How Much Do You Know About Cognition? Trivia Quiz

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How Much Do You Know About Cognition? Trivia Quiz - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A patient has suffered brain damage and, as a result, now seems to ignore all information on the left side of her world. If shown words, she reads only the right half of the word; if asked to copy a picture, she copies only the right half. This patient seems to be suffering from:

    • A.

      A hemispherectomy

    • B.

      Right hemiblindness

    • C.

      The unilateral neglect syndrome

    • D.

      Parietal syndrome

    Correct Answer
    C. The unilateral neglect syndrome
    Explanation
    The patient's inability to perceive and attend to information on the left side of her world suggests that she is suffering from the unilateral neglect syndrome. This condition is characterized by a lack of awareness or attention to one side of space, typically caused by damage to the right parietal lobe of the brain. The patient's selective reading and copying of only the right half of words and pictures further supports this diagnosis. A hemispherectomy involves the removal of one hemisphere of the brain and is not applicable in this case. Right hemiblindness and parietal syndrome do not accurately describe the patient's symptoms.

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  • 2. 

    Tasks involving dichotic listening are tasks in which:

    • A.

      Two different visual stimuli are presented

    • B.

      Two different auditory messages are presented, one to each ear

    • C.

      Participants must identify subthreshold sounds

    • D.

      Participants must dichotomize sounds into distinct categories

    Correct Answer
    B. Two different auditory messages are presented, one to each ear
    Explanation
    Dichotic listening tasks involve presenting two different auditory messages, one to each ear. Participants are required to listen to both messages simultaneously and then perform a task, such as identifying specific words or repeating the messages back. This type of task is used to study selective attention and the processing of auditory information in different ears. It helps researchers understand how the brain prioritizes and processes multiple auditory inputs.

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  • 3. 

    A researcher hypothesizes that high doses of caffeine can produce state-dependent learning. To confirm this hypothesis, the researcher would need to show that:

    • A.

      Participants learn more effectively if they drink several cups of coffee before studying the material to be learned

    • B.

      Participants’ recall performance is improved if they are tested soon after drinking several cups of coffee

    • C.

      Participants who drink a lot of coffee are, in general, likely to do better on memory tests

    • D.

      If participants studied the material after drinking a great deal of coffee, they will remember the material better if they drink a great deal of coffee just before taking the memory test

    Correct Answer
    D. If participants studied the material after drinking a great deal of coffee, they will remember the material better if they drink a great deal of coffee just before taking the memory test
    Explanation
    The correct answer is if participants studied the material after drinking a great deal of coffee, they will remember the material better if they drink a great deal of coffee just before taking the memory test. This answer aligns with the researcher's hypothesis that high doses of caffeine can produce state-dependent learning. It suggests that the effect of caffeine on memory is dependent on the state of the participant, specifically whether they have consumed caffeine both during the study phase and during the memory test phase.

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  • 4. 

    In a study of visual selection, participants were shown a video of people throwing and catching a ball. Some of the people were wearing white shirts and some were wearing black. Participants were asked to attend only to the group of people wearing white shirts and count the number of times they threw the ball. In this study, participants:

    • A.

      Could not ignore the participants wearing black

    • B.

      Reported the total number of times the ball changed hands regardless of whether it was thrown by a person wearing a white shirt or a person wearing a black shirt

    • C.

      Reported the number of throws made by the people wearing black shirts 50% of the time

    • D.

      Easily completed the task, but in the process failed to notice some other peculiar events that occurred

    Correct Answer
    D. Easily completed the task, but in the process failed to notice some other peculiar events that occurred
    Explanation
    Participants in the study were able to successfully count the number of times the ball was thrown by individuals wearing white shirts, indicating that they were able to complete the task easily. However, in the process of focusing on the white-shirted individuals, they failed to notice other peculiar events that occurred in the video. This suggests that their attention was selectively focused on the task at hand, leading to a lack of awareness of other details in the video.

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  • 5. 

    A key difference between incidental and intentional learning is the degree to which information is distributed

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Incidental learning refers to the acquisition of knowledge or skills without actively intending to learn them. In this type of learning, information is typically distributed randomly or sporadically, often through exposure to everyday experiences or situations. On the other hand, intentional learning involves a conscious effort to acquire specific knowledge or skills. In intentional learning, information is usually distributed in a more organized and structured manner, such as through formal education or training programs. Therefore, the statement that there is a key difference between incidental and intentional learning in terms of the degree to which information is distributed is false.

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  • 6. 

