Can You Pass This Cognition Test? Trivia Quiz

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Can You Pass This Cognition Test? Trivia Quiz - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The phrase “memory without awareness” is another way of describing a pattern in which:

    • A.

      Explicit memory tests indicate that a participant remembers an event but implicit memory tests indicate that the participant does not remember

    • B.

      Implicit memory tests indicate that a participant remembers an event but explicit memory tests indicate that the participant does not remember

    • C.

      recognition tests indicate that a participant remembers an event but recall tests indicate that the participant does not remember

    • D.

      Direct memory testing indicates that a participant remembers an event but indirect testing indicates that the participant does not remember

    Correct Answer
    B. Implicit memory tests indicate that a participant remembers an event but explicit memory tests indicate that the participant does not remember
    Explanation
    The phrase "memory without awareness" refers to a situation where a participant remembers an event on an implicit level, as indicated by implicit memory tests, but does not remember it on an explicit level, as indicated by explicit memory tests. This means that the participant may not consciously recall the event, but their behavior or performance on certain tasks may suggest that they have retained some memory of it.

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  • 2. 

    According to an evolutionary psychological perspective, people will perform better on a reasoning problem if that problem can be related to:

    • A.

      Hunting or gathering

    • B.

      Permission

    • C.

      Detecting cheaters or betrayal

    • D.

      Statements about necessity rather than sufficiency

    Correct Answer
    C. Detecting cheaters or betrayal
    Explanation
    From an evolutionary psychological perspective, humans have evolved to be highly sensitive to detecting cheaters or betrayal in order to protect themselves and their resources. This heightened awareness of potential threats has been beneficial for survival and reproductive success. Therefore, when a reasoning problem involves detecting cheaters or betrayal, individuals are likely to perform better as it taps into this evolved cognitive ability.

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  • 3. 

    People tend to be more alert and responsive to evidence that supports their preexisting notions and beliefs than to evidence that challenges them. This effect is called

    Correct Answer
    confirmation bias
    Explanation
    Confirmation bias refers to the tendency of individuals to seek and interpret information in a way that confirms their preconceived beliefs or hypotheses. People are more likely to pay attention to and give more weight to evidence that aligns with their existing notions, while disregarding or downplaying evidence that contradicts their beliefs. This bias can lead to a distortion of reality, as individuals may selectively gather and interpret information to support their own views, rather than objectively evaluating all available evidence.

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  • 4. 

    The expected value of an option:

    • A.

      Provides an estimate that is independent of the likelihood of reaching the action’s desired outcome

    • B.

      Can be calculated as a value independent of the action’s consequences

    • C.

      Is calculated as the utility of the likely outcome of the action multiplied by the probability of reaching that outcome

    • D.

      Is negative if the likelihood of success with the action is extremely low

    Correct Answer
    C. Is calculated as the utility of the likely outcome of the action multiplied by the probability of reaching that outcome
    Explanation
    The expected value of an option is calculated as the utility of the likely outcome of the action multiplied by the probability of reaching that outcome. This means that the expected value takes into account both the potential benefits (utility) of the outcome and the likelihood of actually achieving that outcome. By multiplying these two factors together, the expected value provides an estimate of the overall value or worthiness of the option.

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  • 5. 

    Studies indicate that participants tend to integrate base-rate information with diagnostic information.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The explanation for the answer "False" is that studies have shown that participants do not tend to integrate base-rate information with diagnostic information. Instead, they often rely more heavily on diagnostic information, which can lead to biases and errors in decision-making.

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  • 6. 

    A problem’s “initial state” refers to the knowledge and resources one possesses at the outset of the problem.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The initial state of a problem refers to the knowledge and resources that one has at the beginning of the problem-solving process. This includes the information, tools, and skills that can be used to tackle the problem. Therefore, the statement "A problem's initial state refers to the knowledge and resources one possesses at the outset of the problem" is true.

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  • 7. 

    In general, a training procedure will promote subsequent analogy use if the procedure:

    • A.

      Helps participants to remember the exact formulation of the training problems

    • B.

      Makes the value of analogy use clear to participants

    • C.

      Encourages participants to pay attention to the training problem’s deep structure

    • D.

      Teaches the participants general principles about how analogies function

    Correct Answer
    C. Encourages participants to pay attention to the training problem’s deep structure
    Explanation
    Encouraging participants to pay attention to the training problem's deep structure will promote subsequent analogy use because it helps them understand the underlying patterns and relationships between different elements. By focusing on the deep structure, participants can better identify similarities and apply analogical reasoning to new problems. This approach enhances their ability to recognize and utilize analogies in future situations, thereby promoting analogy use.

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  • 8. 

    Expert problem-solvers:

    • A.

      Focus on the surface of a problem rather than on its deep structure

    • B.

      Use analogies less often than do novices

    • C.

