Chapter 8 Test - AP Biology

40 Questions | Total Attempts: 1548

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AP Biology Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following describe(s) some aspect of metabolism?
    • A. 

      Synthesis of macromolecules

    • B. 

      Breakdown of macromolecules

    • C. 

      Control of enzyme activity

    • D. 

      Synthesis of macromolecules and breakdown of macromolecules

    • E. 

      Synthesis of macromolecules, breakdown of macromolecules, and control of enzyme activity

  • 2. 
    Which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones?
    • A. 

      Catalysis

    • B. 

      Metabolism

    • C. 

      Anabolism

    • D. 

      Dehydration

    • E. 

      Catabolism

  • 3. 
    Which of the following statements correctly describe(s) catabolic pathways?
    • A. 

      They do not depend on enzymes.

    • B. 

      They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers.

    • C. 

      They release energy as they degrade polymers to monomers.

    • D. 

      They lead to the synthesis of catabolic compounds.

    • E. 

      They do not depend on enzymes and they consume energy to build up polymers from monomers.

  • 4. 
    Which of the following is (are) true for anabolic pathways?
    • A. 

      They do not depend on enzymes.

    • B. 

      They are highly regulated sequences of chemical reactions.

    • C. 

      They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers.

    • D. 

      They release energy as they degrade polymers to monomers.

    • E. 

      They are highly regulated sequences of chemical reactions and they consume energy to build up polymers from monomers.

  • 5. 
    Which of the following is a statement of the first law of thermodynamics?
    • A. 

      Energy cannot be created or destroyed.

    • B. 

      The entropy of the universe is decreasing.

    • C. 

      The entropy of the universe is constant.

    • D. 

      Kinetic energy is stored energy that results from the specific arrangement of matter.

    • E. 

      Energy cannot be transferred or transformed.

  • 6. 
    The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed.  For living organisms, which of the following is an important consequence of the first law?
    • A. 

      The energy content of an organism is constant.

    • B. 

      The organism ultimately must obtain all of the necessary energy for life from its environment.

    • C. 

      The entropy of an organism decreases with time as the organism grows in complexity.

    • D. 

      Organisms are unable to transform energy.

    • E. 

      Life does not obey the first law of thermodynamics.

  • 7. 
    According to the first law of thermodynamics,
    • A. 

      The universe loses energy because of heat production.

    • B. 

      Systems rich in energy are intrinsically unstable and will give up energy with time.

    • C. 

      Energy can be neither created nor destroyed.

    • D. 

      The universe loses energy because of heat production and systems rich in energy are intrinsically unstable and will give up energy with time.

    • E. 

      The universe loses energy because of heat production and systems rich in energy are intrinsically unstable, will give up energy with time, and energy can be neither created nor destroyed.

  • 8. 
    Living organisms increase in complexity as they grow, resulting in a decrease in the entropy of an organism.  How does this relate to the second law of thermodynamics?
    • A. 

      Living organisms do not obey the second law of thermodynamics, which states that entropy must increase with time.

    • B. 

      Life obeys the second law of thermodynamics because the decrease in entropy as the organism grows is balanced by an increase in the entropy of the universe.

    • C. 

      Living organisms do not follow the laws of thermodynamics.

    • D. 

      As a consequence of growing, organisms create more disorder in their environment than the decrease in entropy associated with their growth.

    • E. 

      Living organisms are able to transform energy into entropy.

  • 9. 
    Which of the following statements about metabolism is incorrect?
    • A. 

      Metabolism is an emergent property of life at the level of organisms.

    • B. 

      Metabolism manages the utilization of materials and energy resources.

    • C. 

      The uptake of water associated with the hydrolysis of biological polymers is part of metabolism.

    • D. 

      Metabolism depends on a constant supply of energy.

    • E. 

      None of these statements about metabolism is incorrect.

  • 10. 
    Whenever energy is transformed, there is always an increase in the
    • A. 

      Free energy of the system.

    • B. 

      Free energy of the universe.

    • C. 

      Entropy of the system.

    • D. 

      Entropy of the universe.

    • E. 

      Enthalpy of the universe.

  • 11. 
    Which of the following statements is a logical consequence of the second law of thermodynamics?
    • A. 

      If the entropy of a system increases, there must be a corresponding decrease in the entropy of the universe.

    • B. 

      If there is an increase in the energy of a system, there must be a corresponding decrease in the energy of the rest of the universe.

    • C. 

      Every energy transfer requires activation energy from the environment.

    • D. 

      Every chemical reaction must increase the total entropy of the universe.

    • E. 

      Energy can be transferred or transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.

  • 12. 
    Which of the following statements correctly describe(s) some aspect of energy in living organisms?
    • A. 

      Living organisms can convert energy among several different forms.

    • B. 

      Living organisms can use energy to do work.

    • C. 

      Organisms expend energy in order to decrease their entropy.

    • D. 

      Living organisms can convert energy among several different forms and can use energy to do work.

    • E. 

      Living organisms can convert energy among several different forms, can use energy to do work and expend energy in order to decrease their entropy.

  • 13. 
    Which of the following statements is not representative of the second law of thermodynamics?
    • A. 

      Conversion of energy from one form to another is always accompanied by some loss of free energy.

    • B. 