    Participants are shown a pair of similar pictures separated by a blank interval. The pictures are identical except for one single aspect (e.g., a man is wearing a hat in one scene but not in the other). In these kinds of tasks participants often find it hard to detect the change. This phenomenon is known as change:

    • A.

      Identification

    • B.

      Perception

    • C.

      Blindness

    • D.

      Unawareness

    Correct Answer
    C. Blindness
    Explanation
    In this task, participants are shown similar pictures with only one difference between them. The purpose is to test their ability to detect changes. However, participants often struggle to notice the change, which is referred to as change blindness. This term describes the phenomenon where individuals are unable to perceive or identify changes in visual stimuli, even when they are obvious.

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  • 7. 

    The idea of a “cognitive budget” is used several times in this chapter. Which of the following statements is NOT true of the “cognitive budget”?

    • A.

      One can only perform multiple tasks if the sum of the tasks’ demands do not exceed the budget.

    • B.

      The budget can increase through practice

    • C.

      Tasks may require fewer resources through practice.

    • D.

      The budget contains task specific and task-general resources.

    Correct Answer
    B. The budget can increase through practice
    Explanation
    The statement "The budget can increase through practice" is not true of the "cognitive budget." The concept of a cognitive budget suggests that individuals have a limited amount of mental resources to allocate towards different tasks. These resources are not something that can be increased through practice, but rather need to be managed effectively to avoid exceeding the limits of the cognitive budget. Practice may help individuals become more efficient in utilizing their existing cognitive resources, but it does not directly increase the budget itself.

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  • 8. 

    Week after week, Solomon watched his favorite TV show. He never planned to memorize the characters’ names, and he never took any steps to memorize the names. Nonetheless, he soon knew all of the characters’ names. This sort of learning is called:

    • A.

      Elaborative

    • B.

      Intentional

    • C.

      Accidental

    • D.

      Incidental

    Correct Answer
    D. Incidental
    Explanation
    Solomon's learning of the characters' names in his favorite TV show was unintentional and without any effort or intention on his part. He did not plan to memorize the names or take any steps to do so. However, over time, he acquired knowledge of all the characters' names. This type of learning, where knowledge is acquired without deliberate intention or effort, is called incidental learning.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is NOT an attribute of working memory (sometimes called short-term memory)?

    • A.

      Unlimited storage capacity

    • B.

      Drawn on by a wide range of tasks

    • C.

      Easily accessible

    • D.

      Contents closely associated with the current focus of attention

    Correct Answer
    A. Unlimited storage capacity
    Explanation
    Working memory, also known as short-term memory, is characterized by limited storage capacity. This means that it can only hold a limited amount of information at a time. The other attributes listed in the options are correct. Working memory is indeed drawn on by a wide range of tasks, easily accessible, and its contents are closely associated with the current focus of attention. However, it does not have an unlimited storage capacity, which is why it is called "short-term" memory.

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  • 10. 

    The generation effect suggests that you will do better on an exam when you are actively involved in taking notes during class and putting the lectures into your own words than on a test for which you were given the instructor’s PowerPoint presentations.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The generation effect refers to the phenomenon where actively engaging with information, such as taking notes and summarizing lectures in one's own words, enhances learning and memory. This is because the process of actively processing and organizing information helps to create stronger neural connections and deeper understanding. Therefore, according to the generation effect, actively taking notes during class and putting lectures into one's own words would result in better performance on an exam compared to simply relying on the instructor's PowerPoint presentations. Hence, the answer is true.

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  • 11. 

    Because of the effects of state-dependent learning, students might find it wise to:

    • A.

      Use mnemonic devices as a study aid

    • B.

      Study only when they are entirely sober

    • C.

      Focus on their instructor’s intended meaning rather than on the instructor’s exact words

    • D.

      Prepare for their examinations under conditions similar to the test conditions

    Correct Answer
    D. Prepare for their examinations under conditions similar to the test conditions
    Explanation
    Due to the effects of state-dependent learning, it is beneficial for students to prepare for their examinations under conditions similar to the test conditions. This means that studying in an environment that is similar to the exam setting can enhance memory retrieval during the actual test. State-dependent learning suggests that information is better recalled when the individual is in a similar state or context as when the information was initially learned. Therefore, by studying in a similar environment, students can improve their ability to recall information during the exam.

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  • 12. 

    Early estimates of working-memory’s capacity relied on the so-called digit-span task. The data indicate working memory’s capacity to be:

    • A.

      10 to 14 items

    • B.

      2 or 3 items

    • C.

      Around 20 items

    • D.

