CSQA Prep - Chapter 8 - Metrics And Measurement

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This quiz covers skill category 8: Metrics and Measurement


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What factors should be considered in evaluating a risk? (select all that apply) (8-26)

    • A.

      Profitability

    • B.

      Monetary Value

    • C.

      Schedules

    • D.

      Costs

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Profitability
    B. Monetary Value
    C. Schedules
    D. Costs
    Explanation
    • Monetary Value
    Monetary value is the best common denominator for quantifying the impact of an adverse
    circumstance – whether the damage is actual or abstract, whether the victim is a person, a piece
    of equipment, or a function. It is the recompense used by the courts to redress both physical
    damage and mental anguish.
    • Schedules
    Schedules are examined to determine any slips in the completion date. One method of
    analyzing schedules is by looking at each task independently and then multiplying them
    together. For example, if a project contains 3 independent tasks and each task has a 50%
    chance of finishing on time, the project has a 12.5% chance of finishing on time (50% * 50% *
    50%).
    • Costs
    Costs are calculated over the product's life cycle. The costs for each phase are added together
    for a total life cycle cost. For example, when producing a software product the cost should
    reflect not only what it takes to develop the product, but also to fix and maintain it.
    • Profitability
    Profitability is typically calculated using:
    • Return-on-sales, which is profit, or return as a percentage of a project's total cost. It
    does not depend on time. A positive value indicates a profit and a negative value
    indicates a loss.
    • Return-on-investment, which is an organization-wide measure that assesses performance
    against invested assets (organizations may use different formulas). It measures
    efficiency, and balances the asset use and the profit margin.
    • Economic-value added, which evaluates the cost of capital percent vs. the return of
    capital percent. The cost of capital is the cost of financing the organization's operations.
    It takes into account the minimum rate of return that the investors (such as
    debt holders and shareholders) require.
    • Internal rate-of-return, which is a relative measure based on the timing of cash
    inflow and outflow. It is the rate at which the net present values of cash inflow and
    outflow become equal.
    Using a structured method, risk is calculated using the formula:
    Expected value = Probability * Impact

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  • 2. 

    Regardless of the method used, two elements must always be considered in a risk analysis.  What are they? (8-25)

    • A.

      The probability of the event occurring

    • B.

      The impact if the event occurs

    • C.

      The timeline of the event

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. The probability of the event occurring
    B. The impact if the event occurs
    Explanation
    As it is impossible to be completely certain of the impact or likelihood of many events, these events
    are estimated using a combination of historical data, knowledge of the event, and experience and
    judgment. Tools such as simulation, decision trees, or calculating a monetary value are used. Risk
    can be calculated by structured (associated with data) and unstructured (focus on judgment and
    experience) methods. Regardless of the method used, two elements must always be considered:
    • The probability of such an event occurring
    • The resulting impact if the event occurs

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  • 3. 

    What are some key measurements that can be used to measure a process?  (select all that apply) (8-12)

    • A.

      Lines of code

    • B.

      Products per person

    • C.

      Estimated vs. actual cost

    • D.

      Time spent fixing bugs

    • E.

      Deliverables completed on time

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Lines of code
    B. Products per person
    C. Estimated vs. actual cost
    D. Time spent fixing bugs
    E. Deliverables completed on time
    Explanation
    A process can be measured by either of the following:
    • Attributes of the process, such as overall development time, type of methodology used, or
    the average level of experience of the development staff.
    • Accumulating product measures into a metric so that meaningful information about the
    process can be provided. For example, function points per person-month or LOC per person-
    month can measure productivity (which is product per resources), the number of failures
    per month can indicate the effectiveness of computer operations, and the number of
    help desk calls per LOC can indicate the effectiveness of a system design methodology.
    Guide to the CSQA CBOK
    8-12 Version 6.2
    There is no standardized list of software process metrics currently available. However, in addition
    to the ones listed above, some others to consider include:
    • Number of deliverables completed on time
    • Estimated costs vs. actual costs
    • Budgeted costs vs. actual costs
    • Time spent fixing errors
    • Wait time
    • Number of contract modifications
    • Number of proposals submitted vs. proposals won
    • Percentage of time spent performing value-added tasks

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  • 4. 

    What is ordinal data? (8-4)

    • A.

      Data that cannot be ranked in any meaningful order.

    • B.

      Data that can be ranked but differences between values are not meaningful.

    • C.

