Chapter 16-17 Test - AP Biology

98 Questions | Total Attempts: 1686

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Chapter 16-17 Test - AP Biology

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    For a couple of decades, biologists knew the nucleus contained DNA and proteins. The prevailing opinion was that the genetic material was proteins, and not DNA. The reason for this belief was that proteins are more complex than DNA.  This is because
    • A. 

      Proteins have a greater variety of three-dimensional forms than does DNA.

    • B. 

      Proteins have two different levels of structural organization; DNA has four.

    • C. 

      Proteins are made of 20 amino acids and DNA is made of four nucleotides.

    • D. 

      Only A and C are correct.

    • E. 

      A, B, and C are correct.

  • 2. 
    In his transformation experiments, Griffith observed that
    • A. 

      Mutant mice were resistant to bacterial infections.

    • B. 

      Mixing a heat-killed pathogenic strain of bacteria with a living nonpathogenic strain can convert some of the living cells into the pathogenic form.

    • C. 

      Mixing a heat-killed nonpathogenic strain of bacteria with a living pathogenic strain makes the pathogenic strain nonpathogenic.

    • D. 

      Infecting mice with nonpathogenic strains of bacteria makes them resistant to pathogenic strains.

    • E. 

      Mice infected with a pathogenic strain of bacteria can spread the infection to other mice.

  • 3. 
    What does transformation involve in bacteria?
    • A. 

      The creation of a strand of DNA from an RNA molecule

    • B. 

      The creation of a strand of RNA from a DNA molecule

    • C. 

      The infection of cells by a phage DNA molecule

    • D. 

      The type of semiconservative replication shown by DNA

    • E. 

      Assimilation of external DNA into a cell

  • 4. 
    Avery and his colleagues purified various chemicals from pathogenic bacteria and showed that ________ was (were) the transforming agent.
    • A. 

      DNA

    • B. 

      Protein

    • C. 

      Lipids

    • D. 

      Carbohydrates

    • E. 

      Phage

  • 5. 
    Tobacco mosaic virus has RNA rather than DNA as its genetic material. In a hypothetical situation where RNA from a tobacco mosaic virus is mixed with proteins from a related DNA virus, the result could be a hybrid virus. If that virus were to infect a cell and reproduce, what would the resulting "offspring" viruses be like?
    • A. 

      Tobacco mosaic virus

    • B. 

      The related DNA virus

    • C. 

      A hybrid: tobacco mosaic virus RNA and protein from the DNA virus

    • D. 

      A hybrid: tobacco mosaic virus protein and nucleic acid from the DNA virus

    • E. 

      A virus with a double helix made up of one strand of DNA complementary to a strand of RNA surrounded by viral protein

  • 6. 
    The following scientists made significant contributions to our understanding of the structure and function of DNA. Place the scientists' names in the correct chronological order, starting with the first scientist(s) to make a contribution.     I.    Avery, McCarty, and MacLeod     II.    Griffith     III.    Hershey and Chase     IV.    Meselson and Stahl     V.    Watson and Crick
    • A. 

      V, IV, II, I, III

    • B. 

      II, I, III, V, IV

    • C. 

      I, II, III, V, IV

    • D. 

      I, II, V, IV, III

    • E. 

      II, III, IV, V, I

  • 7. 
    After mixing a heat-killed, phosphorescent strain of bacteria with a living non-phosphorescent strain, you discover that some of the living cells are now phosphorescent. The best evidence that the ability to fluoresce is a heritable trait would be an observation that
    • A. 

      DNA passed from the heat-killed strain to the living strain.

    • B. 

      Protein passed from the heat-killed strain to the living strain.

    • C. 

      The phosphorescence in the living strain is especially bright.

    • D. 

      Descendants of the living cells are also phosphorescent.

    • E. 

      Both DNA and protein passed from the heat-killed strain to the living strain.

  • 8. 
    In trying to determine whether DNA or protein is the genetic material, Hershey and Chase made use of which of the following facts?
    • A. 

      DNA does not contain sulfur, whereas protein does.

    • B. 

      DNA contains phosphorus, but protein does not.

    • C. 

      DNA contains nitrogen, whereas protein does not.

    • D. 

      A and B only

    • E. 

      A, B, and C

  • 9. 
    For a science fair project, two students decided to repeat the  Hershey and Chase experiment, with modifications. They decided to label the nitrogen of the DNA, rather than the phosphate. They reasoned that each nucleotide has only one phosphate and two to five nitrogens. Thus, labeling the nitrogens would provide a stronger signal than labeling the phosphates. Why won't this experiment work?
    • A. 

      There is no radioactive isotope of nitrogen.

    • B. 

      Radioactive nitrogen has a half-life of 100,000 years, and the material would be too dangerous for too long.

    • C. 

      Meselson and Stahl already did this experiment.

    • D. 

      Although there are more nitrogens in a nucleotide, labeled phosphates actually have 16 extra neutrons; therefore, they are more radioactive.

    • E. 

      Amino acids (and thus proteins) also have nitrogen atoms; thus, the radioactivity would not distinguish between DNA and proteins.

  • 10. 
    When T2 phages infect bacteria and make more viruses in the presence of radioactive sulfur, what is the result?
    • A. 

      The viral DNA will be radioactive.

    • B. 

      The viral proteins will be radioactive.

    • C. 

      The bacterial DNA will be radioactive.

    • D. 

      Both A and B

    • E. 

