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• 1.

### We more quickly recognize that a blue jay is a bird than that a penguin is a bird because a blue jay more closely resembles our________ of a bird.

• A.

Hueristic

• B.

Prototype

• C.

Algorithm

• D.

Phoneme

A. Hueristic
Explanation
We more quickly recognize that a blue jay is a bird than that a penguin is a bird because a blue jay more closely resembles our prototype of a bird. A prototype is a mental representation or image of a typical example or characteristic of a certain concept. In this case, our prototype of a bird is likely to be a small, flying creature with feathers, which aligns more closely with the appearance of a blue jay rather than a penguin. This similarity between the blue jay and our prototype allows for quicker recognition and categorization.

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• 2.

### Prototype is to category as ________ is to ________.

• A.

A. wheel; car

• B.

Milk; beverage

• C.

Waiter; restaurant

• D.

Comedian; laughter

B. Milk; beverage
Explanation
The relationship between prototype and category is that a prototype is an example or model that represents a category. Similarly, milk is an example or model that represents the category of beverages.

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• 3.

### To find Tabasco sauce in a large grocery store, you could systematically search every shelf in every store aisle. This best illustrates problem solving by means of:

• A.

The availability heuristic.

• B.

Functional fixedness.

• C.

An algorithm.

• D.

The representativeness heuristic.

C. An algorithm.
Explanation
An algorithm is a step-by-step procedure or method that guarantees a solution to a problem. In this case, systematically searching every shelf in every store aisle is a methodical approach that ensures you will eventually find the Tabasco sauce. This demonstrates problem solving by means of an algorithm.

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• 4.

### Max is so used to thinking that a tough competitive style of behavior is the best way to impress others that he fails to recognize that the most effective way to impress his girlfriend is with cooperative tenderness. Max’s oversight best illustrates:

• A.

A fixation

• B.

The framing effect.

• C.

The representativeness heuristic.

• D.

Functional fixedness.

A. A fixation
Explanation
Max's failure to recognize that cooperative tenderness is the most effective way to impress his girlfriend suggests that he is fixated on his belief that a tough competitive style of behavior is the best way to impress others. This fixation prevents him from considering alternative approaches and limits his ability to adapt to different social situations.

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• 5.

### Pablo vainly searches for a screwdriver while failing to recognize that a readily available coin in his pocket would turn the screw. His oversight best illustrates:

• A.

Functional fixedness.

• B.

the availability heuristic

• C.

Belief perseverance.

• D.

The framing effect

A. Functional fixedness.
Explanation
Functional fixedness refers to the tendency to perceive objects only in their typical or traditional uses, and overlooking alternative uses. In this scenario, Pablo is unable to recognize that a coin in his pocket could be used as a substitute for a screwdriver, indicating his functional fixedness. He is fixated on finding a screwdriver and fails to think creatively or consider alternative solutions to his problem.

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• 6.

### The easier it is for people to remember an instance in which they were betrayed by a friend, the more they expect such an event to recur. This best illustrates the impact of:

• A.

Framing.

• B.

The representativeness heuristic.

• C.

Functional fixedness.

• D.

The availability heuristic.

D. The availability heuristic.
Explanation
This question is asking about the impact of a cognitive bias on people's expectations. The availability heuristic is a mental shortcut in which people base their judgments on the ease with which they can bring specific examples to mind. In this case, the easier it is for people to remember a time when they were betrayed by a friend, the more they expect it to happen again. This demonstrates the impact of the availability heuristic on people's expectations.

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• 7.

### College students are more likely to choose a condom that is said to be effective when informed that it has a 95 percent success rate than when told it has a 5 percent failure rate. This best illustrates the impact of:

• A.

Framing.

• B.

Confirmation bias.

• C.

Functional fixedness.

• D.

The representativeness heuristic

A. Framing.
Explanation
This question is asking about the impact of a particular factor on college students' likelihood to choose a condom. The factor in question is whether the condom is described as having a 95 percent success rate or a 5 percent failure rate. The correct answer, framing, refers to how the presentation or framing of information can influence people's perception or decision-making. In this case, the way the information about the condom's effectiveness is framed (as a success rate or a failure rate) affects the students' choices.

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• 8.

### Professor Chadwick evaluated a graduate student’s research proposal negatively simply because he had heard a rumor about the student’s incompetence. When later informed that the rumor had been patently false, the professor’s assessment of the student’s research proposal remained almost as negative as it was originally. This best illustrates:

• A.

The representativeness heuristic.

• B.

The availability heuristic.

• C.

Belief perseverance.

• D.

Framing.

