Explicit memory tests indicate that a participant remembers an event but implicit memory tests indicate that the participant does not remember
Implicit memory tests indicate that a participant remembers an event but explicit memory tests indicate that the participant does not remember
recognition tests indicate that a participant remembers an event but recall tests indicate that the participant does not remember
Direct memory testing indicates that a participant remembers an event but indirect testing indicates that the participant does not remember
Hunting or gathering
Detecting cheaters or betrayal
Statements about necessity rather than sufficiency
Provides an estimate that is independent of the likelihood of reaching the action’s desired outcome
Can be calculated as a value independent of the action’s consequences
Is calculated as the utility of the likely outcome of the action multiplied by the probability of reaching that outcome
Is negative if the likelihood of success with the action is extremely low
Helps participants to remember the exact formulation of the training problems
Makes the value of analogy use clear to participants
Encourages participants to pay attention to the training problem’s deep structure
Teaches the participants general principles about how analogies function
Focus on the surface of a problem rather than on its deep structure
Use analogies less often than do novices
Tend to categorize problems in terms of their deep structure
Do not need to rely on mapping in their use of analogies
The cognitive unconscious
Running the program
Decision-making processes; products
Implicit mechanisms; explicit mechanisms
Be capable of learning but do poorly in explicit tests of memory
Recall explicitly events that she has witnessed but not the things that she has done
Perform well on tests requiring conscious recollection even though her performance is poor if memory is tested indirectly
Be unable to recall material learned in the past even though she explicitly recognizes the material when she encounters it
Unconscious processing is impossible.
If not consciously attending to what we are doing, we will rely on habit.
Unconscious processing only causes problems.
People tend to make the same mistakes over and over again.
Quickly solve the new problem because they have had practice with a series of very similar problems
Have difficulty with the new problem because they are now locked into the procedure they had used successfully
Behave just as participants who have no experience with water jar problems; that is, there will be no effect of the prior training
Try their already practiced procedure and, once they realize this procedure does not help them, they will show no effect of the prior training
Working backward from the goal state
Participants solve problems more quickly if they can divide the problem into smaller subproblems
Problem-solving often gets stalled if a problem requires the participant to move briefly away from the goal state in order (ultimately) to reach the goal
Participants are disrupted in their problem-solving if they are asked to think out loud as they proceed
Participants are often confused unless the problem’s path constraints are clearly specified
Here's an interesting quiz for you.