      Data can be ranked and can exhibit meaningful differences between values

    Correct Answer
    B. Data that can be ranked but differences between values are not meaningful.
    Explanation
    This data can be ranked, but differences or ratios between values are not meaningful. For example,
    programmer experience level may be measured as low, medium, or high. For ordinal data to be
    used in an objective measurement the criteria for placement in the various categories must be well
    defined; otherwise, it is subjective.

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  • 5. 

    What are the major uses of quantitative data? (select all that apply) (8-13)

    • A.

      Manage and control the process

    • B.

      Improve the process

    • C.

      Manage the risks

    • D.

      Manage and control the product

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Manage and control the process
    B. Improve the process
    C. Manage the risks
    D. Manage and control the product
    Explanation
    There are four major uses of quantitative data (i.e., measurement):
    1. Manage and control the process.
    A process is a series of tasks performed to produce deliverables or products. IT processes
    usually combine a skilled analyst with the tasks defined in the process. In addition, each time a
    process is executed it normally produces a different product or service from what was built by
    the same process at another time. For example, the same software development process may be
    followed to produce two different applications. Management may need to adapt the process for
    each product or service built, and needs to know that when performed, the process will produce
    the desired product or service.
    2. Manage and control the product
    Quality is an attribute of a product. Quality level must be controlled from the start of the
    process through the conclusion of the process. Control requires assuring that the specified
    requirements are implemented, and that the delivered product is what the customer expects and
    needs.
    3. Improve the process
    The most effective method for improving quality and productivity is to improve the processes.
    Improved processes have a multiplier effect because everyone that uses the improved process
    gains from the improvement. Quantitative data gathered during process execution can identify
    process weaknesses, and, therefore, opportunities for improvement.
    4. Manage the risks
    Risk is the opportunity for something to go wrong - for example, newly purchased software
    will not work as stated, projects will be delivered late, or workers assigned to a project do not
    possess the skills needed to successfully complete it. Management needs to understand each
    risk, know the probability of the risk occurring, know the potential consequences if the risk
    occurs, and understand the probability of success based upon different management actions.

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  • 6. 

    What are the most common ways of quantifying software size? (select all that apply) (8-9)

    • A.

      Lines of code

    • B.

      Physical space

    • C.

      Function points

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Lines of code
    C. Function points
    Explanation
    LOC is the most common way of quantifying software size; however, this cannot be done until the
    coding process is complete. Function points have the advantage of being measurable during the
    design phase of the development process or possibly earlier.
    Lines of Code
    This is probably the most widely used measure for program size, although there are many different
    definitions. The differences involve treatment of blank lines, comment lines, non-executable
    statements, multiple statements per line, multiple lines per statement, and the question of how to
    count reused lines of code. The most common definition counts any line that is not a blank or a
    comment, regardless of the number of statements per line. In theory, LOC is a useful predictor of
    program complexity, total development effort, and programmer performance (debugging,
    productivity). Numerous studies have attempted to validate these relationships.
    Function Points
    A. J. Albrecht proposed a metric for software size and the effort required for development that can
    be determined early in the development process. This approach computes the total function points
    (FP) value for the project, by totaling the number of external user inputs, inquiries, outputs, and master files, and then applying the following weights: inputs (4), outputs (5), inquiries (4), and
    master files (10). Each FP contributor can be adjusted within a range of ±35% for a specific project
    complexity.

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  • 7. 

    What are the attributes of good measurements? (select all that apply) (8-5)

    • A.

      Reliable

    • B.

      Ease of use

    • C.

      Valid

    • D.

      Timeliness

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Reliable
    B. Ease of use
    C. Valid
    D. Timeliness
    Explanation
    Reliability
    This test refers to the consistency of measurement. If taken by two people, the same results should
    be obtained. Sometimes measures are unreliable because of the measurement technique. For
    example, human error could make counting LOC unreliable, but the use of an automated code
    analyzer would result in the same answer each time it is run against an unchanged program.
    Validity
    This test indicates the degree to which a measure actually measures what it was intended to
    measure. If actual project work effort is intended to quantify the total time spent on a software
    development project, but overtime or time spent on the project by those outside the project team is
    not included, the measure is invalid for its intended purpose. A measure can be reliable, but invalid.
    An unreliable measure cannot be valid.
    Ease of Use and Simplicity
    These two tests are functions of how easy it is to capture and use the measurement data.
    Timeliness
    This test refers to whether the information can be reported in sufficient time to impact the decisions
    needed to manage effectively.

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  • 8. 