      Around 7 items

    Correct Answer
    D. Around 7 items
    Explanation
    The correct answer is around 7 items. Early estimates of working-memory capacity were based on the digit-span task, which involves remembering a sequence of digits. Research suggests that the average person can remember around 7 items in their working memory. This is known as Miller's Law or the "magic number 7." However, it is important to note that the capacity of working memory can vary among individuals and can be influenced by factors such as age, cognitive abilities, and task complexity.

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  • 13. 

    The helper that stores visual materials is called the:

    • A.

      Visuospatial buffer

    • B.

      Rehearsal loop

    • C.

      Visuo-central executive

    • D.

      Spatial image icon

    Correct Answer
    A. Visuospatial buffer
    Explanation
    The visuospatial buffer is the correct answer because it is the term used to describe the component of working memory that stores visual and spatial information. It is responsible for holding and manipulating visual materials such as images and objects in the mind. The other options, rehearsal loop, visuo-central executive, and spatial image icon, do not accurately describe the helper that stores visual materials.

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  • 14. 

    Data indicate that, all things equal, recall performance will be BEST if materials are encoded with _____ processing.

    • A.

      Shallow

    • B.

      Intermediate

    • C.

      Deep

    • D.

      Sensory

    Correct Answer
    C. Deep
    Explanation
    Deep processing refers to the mental processing that involves a thorough and meaningful analysis of information. When materials are encoded with deep processing, individuals engage in semantic processing, which involves making connections, relating information to prior knowledge, and understanding the meaning of the information. This type of processing enhances comprehension and understanding, leading to better recall performance compared to shallow or intermediate processing. Sensory processing, on the other hand, focuses on the sensory aspects of information and is not as effective for long-term retention.

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  • 15. 

    Learning that occurs not as a result of a purposeful attempt but as a by-product of performing a task is intentional learning.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement contradicts itself. It states that intentional learning occurs as a by-product of performing a task, which implies that the learning is not purposeful. However, intentional learning is defined as learning that occurs as a result of a purposeful attempt. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 16. 

    Deep processing may lead to improved memory performance because it facilitates retrieval. How exactly does this happen?

    • A.

      Deep processing leads many connections between the current item and previous knowledge to be formed.

    • B.

      Deep processing leads items to be kept in working memory.

    • C.

      Deep processing encourages use of mnemonics.

    • D.

      Deep processing leads to fewer retrieval paths, making the correct path more easy to access.

    Correct Answer
    A. Deep processing leads many connections between the current item and previous knowledge to be formed.
    Explanation
    Deep processing involves actively engaging with the information and relating it to existing knowledge and experiences. This process leads to the formation of numerous connections between the current item and previously stored knowledge. These connections enhance memory performance by creating multiple retrieval paths, making it easier to access the information when needed. By establishing meaningful associations and linking new information to prior knowledge, deep processing improves memory encoding and retrieval.

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  • 17. 

    In an experiment participants learned materials in Room A and were tested in Room B. If they were asked to think about Room A just before taking the test, participants:

    • A.

      Performed as well as they would have done had there been no room change

    • B.

      Performed worse on the test due to dual-task memory disruption

    • C.

      Performed the same as those participants who were not asked to think about Room A

    • D.

      Performed better than participants who were tested in Room B and were not asked to think about Room A, but worse than participants tested in Room A

    Correct Answer
    A. Performed as well as they would have done had there been no room change
    Explanation
    The participants performed as well as they would have done had there been no room change because thinking about Room A just before taking the test helped them retrieve the learned materials effectively. This suggests that the context-dependent memory principle played a role in their performance. When the participants thought about Room A, it likely triggered associations and cues related to the learning experience in that room, facilitating their memory retrieval during the test in Room B. As a result, their performance was not negatively affected by the room change.

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  • 18. 

    Participants are asked to memorize a list of words. In addition to the words themselves, participants will remember some aspects of the context in which the words appeared. This tendency to remember a stimulus within its context is referred to as:

    • A.

      Background learning

    • B.

      Multiple encoding

    • C.

      Implicit memory

    • D.

      Encoding specificity

    Correct Answer
    D. Encoding specificity
    Explanation
    Encoding specificity refers to the phenomenon where memory retrieval is enhanced when the context during encoding matches the context during retrieval. In this scenario, participants are asked to memorize a list of words and also remember some aspects of the context in which the words appeared. This matches the concept of encoding specificity as participants are not only encoding the words themselves but also the context in which they were presented. By remembering the context along with the words, participants are more likely to retrieve the information accurately.

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  • 19. 