      Both A and C

  • 11. 
    Cytosine makes up 38% of the nucleotides in a sample of DNA from an organism. Approximately, what percentage of the nucleotides in this sample will be thymine?
    • A. 

      12

    • B. 

      24

    • C. 

      31

    • D. 

      38

    • E. 

      It cannot be determined from the information provided.

  • 12. 
    Chargaff's analysis of the relative base composition of DNA was significant because he was able to show that
    • A. 

      The relative proportion of each of the four bases differs from species to species.

    • B. 

      The human genome is more complex than that of other species.

    • C. 

      The amount of A is always equivalent to T, and C to G.

    • D. 

      Both A and C

    • E. 

      Both B and C

  • 13. 
    All of the following can be determined directly from X-ray diffraction photographs of crystallized DNA except the
    • A. 

      Diameter of the helix.

    • B. 

      Helical shape of DNA.

    • C. 

      Sequence of nucleotides.

    • D. 

      Spacing of the nitrogenous bases along the helix.

    • E. 

      Number of strands in a helix.

  • 14. 
    The DNA double helix has a uniform diameter because ________, which have two rings, always pair with ________, which have one ring.
    • A. 

      Purines; pyrimidines

    • B. 

      Pyrimidines; purines

    • C. 

      Deoxyribose sugars; ribose sugars

    • D. 

      Ribose sugars; deoxyribose sugars

    • E. 

      Nucleotides; nucleoside triphosphates

  • 15. 
    What kind of chemical bond is found between paired bases of the DNA double helix?
    • A. 

      Hydrogen

    • B. 

      Ionic

    • C. 

      Covalent

    • D. 

      Sulfhydryl

    • E. 

      Phosphate

  • 16. 
    Which of the following statements does not apply to the Watson and Crick model of DNA?
    • A. 

      The two strands of the DNA form a double helix.

    • B. 

      The distance between the strands of the helix is uniform.

    • C. 

      The framework of the helix consists of sugar-phosphate units of the nucleotides.

    • D. 

      The two strands of the helix are held together by covalent bonds.

    • E. 

      The purines form hydrogen bonds with pyrimidines.

  • 17. 
    It became apparent to Watson and Crick after completion of their model that the DNA molecule could carry a vast amount of hereditary information in its
    • A. 

      Sequence of bases.

    • B. 

      Phosphate-sugar backbones.

    • C. 

      Complementary pairing of bases.

    • D. 

      Side groups of nitrogenous bases.

    • E. 

      Different five-carbon sugars.

  • 18. 
    In an analysis of the nucleotide composition of DNA, which of the following is true?
    • A. 

      A = C

    • B. 

      A = G and C = T

    • C. 

      A + C = G + T

    • D. 

      G + A = T + C

    • E. 

      Both C and D

  • 19. 
    Which of the following statements is false when comparing prokaryotes with eukaryotes?
    • A. 

      The prokaryotic chromosome is circular, whereas eukaryotic chromosomes are linear.

    • B. 

      Prokaryotic chromosomes have a single origin of replication, whereas eukaryotic chromosomes have many.

    • C. 

      The rate of elongation during DNA replication is higher in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes

    • D. 

      Prokaryotes produce Okazaki fragments during DNA replication, but eukaryotes do not.

    • E. 

      Eukaryotes have telomeres, and prokaryotes do not.

  • 20. 
    The strands that make up DNA are antiparallel. This means that
    • A. 

      The twisting nature of DNA creates nonparallel strands.

    • B. 

      The 5' to 3' direction of one strand runs counter to the 5' to 3' direction of the other strand.

    • C. 

      Base pairings create unequal spacing between the two DNA strands.

    • D. 

      One strand is positively charged and the other is negatively charged.

    • E. 

      One strand contains only purines and the other contains only pyrimidines.

  • 21. 
    Suppose one were provided with an actively dividing culture of E. coli bacteria to which radioactive thymine had been added. What would happen if a cell replicated once in the presence of this radioactive base?
    • A. 

      One of the daughter cells, but not the other, would have radioactive DNA.

    • B. 

      Neither of the two daughter cells would be radioactive.

    • C. 

      All four bases of the DNA would be radioactive.

    • D. 

      Radioactive thymine would pair with nonradioactive guanine.

    • E. 

      DNA in both daughter cells would be radioactive.

  • 22. 
    In the late 1950s, Meselson and Stahl grew bacteria in a medium containing "heavy" nitrogen  (15N) and then transferred them to a medium containing 14N. Which of the above results would be expected after one DNA replication in the presence of 14N?
  • 23. 
    Which enzyme catalyzes the elongation of a DNA strand in the 5'  3' direction?
    • A. 

      Primase

    • B. 

      DNA ligase

    • C. 

      DNA polymerase

    • D. 

      Topoisomerase

    • E. 

      Helicase

  • 24. 
    A space probe returns with a culture of a microorganism found on a distant planet. Analysis shows that it is a carbon-based life-form that has DNA. You grow the cells in 15N medium for several generations and then transfer them to 14N medium. Which pattern in Figure 16.1 would you expect if the DNA was replicated in a conservative manner?
  • 25. 
    What determines the nucleotide sequence of the newly synthesized strand during DNA replication?
    • A. 

      The particular DNA polymerase catalyzing the reaction

    • B. 

      The relative amounts of the four nucleoside triphosphates in the cell

    • C. 

      The nucleotide sequence of the template strand

    • D. 

      The primase used in the reaction

    • E. 

      Both A and D

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