model of testing shows two development paths which are the two sides of the "V".  these 2 proceses are:  (7.8)

    • A.

      Developmental process and test process

    • B.

      Test planning process and test execution process

    • C.

      Requirements development process and programming process

    • D.

      Test planning process and acceptance test planning process

    • E.

      System design process and system programming process

    Correct Answer
    A. Developmental process and test process
    Explanation
    The life cycle testing concept is illustrated in Figure 7-1. This illustration shows that when the
    project starts, both the system development process and system test process begins. The team that
    is developing the system begins the systems development process and the team that is conducting
    the system test begins planning the system test process. Both teams start at the same point using the
    same information. The systems development team has the responsibility to define and document
    the requirements for developmental purposes. The test team will likewise use those same
    requirements, but for the purpose of testing the system. At appropriate points during the
    developmental process, the test team will test the developmental process in an attempt to uncover
    defects. The test team should use the structured testing techniques outlined in this guide as a basis
    of evaluating the system development process deliverables.
    Figure

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  • 30. 

    Testers are responsible for: (choose more than 1) 7.4

    • A.

      Test execution

    • B.

      Developing test cases and procedures

    • C.

      Preparing test documentation

    • D.

      Defect reoprting

    • E.

      Reviewing analyst and design artifacts

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Test execution
    B. Developing test cases and procedures
    C. Preparing test documentation
    D. Defect reoprting
    E. Reviewing analyst and design artifacts
    Explanation
    Testers are usually responsible for:
    • Developing test cases and procedures
    • Planning, capturing, and conditioning test data
    • Reviewing analysis and design artifacts
    • Executing tests
    • Utilizing automated test tools for regression testing
    • Preparing test documentation
    • Tracking and reporting defects

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  • 31. 

    What is the primary objective of configure management? (7.27)

    • A.

      To get the right change installed on time

    • B.

      To get the right fix installed at the right time

    • C.

      To get the right change installed within budget

    • D.

      To get the right change installed at the right time

    Correct Answer
    D. To get the right change installed at the right time
    Explanation
    The primary objective of configuration management (or change
    control) is to get the right change installed at the right time.

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  • 32. 

    The _______  of a defect is assigned objectively (7.31)

    Correct Answer
    severity
    Severity
    Explanation
    Based on predefined severity descriptions, the test team should assign the severity of a defect
    objectively.

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  • 33. 

    The ________ of a defect is assigned subjectively (7.31)

    Correct Answer
    priority
    Priority
    Explanation
    The priority assigned to a defect is usually more subjective
    as it may be based on input from users regarding which defects are most important, resources
    available, risk, etc.

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  • 34. 

    There are 8 considerations that provide the framework for developing testing tactics, name 4 of them (7.14)

    • A.

      Acquire and study the test strategy

    • B.

      Build the system test plan

    • C.

      Identify the tactical risks

    • D.

      Determine the project scope

    • E.

      Determine the type of software systems

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Acquire and study the test strategy
    C. Identify the tactical risks
    D. Determine the project scope
    E. Determine the type of software systems
    Explanation
    The eight considerations listed below provide the framework for developing testing tactics. Each is
    described in the following sections.
    • Acquire and study the test strategy
    • Determine the type of development project
    • Determine the type of software system
    • Determine the project scope
    • Identify the tactical risks
    • Determine when testing should occur
    • Build the tactical test plan
    • Build the unit test plans

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  • 35. 

    The 2 types of Incremental testing are Top-down  and Bottom-up (7.24)

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    There are two types of incremental
    testing:
    Top-Down
    This method of testing begins testing from the top of the module hierarchy and works down to
    the bottom using interim stubs to simulate lower interfacing modules or programs. Modules are
    added in descending hierarchical order.
    Bottom-Up
    This method of testing begins testing from the bottom of the hierarchy and works up to the top.
    Modules are added in ascending hierarchical order. Bottom-up testing requires the
    development of driver modules, which provide the test input, call the module or program being
    tested, and display test output.

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  • 36. 

    What are the 3 types of Regression testing? (7.25)

    • A.

      Unit, System, Full

    • B.

      System, Regional, Unit

    • C.

      Unit, Regional Full

    • D.

      Full, System, Regional

    Correct Answer
    C. Unit, Regional Full
    Explanation
    The types
    of regression tests include:
    Unit Regression Testing
    This retests a single program or component after a change has been made. At a minimum, the
    developer should always execute unit regression testing when a change is made.
    Regional Regression Testing
    This retests modules connected to the program or component that have been changed. If
    accurate system models or system documentation are available, it is possible to use them to
    identify system components adjacent to the changed components, and define the appropriate
    set of test cases to be executed. A regional regression test executes a subset of the full set of
    application test cases. This is a significant timesaving over executing a full regression test, and
    still helps assure the project team and users that no new defects were introduced.
    Full Regression Testing
    This retests the entire application after a change has been made. A full regression test is usually
    executed when multiple changes have been made to critical components of the application.
    This is the full set of test cases defined for the application.

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  • 37. 

    Testing a string of units that accomplish a specific function in the application is called _________ Testing

    Correct Answer
    thread
    Thread
    Explanation
    Thread
    This test technique, which is often used during early integration testing, demonstrates key
    functional capabilities by testing a string of units that accomplish a specific function in the
    application. Thread testing and incremental testing are usually used together.

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  • 38. 