    There are inherent risks in integrating new technology.  What is the QA Analyst role in integrating new technology? (select all that apply) (8-31)

    • A.

      Determining the risks

    • B.

      Assure controls are adequate to reduce the risk

    • C.

      Modify existing processes for new technology

    • D.

      Programming the changes

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Determining the risks
    B. Assure controls are adequate to reduce the risk
    C. Modify existing processes for new technology
    Explanation
    One of the major challenges facing an IT organization is to effectively integrate new technology.
    This integration needs to be done without compromising quality.
    The QA analyst has three roles in integrating new technology:
    • Determining the Risks
    Each new technology poses new risks. These risks need to be identified and
    prioritized and, if possible, quantified. Although the QA analyst will probably not
    perform the actual task, the QA analyst needs to ensure that a risk analysis for the
    new technology is undertaken and effectively performed.
    • Assuring that the Controls are Adequate to Reduce the Risk
    The QA analyst needs to assess whether the controls proposed for the new
    technology are adequate to reduce the risk to an acceptable level. This may be done
    by line management and reviewed by the QA analyst.
    Assuring that Existing Processes are Appropriately Modified to Incorporate the Use
    of the New Technology
    Work processes that will utilize new technologies normally need to be modified to
    incorporate those technologies into the step-by-step work procedures. This may be
    done by the workers responsible for the work processes, but at least needs to be
    assessed or reviewed by the QA analyst.

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  • 9. 

    A process is defined as stable when... (8-18)

    • A.

      Unique situations occur

    • B.

      Its mean and standard deviation remain constant over time

    • C.

      It is always an acceptable process

    Correct Answer
    B. Its mean and standard deviation remain constant over time
    Explanation
    A process is defined as stable when its mean and standard deviation remain constant over time.
    Processes containing only common causes of variation are considered stable. As a stable process is
    predictable, future process values can be predicted within the control limits with a certain amount
    of belief. A stable process is said to be in a state of statistical control. The control chart in Skill
    Category 4 depicts a stable process.

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  • 10. 

    What are the distinguishing characteristics of risk? (select all that apply) (8-22)

    • A.

      Situational

    • B.

      Time-based

    • C.

      Interdependent

    • D.

      Magnitude dependent

    • E.

      Value-based

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Situational
    B. Time-based
    C. Interdependent
    D. Magnitude dependent
    E. Value-based
    Explanation
    Risk has five distinguishing characteristics:
    Situational
    Changes in a situation can result in new risks. Examples include, replacing a team member,
    undergoing reorganization, or changing a project's scope.
    Time-Based
    Considering a software development life cycle, the probability of risk occurring at the beginning of
    the project is very high (due to the unknowns), whereas at the end of the project the probability is
    very low. In contrast, during the life cycle, the impact (cost) from a risky event occurring is low at
    the beginning (since not much time and effort have been invested) and higher at the end (as there is
    more to lose).
    Interdependent
    Within a project, many tasks and deliverables are intertwined. If one deliverable takes longer to
    create than expected, other items depending on that deliverable may be affected, and the result
    could be a domino effect.
    Magnitude Dependent
    The relationship of probability and impact are not linear, and the magnitude of the risk typically
    makes a difference. For example, consider the risk of spending $1 for a 50/50 chance to win $5, vs.
    the risk of spending $1,000 for a 50/50 chance of winning $5,000 vs. the risk of spending $100,000
    for a 50/50 chance of winning $500,000. In this example, the probability of loss is all the same
    (50%) yet the opportunity cost of losing is much greater.
    Value-Based
    Risk may be affected by personal, corporate or cultural values. For example, completing a project
    on schedule may be dependent on the time of year and nationalities or religious beliefs of the work
    team. Projects being developed in international locations where multiple cultures are involved may
    have a higher risk than those done in one location with a similar work force.

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  • 11. 

    Risks can be categorized as...(select all that apply) (8-21)

    • A.

      Technical

    • B.

      Programmatic

    • C.

      Supportability

    • D.

      Cost

    • E.

      Schedule

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Technical
    B. Programmatic
    C. Supportability
    D. Cost
    E. Schedule
    Explanation
    Risks can be categorized as one of the following:
    Technical such as complexity, requirement changes, unproven technology, etc.
    Programmatic or Performance such as safety, skills, regulatory changes, material
    availability, etc.
    Supportability or Environment such as people, equipment, reliability, maintainability, etc.
    Cost such as sensitivity to technical risk, overhead, estimating errors, etc.
    Schedule such as degree of concurrency, number of critical path items, sensitivity to cost, etc.