C. Belief perseverance.
Explanation
This scenario demonstrates belief perseverance because the professor's initial negative assessment of the student's research proposal persisted even after he was informed that the rumor about the student's incompetence was false. Despite receiving new information that contradicted his original belief, the professor continued to hold onto his negative assessment, indicating a tendency to persevere in his initial belief. This illustrates the concept of belief perseverance, which refers to the tendency to maintain beliefs even in the face of contradictory evidence.

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• 9.

### Native German speakers who pronounce the English world “this” as “dis” are demonstrating their difficulty with an English:

• A.

Morpheme.

• B.

Prototype.

• C.

Phoneme.

• D.

Heuristic

C. Phoneme.
Explanation
Native German speakers who pronounce the English word "this" as "dis" are demonstrating their difficulty with an English phoneme. A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a language that can distinguish meaning. In English, the "th" sound in "this" is not present in German, so native German speakers may struggle to produce this sound accurately. This pronunciation difference highlights the difficulty with a specific phoneme in the English language for German speakers.

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• 10.

### When you add s to the word apple you are referring to more than one apple. This illustrates an English language rule of:

• A.

Semantics.

• B.

Algorithms.

• C.

Syntax.

• D.

Telegraphic speech

A. Semantics.
Explanation
Adding "s" to the word "apple" indicates that there is more than one apple, which relates to the concept of semantics. Semantics is the study of meaning in language, including how words and phrases convey different meanings and refer to different things. In this case, adding "s" changes the meaning of the word "apple" to signify multiple apples.

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• 11.

### 11. The two-word stage of language development typically begins at the age of ________ months.

• A.

6

• B.

10

• C.

24

• D.

36

C. 24
Explanation
The two-word stage of language development typically begins at the age of 24 months. This is when children start combining two words together to form simple sentences. At this stage, they are able to understand and use basic grammar rules and communicate their needs and wants more effectively. Before this stage, children usually use single words or short phrases to express themselves.

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• 12.

### The fact that children speak with an accent that is similar to that of their peers is best explained by ________ theory of language acquisition.

• A.

Skinner’s

• B.

Whorf’s

• C.

Chomsky’s

• D.

Tversky’s

A. Skinner’s
Explanation
Skinner's theory of language acquisition, also known as behaviorist theory, suggests that children learn language through imitation and reinforcement from their environment. In this context, the fact that children speak with an accent similar to their peers can be explained by Skinner's theory, as they imitate and reinforce each other's speech patterns. This theory emphasizes the role of external factors in language acquisition rather than innate abilities or cognitive processes.

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• 13.

### Learning a spoken language during childhood ________ the learning of sign language during adolescence. Learning sign language during childhood _______ the learning of a spoken language during adolescence.

• A.

Inhibits; facilitates

• B.

Facilitates; inhibits

• C.

Inhibits; inhibits

• D.

Facilitates; facilitates

D. Facilitates; facilitates
Explanation
Learning a spoken language during childhood facilitates the learning of sign language during adolescence. This is because learning a spoken language helps develop language skills, which can then be transferred and applied to learning sign language. Similarly, learning sign language during childhood also facilitates the learning of a spoken language during adolescence. This is because sign language helps develop communication and language skills, which can then be transferred and applied to learning a spoken language. Therefore, both scenarios facilitate the learning process and enhance language acquisition.

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• 14.

### Using different words for two very similar objects enables people to recognize conceptual distinctions between the objects. This illustrates:

• A.

Telegraphic speech.

• B.

Linguistic determinism.

• C.

Functional fixedness.

• D.

The representativeness heuristic.

B. Linguistic determinism.
Explanation
Using different words for two very similar objects enables people to recognize conceptual distinctions between the objects. This suggests the idea of linguistic determinism, which is the belief that language influences and determines the way we think and perceive the world around us. By having different words for similar objects, language shapes our understanding and categorization of these objects, highlighting the influence of language on our cognitive processes.

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• 15.

### When choosing who should retrieve food for them, humans prefer someone who has witnessed it being hidden. Chimps do not. This best illustrates that chimps have a more limited:

• A.

Syntax.

• B.

Prototype.

• C.

Theory of mind.

• D.

Category hierarchy.

C. Theory of mind.
Explanation
This answer is correct because the preference of humans for someone who has witnessed the hiding of food suggests that they understand that others have different perspectives and knowledge. This ability to attribute mental states to others is known as theory of mind. Chimps, on the other hand, do not show this preference, indicating that they have a more limited understanding of the mental states of others.

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• Current Version
• Mar 10, 2023
Quiz Edited by
ProProfs Editorial Team
• Jan 17, 2010
Quiz Created by
Brookej

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