    Patients with damage to the pulvinar tend to have difficulties engaging attention

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Patients with damage to the pulvinar, a structure in the thalamus, tend to have difficulties engaging attention. The pulvinar is involved in various cognitive processes, including attention and visual processing. Damage to this area can disrupt the normal functioning of attention networks in the brain, leading to difficulties in focusing and sustaining attention. Therefore, it is true that patients with damage to the pulvinar tend to have difficulties engaging attention.

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  • 20. 

    A participant is asked to memorize a series of word pairs, including the pair “heavy–light.” The participant is asked later if any of the following words had been included in the list memorized earlier: “lamp,” “candle,” “spark,” and “light.” The participant denies having seen any of these words recently. This is probably because:

    • A.

      The learning context does not provide adequate support for perceptual encoding

    • B.

      The learning context does relatively little to encourage deep processing

    • C.

      What was memorized was the idea of “light” as a description of weight, not “light” as illumination

    • D.

      The learning context led the participant to think in terms of opposites, while the test context led the participant to think in terms of semantic associates

    Correct Answer
    C. What was memorized was the idea of “light” as a description of weight, not “light” as illumination
    Explanation
    The participant denies having seen any of the words because what was memorized was the idea of "light" as a description of weight, not "light" as illumination. This suggests that the participant focused on the concept of "light" being the opposite of "heavy" rather than its meaning as illumination. Therefore, when asked about words related to "light" in the test context, the participant did not recognize them because they were expecting words related to weight rather than illumination.

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  • 21. 

    Cramming the night before an exam is an example of distributed practice.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Cramming the night before an exam is not an example of distributed practice. Distributed practice refers to spreading out the study sessions over a longer period of time, allowing for better retention and understanding of the material. Cramming, on the other hand, involves trying to learn a large amount of information in a short period of time, which is not an effective study strategy.

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  • 22. 

    Patients with frontal lobe lesions often show a pattern of goal:

    • A.

      Aphasia—being unable to construct a verbal description of the task at hand

    • B.

      Neglect—relying on habitual responses even if it does not help the goal at hand

    • C.

      Agnosia—confusing instructions of a task

    • D.

      Amnesia—forgetting about the goal at hand

    Correct Answer
    B. Neglect—relying on habitual responses even if it does not help the goal at hand
    Explanation
    Patients with frontal lobe lesions often show a pattern of neglect, which means they rely on habitual responses even if it does not help the goal at hand. This suggests that frontal lobe lesions can impair the ability to prioritize and attend to relevant information, leading to a disregard for alternative strategies or approaches. As a result, patients may persist in using familiar but ineffective methods, hindering their ability to achieve the intended goal.

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  • 23. 

    The strategy of maintenance rehearsal involves:

    • A.

      The repetition of the items to be remembered and the simultaneous consideration of the items’ meaning

    • B.

      A focus on the associations between the items to be remembered and other thoughts and ideas

    • C.

      Paying attention to the sequence of items, independent of their meaning

    • D.

      The repetition of the items to be remembered with little attention paid to what the items mean

    Correct Answer
    D. The repetition of the items to be remembered with little attention paid to what the items mean
    Explanation
    The strategy of maintenance rehearsal involves the repetition of the items to be remembered with little attention paid to what the items mean. This means that the individual is simply repeating the information over and over again without actively trying to understand or make connections to the meaning of the items. The focus is solely on the repetition of the items in order to keep them in memory temporarily.

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  • 24. 

    You have to remember of new phone number. Instead of remembering each of the seven digits individually (5-5-5-1-2-1-2), you remember two numbers (555-1212). This is an example of consolidation.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    This statement is false. Consolidation refers to the process of integrating new information into existing knowledge or memory. In this scenario, the person is not consolidating the new phone number by remembering two numbers instead of seven. They are simply using a different format to remember the same seven digits.

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  • 25. 

    When asked to recall a list of 25 words, participants are likely to remember only some of them. The words recalled are likely to include:

    • A.

      The last 12 or so words on the list

    • B.

      The first few words on the list, and also the last six or so words on the list

    • C.

      The first 12 or so words on the list

    • D.

      Words drawn from positions scattered throughout the list

    Correct Answer
    B. The first few words on the list, and also the last six or so words on the list
    Explanation
    Participants are likely to remember the first few words on the list because of the primacy effect, which suggests that items presented at the beginning of a list are more likely to be encoded into long-term memory. They are also likely to remember the last six or so words on the list due to the recency effect, which suggests that items presented most recently are still in the short-term memory. This combination of primacy and recency effects leads to the recall of the first few words and the last six or so words on the list.

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