      Tend to categorize problems in terms of their deep structure

    • D.

      Do not need to rely on mapping in their use of analogies

    Correct Answer
    C. Tend to categorize problems in terms of their deep structure
    Explanation
    Expert problem-solvers tend to categorize problems in terms of their deep structure. This means that they focus on understanding the underlying principles and concepts that govern a problem, rather than just looking at the surface level details. By categorizing problems based on their deep structure, experts are able to apply their knowledge and experience to similar problems in a more effective and efficient way. This allows them to identify patterns, make connections, and come up with innovative solutions.

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  • 9. 

    All television shows are junk. Junk is not worth watching. Therefore, all television shows are not worth watching.” This is an example of a ____________,a type of logical argument.

    Correct Answer
    syllogism
    Explanation
    The given statement presents a logical argument in the form of a syllogism. It consists of two premises: "All television shows are junk" and "Junk is not worth watching." From these premises, the conclusion is drawn that "all television shows are not worth watching." This argument follows the structure of a syllogism, which is a deductive reasoning pattern that uses two premises to reach a logical conclusion.

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  • 10. 

    The tendency to be rigid in how one thinks about an object’s function is called:

    • A.

      Mental stickiness

    • B.

      Functional fixedness

    • C.

      Functional narrowness

    • D.

      Narrow focus

    Correct Answer
    B. Functional fixedness
    Explanation
    Functional fixedness refers to the tendency to be rigid in how one thinks about an object's function. This means that individuals may have difficulty thinking of alternative uses for an object beyond its typical or intended function. This can limit creativity and problem-solving abilities as individuals are unable to see beyond the conventional use of an object. Mental stickiness, functional narrowness, and narrow focus do not specifically capture this concept of being rigid in thinking about an object's function.

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  • 11. 

    Deduction is a process that allows us to make specific predictions on the basis of more general knowledge.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Deduction is a logical process where specific conclusions are drawn from general principles or premises. By using deductive reasoning, we can make predictions or reach specific conclusions based on the information that we already know. Therefore, the statement that deduction allows us to make specific predictions on the basis of more general knowledge is true.

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  • 12. 

    Many years ago, Wallas argued that creative thought proceeds through four stages. Which of the following is NOT one of these stages?

    • A.

      Illumination

    • B.

      Articulation

    • C.

      Preparation

    • D.

      Incubation

    Correct Answer
    B. Articulation
    Explanation
    Wallas proposed that creative thought involves four stages: preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification. Articulation is not one of these stages.

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  • 13. 

    A great deal of behind–the-scenes activity is necessary to make possible intellectual achievements like thinking and remembering. This behind-the-scenes activity is referred to by psychologists as

    • A.

      Nuts-and-bolts work

    • B.

      The cognitive unconscious

    • C.

      Subconscious production

    • D.

      Running the program

    Correct Answer
    B. The cognitive unconscious
    Explanation
    The explanation for the correct answer, "the cognitive unconscious," is that psychologists use this term to describe the behind-the-scenes activity that is necessary for intellectual achievements like thinking and remembering. The cognitive unconscious refers to the processes and mechanisms that occur in the mind without conscious awareness, such as automatic processing, implicit memory, and cognitive biases. It highlights the idea that much of our mental activity occurs without us being consciously aware of it.

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  • 14. 

    Conditional statements follow the format of some A are B.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Conditional statements do not follow the format of "some A are B." Instead, they follow the format of "if A, then B" or "A implies B." The statement "some A are B" is an example of a categorical statement, not a conditional statement. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 15. 

    Several authors have proposed that we are generally aware of the _____ of our own thoughts even though we are usually unaware of the _____ of thought

    • A.

      Product; processes

    • B.

      Decision-making processes; products

    • C.

      Implicit mechanisms; explicit mechanisms

    • D.

      Inferences; strategies

    Correct Answer
    A. Product; processes
    Explanation
    This answer is correct because it aligns with the idea that we are generally aware of the end result or product of our thoughts, such as our beliefs or opinions, but we are often unaware of the underlying thought processes that led to those conclusions. This distinction between the product and the processes of thought is supported by the statement made in the question.

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  • 16. 

    Erin has Korsakoff’s amnesia and is asked to perform in a memory experiment. Erin is likely to:

    • A.

      Be capable of learning but do poorly in explicit tests of memory

    • B.

      Recall explicitly events that she has witnessed but not the things that she has done

    • C.

      Perform well on tests requiring conscious recollection even though her performance is poor if memory is tested indirectly

    • D.

      Be unable to recall material learned in the past even though she explicitly recognizes the material when she encounters it

    Correct Answer
    A. Be capable of learning but do poorly in explicit tests of memory
    Explanation
    Erin's condition of Korsakoff's amnesia is characterized by difficulty in forming new memories. However, she may still be capable of learning new information, as learning involves different cognitive processes than explicit memory. Explicit tests of memory require conscious recollection, which can be impaired in individuals with Korsakoff's amnesia. Therefore, Erin is likely to be capable of learning new information but may perform poorly in explicit tests of memory.