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  • 12. 

    What are the components that must be considered separately when determining how to manage a risk?  (Select all that apply) (8-21)

    • A.

      The probability that the event will occur

    • B.

      The event that could occur

    • C.

      The impact or consequence of the event if it occurs

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. The probability that the event will occur
    B. The event that could occur
    C. The impact or consequence of the event if it occurs
    Explanation
    Risk is the possibility that an unfavorable event will occur. It may be predictable or unpredictable.
    Risk has three components, each of which must be considered separately when determining how to
    manage the risk.
    • The event that could occur – the risk
    • The probability that the event will occur- the likelihood
    • The impact or consequence of the event if it occurs – the penalty

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  • 13. 

    A _________ is a derived (calculated or composite) unit of measurement that cannot be directly observed, but is created by combining or relating two or more measures. (8-1)

    Correct Answer(s)
    metric
    metrics
    Explanation
    A metric is a derived (calculated or composite) unit of measurement that cannot be directly
    observed, but is created by combining or relating two or more measures. A metric normalizes data
    so that comparison is possible. Since metrics are combinations of measures they can add more
    value in understanding or evaluating a process than plain measures. Examples of metrics are mean
    time to failure and actual effort compared to estimated effort.

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  • 14. 

    _________data has an absolute zero and meaningful ratios can be calculated. (8-3)

    Correct Answer(s)
    Ratio
    ratio
    Explanation
    Ratio Data
    This data has an absolute zero and meaningful ratios can be calculated. Measuring program size by
    LOC is an example. A program of 2,000 lines can be considered twice as large as a program of
    1,000 lines.
    It is important to understand the measurement scale associated with a given measure or metric.
    Many proposed measurements use values from an interval, ordinal, or nominal scale. If the values
    are to be used in mathematical equations designed to represent a model of the software process,
    measurements associated with a ratio scale are preferred, since the ratio scale allows mathematical
    operations to be meaningfully applied.

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  • 15. 

    The measures of central tendency are the ________, __________, and _________. (list all three) (8-3)

    Correct Answer(s)
    mean
    median
    mode
    medium
    Explanation
    Measures of Central Tendency
    The measures of central tendency are the mean, medium, and mode. The mean is the average of the
    items in the population; the medium is the item at which half the items in the population are below
    this item and half the items are above this item; and the mode represents which items are repeated
    most frequently.

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  • 16. 

    The ___________ is the item at which half the items in the population are below this item and half the items are above this item.

    Correct Answer(s)
    median
    Explanation
    the medium is the item at which half the items in the population are below
    this item and half the items are above this item;

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  • 17. 

    Which of the below represents the items which are repeated most frequently? (8-4)

    • A.

      Mean

    • B.

      Median

    • C.

      Mode

    Correct Answer
    C. Mode
    Explanation
    The measures of central tendency are the mean, medium, and mode. The mean is the average of the
    items in the population; the medium is the item at which half the items in the population are below
    this item and half the items are above this item; and the mode represents which items are repeated
    most frequently.

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  • 18. 

    This data can be ranked and can exhibit meaningful differences between values.

    • A.

      Ordinal data

    • B.

      Nominal data

    • C.

      Interval data

    • D.

      Ratio data

    Correct Answer
    C. Interval data
    Explanation
    Interval Data
    This data can be ranked and can exhibit meaningful differences between values. Interval data has
    no absolute zero, and ratios of values are not necessarily meaningful. For example, a program with
    a complexity value of 6 is four units more complex than a program with a complexity of 2, but it is
    probably not meaningful to say that the first program is three times as complex as the second. T. J.
    McCabe’s complexity metric is an example of an interval scale.

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  • 19. 

    Who was a strong proponent of the use of statistics that took into account common and special causes of variation?

    • A.

      Dr. W. Edwards Deming

    • B.

      Mr. Smith

    Correct Answer
    A. Dr. W. Edwards Deming
    Explanation
    Dr. W. Edwards Deming was a strong proponent of the use of statistics that took into account common and special causes of variation. He was a renowned statistician and quality management expert who emphasized the importance of understanding and managing both common causes (inherent in the system) and special causes (resulting from specific events or circumstances) of variation in order to improve quality and productivity. Deming's teachings and principles have had a significant impact on the field of quality management and have been widely adopted by organizations around the world.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 08, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Uhgcsqa

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