      Heat represents a form of energy that cannot be used by most organisms to do work.

    • C. 

      Without an input of energy, organisms would tend towards increasing entropy.

    • D. 

      Cells require a constant input of energy to maintain their high level of organization.

    • E. 

      Every energy transformation by a cell decreases the entropy of the universe.

  • 14. 
    Which of the following forms of energy is least available to accomplish cellular work?
    • A. 

      Light energy

    • B. 

      Electrical energy

    • C. 

      Thermal energy (heat)

    • D. 

      Mechanical energy

    • E. 

      Potential energy

  • 15. 
    Which of the following types of reactions would decrease the entropy within a cell?
    • A. 

      Dehydration reactions

    • B. 

      Hydrolysis

    • C. 

      Respiration

    • D. 

      Digestion

    • E. 

      Catabolism

  • 16. 
    According to the second law of thermodynamics, which of the following statements is incorrect?
    • A. 

      The synthesis of large molecules from small molecules is exergonic.

    • B. 

      Earth is an open system.

    • C. 

      Life exists at the expense of energy derived from its environment.

    • D. 

      A living cell can never function as a closed system.

    • E. 

      Every chemical reaction in a cell results in a loss of free energy.

  • 17. 
    The organization of organisms has become increasingly complex with time.  This statement
    • A. 

      Is consistent with the second law of thermodynamics.

    • B. 

      Requires that due to evolution, the entropy of the universe increased.

    • C. 

      Is based on the fact that organisms function as closed systems.

    • D. 

      Is consistent with the second law of thermodynamics and requires that due to evolution, the entropy of the universe increased.

    • E. 

      Is consistent with the second law of thermodynamics, requires that due to evolution, the entropy of the universe increased, and is based on the fact that organisms function as closed systems.

  • 18. 
    The mathematical expression for the change in free energy of a system is:  ΔG = ΔH – TΔS.  Which of the following is (are) incorrect?
    • A. 

      ΔS is the change in entropy, a measure of randomness.

    • B. 

      ΔH is the change in enthalpy, the energy available to do work.

    • C. 

      ΔG is the change in free energy.

    • D. 

      T is the absolute temperature.

    • E. 

      ΔS is the change in entropy, a measure of randomness, and ΔH is the change in enthalpy, the energy available to do work.

  • 19. 
    What is the change in free energy of a system at chemical equilibrium?
    • A. 

      Slightly increasing

    • B. 

      Greatly increasing

    • C. 

      Slightly decreasing

    • D. 

      Greatly decreasing

    • E. 

      No net change

  • 20. 
    Which of the following is true for all exergonic reactions?
    • A. 

      The products have more total energy than the reactants.

    • B. 

      The reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy.

    • C. 

      Some reactants will be converted to products.

    • D. 

      A net input of energy from the surroundings is required for the reactions to proceed.

    • E. 

      The reactions are nonspontaneous.

  • 21. 
    • A. 

      A reaction in which the free energy at equilibrium is higher than the energy content at any point away from equilibrium

    • B. 

      A chemical reaction in which the entropy change in the reaction is just balanced by an opposite entropy change in the cell's surroundings

    • C. 

      An endergonic reaction in an active metabolic pathway where the energy for that reaction is supplied only by heat from the environment

    • D. 

      A chemical reaction in which both the reactants and products are only used in a metabolic pathway that is completely inactive

    • E. 

      There is no possibility of having chemical equilibrium in any living cell.

  • 22. 
    Which of the following shows the correct changes in thermodynamic properties for a chemical reaction in which amino acids are linked to form a protein?
    • A. 

      +ΔH, +ΔS, +ΔG

    • B. 

      +ΔH, -ΔS, -ΔG

    • C. 

      +ΔH, -ΔS, +ΔG

    • D. 

      -ΔH, -ΔS, +ΔG

    • E. 

      -ΔH, +ΔS, +ΔG

  • 23. 
    When glucose monomers are joined together by glycosidic linkages to form a cellulose polymer, the changes in free energy, total energy, and entropy are as follows:
    • A. 

      +ΔG, +ΔH, +ΔS

    • B. 

      +ΔG, +ΔH, -ΔS

    • C. 

      +ΔG, -ΔH, -ΔS

    • D. 

      -ΔG, +ΔH, +ΔS

    • E. 

      -ΔG, -ΔH, -ΔS

  • 24. 
    A chemical reaction that has a positive ΔG is correctly described as
    • A. 

      Endergonic.

    • B. 

      Endothermic.

    • C. 

      Enthalpic.

    • D. 

      Spontaneous.

    • E. 

      Exothermic.

  • 25. 
    Why is ATP an important molecule in metabolism?
    • A. 

      Its hydrolysis provides an input of free energy for exergonic reactions.

    • B. 

      It provides energy coupling between exergonic and endergonic reactions.

    • C. 

      Its terminal phosphate group contains a strong covalent bond that when hydrolyzed releases free energy.

    • D. 

      Its hydrolysis provides an input of free energy for exergonic reactions and it provides energy coupling between exergonic and endergonic reactions.

    • E. 

      Its hydrolysis provides an input of free energy for exergonic reactions and it provides energy coupling between exergonic, endergonic reactions, and its terminal phosphate group contains a strong covalent bond that when hydrolyzed releases free energy. .