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  • 17. 

    Lisa rides the train to work and always gets off at stop A. One Saturday she has to go into town, and rides the same train she takes to work. She is supposed to get off at Stop F, but she starts talking to her mother on the phone and gets off at stop A. What does this tell us about unconscious processing?

    • A.

      Unconscious processing is impossible.

    • B.

      If not consciously attending to what we are doing, we will rely on habit.

    • C.

      Unconscious processing only causes problems.

    • D.

      People tend to make the same mistakes over and over again.

    Correct Answer
    B. If not consciously attending to what we are doing, we will rely on habit.
    Explanation
    This question tells us that if we are not consciously attending to what we are doing, we will rely on habit. In this scenario, Lisa is so engrossed in her conversation with her mother that she unconsciously gets off at her usual stop, even though she was supposed to get off at a different stop. This shows that when our attention is diverted, our unconscious processing takes over and we rely on our habitual actions.

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  • 18. 

    A group of participants has just completed a series of problems involving water jars. In each problem, the participants needed to fill the largest jar, pour from it once into the middle-sized jar, and then pour from the largest jar twice into the smallest jar. The participants are now given a new problem, which cannot be solved via this procedure. We would expect that the participants will:

    • A.

      Quickly solve the new problem because they have had practice with a series of very similar problems

    • B.

      Have difficulty with the new problem because they are now locked into the procedure they had used successfully

    • C.

      Behave just as participants who have no experience with water jar problems; that is, there will be no effect of the prior training

    • D.

      Try their already practiced procedure and, once they realize this procedure does not help them, they will show no effect of the prior training

    Correct Answer
    B. Have difficulty with the new problem because they are now locked into the procedure they had used successfully
    Explanation
    The participants are likely to have difficulty with the new problem because they have become accustomed to a specific procedure that they have used successfully in the previous problems. This indicates that they may be locked into this procedure and find it challenging to adapt to a different approach. Their prior training has influenced their problem-solving mindset, causing them to struggle with a problem that cannot be solved using the familiar procedure.

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  • 19. 

    Mistakenly relying on a habitual response when a novel response was needed is referred to as an "".

    Correct Answer
    action slip
    Explanation
    Mistakenly relying on a habitual response when a novel response was needed is referred to as an "action slip". This term is used to describe a situation where an individual unintentionally performs an action that is different from what they intended due to relying on an automatic or habitual response. This can occur when a person is not fully attentive or when they are distracted, leading to an error in their actions.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is NOT a heuristic used in problem-solving?

    • A.

      Framing

    • B.

      Hill-climbing

    • C.

      Means-end analysis

    • D.

      Working backward from the goal state

    Correct Answer
    A. Framing
    Explanation
    Framing is not a heuristic used in problem-solving. Heuristics are mental shortcuts or rules of thumb that help in problem-solving. Hill-climbing, means-end analysis, and working backward from the goal state are all examples of heuristics commonly used to solve problems. However, framing refers to how a problem is perceived or presented, and it does not provide a specific strategy or approach to solving problems. Therefore, framing is not considered a heuristic in problem-solving.

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  • 21. 

    Dual-process models state that people have two ways of thinking: one is a fast and automatic process, whereas the other is slower but more accurate.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Dual-process models propose that individuals have two distinct thinking processes. The first process is fast and automatic, allowing for quick decision-making without much conscious effort. The second process is slower but more accurate, involving deliberate and careful consideration of information. This answer is true because it correctly reflects the main idea of dual-process models, which is the existence of these two different thinking processes.

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  • 22. 

    Participants’ use of “hill-climbing” is evident in that

    • A.

      Participants solve problems more quickly if they can divide the problem into smaller subproblems

    • B.

      Problem-solving often gets stalled if a problem requires the participant to move briefly away from the goal state in order (ultimately) to reach the goal

    • C.

      Participants are disrupted in their problem-solving if they are asked to think out loud as they proceed

    • D.

      Participants are often confused unless the problem’s path constraints are clearly specified

    Correct Answer
    B. Problem-solving often gets stalled if a problem requires the participant to move briefly away from the goal state in order (ultimately) to reach the goal
    Explanation
    The given correct answer suggests that participants' use of "hill-climbing" is evident when problem-solving gets stalled if they have to temporarily move away from the goal state in order to ultimately reach the goal. This indicates that participants tend to prioritize immediate progress towards the goal, even if it means temporarily moving away from it, rather than considering the long-term benefits of taking a different path. This behavior aligns with the concept of "hill-climbing" where individuals focus on making incremental improvements rather than exploring alternative options.

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