    Structural testing is considered   ________  ________ testing (2 words)  (7.25)

    Correct Answer
    white box
    White box
    White Box
    Explanation
    Structural testing is considered white-box testing because knowledge of the internal logic of the
    system is used to develop test cases

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  • 39. 

    Functional testing is considered ________ _________ testing

    Correct Answer
    black box
    Black box
    Black Box
    Explanation
    Functional testing is considered black-box testing because no knowledge of the internal logic of the system is used to develop test cases.

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  • 40. 

    There are 4 change control procedures, which one below is not one of them> (7.28)

    • A.

      The documentation system should be updated with all change sheets or change registers and printouts.

    • B.

      Developers should make the change

    • C.

      Someone independent of the person who designed and made the change should be responsible for testing the final revised program

    • D.

      The change should be discussed to determine the impact on the project

    Correct Answer
    D. The change should be discussed to determine the impact on the project
    Explanation
    Change Control Procedures
    Several procedures are necessary to maintain control over program changes.
    • The nature of the proposed change should be explained in writing, and formally approved
    by a responsible individual. Major changes should be approved by the systems-planning
    steering committee, commonly called the CCB or Configuration Control Board, in the
    same manner as for new systems. Minor changes may only require the joint approval of
    the IT manager and senior personnel in the user department. Documenting the proposed
    change clears up any initial misunderstandings that may arise when only verbal requests
    are made. In addition, written proposals provide a history of changes in a particular system.
    • Developers should make the program changes, not the operations group. Any change
    should be supported by adequate systems documentation. If the operators were authorized
    to make minor changes, it would greatly increase the difficulty of controlling versions and
    of maintaining up-to-date documentation.
    • Someone independent of the person who designed and made the change should be responsible
    for testing the final revised program. The results should be recorded on program
    change registers and sent to the IT manager for approval. Operations should accept only
    properly approved changes.
    • Finally, the documentation system should be updated with all change sheets or change registers
    and printouts.

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  • 41. 

    Defects are used for ________ improvement (7.33)

    Correct Answer
    process
    Process
    Explanation
    Using Defects for Process Improvement
    Using defects to improve processes is not done by many organizations today, but it offers one of
    the greatest areas of payback

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  • 42. 

    Which of the below explains the defect tracking process? (7.31/7.32)

    • A.

      Schedule the correction

    • B.

      Determine if discrepancy is a defect

    • C.

      Report the resolution

    • D.

      Assign the defect to a developer

    • E.

      Prioritize the correction

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Schedule the correction
    B. Determine if discrepancy is a defect
    C. Report the resolution
    D. Assign the defect to a developer
    E. Prioritize the correction
    Explanation
    project team, this process may be substantially more complex.
    1. Execute test and log any discrepancies.
    The tester executes the test and compares the actual results to the documented expected
    results. If a discrepancy exists, the discrepancy is logged as a “defect” with a status of
    “open.” Supplementary documentation, such as screen prints or program traces, is
    attached if available.
    2. Determine if discrepancy is a defect.
    The Test Manager or tester reviews the defect log with an appropriate member of the
    development team to determine if the discrepancy is truly a defect, and is repeatable. If
    it is not a defect, or repeatable, the log should be closed with an explanatory comment.
    3. Assign defect to developer.
    If a defect exists it is assigned to a developer for correction. This may be handled
    automatically by the tool, or may be determined as a result of the discussion in step 2.
    4. Defect resolution process.
    When the developer has acknowledged the defect is valid, the resolution process
    begins. The four steps of the resolution process are:
    • Prioritize the correction.
    Three recommended prioritization levels are: “critical”, “major”, and “minor”.
    “Critical” means there is a serious impact on the organization’s business operation or
    on further testing. “Major” causes an output of the software to be incorrect or stops or
    impedes further testing. “Minor” means something is wrong, but it does not directly affect the user of the system or further testing, such as a documentation error or
    cosmetic GUI error.
    The purpose of this step is to initiate any immediate action that may be required after
    answering the questions: Is this a new or previously reported defect? What priority
    should be given to correcting this defect? Should steps be taken to minimize the impact
    of the defect before the correction, such as notifying users, finding a work-around?
    • Schedule the correction.
    Based on the priority of the defect, the correction should be scheduled. All defects
    are not created equal from the perspective of how quickly they need to be
    corrected, although they may all be equal from a defect-prevention perspective.
    Some organizations actually treat lower priority defects as changes.
    • Correct the defect.
    The developer corrects the defect, and upon completion, updates the log with a
    description of the correction and changes the status to “Corrected” or “Retest”. The
    tester then verifies that the defect has been removed from the system.
    Additional regression testing is performed as needed based on the severity and
    impact of the correction applied. In addition, test data, checklists, etc., should be
    reviewed and perhaps enhanced, so that in the future this defect will be caught
    earlier. If the retest results match the expected results, the tester updates the defect
    status to “closed.” If the problem remains, the tester changes the status back to
    “Open” and this step is repeated until closure.
    • Report the resolution.
    Once the defect has been corrected and the correction verified, appropriate
    developers, users, etc., need to be notified that the defect has been corrected, the
    nature of the correction, when the correction will be released, and how the
    correction will be released.

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  • 43. 

    The Red Sox play in Fenway Park

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement "The Red Sox play in Fenway Park" is true. Fenway Park is the home stadium of the Boston Red Sox, a professional baseball team. The team has been playing their home games at Fenway Park since it opened in 1912, making it the oldest ballpark in Major League Baseball.

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