Cognitive Skills And Abilities! Trivia Quiz

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Cognitive Skills And Abilities! Trivia Quiz - Quiz

Can you answer all these questions about cognitive skills and abilities? Test your knowledge on this mental action quiz to see how you do and compare your score too.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which is NOT true of semantic memory

    • A.

      General world knowledge

    • B.

      A person's mental encyclopedia and dictionary

    • C.

      Includes language

    • D.

      Critically depends on pituitary functioning

    Correct Answer
    D. Critically depends on pituitary functioning
    Explanation
    Semantic memory is a type of long-term memory that involves the storage and retrieval of general knowledge about the world, concepts, facts, and language. It is not dependent on the functioning of the pituitary gland, which is responsible for hormone regulation and not memory processes. Therefore, the statement that semantic memory critically depends on pituitary functioning is not true.

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  • 2. 

    "ROBIN is a BIRD" is NOT an example of:

    • A.

      A proposition

    • B.

      Perceptual categorization

    • C.

      An "isa" statement

    • D.

      Category membership

    Correct Answer
    B. Perceptual categorization
    Explanation
    The statement "ROBIN is a BIRD" is not an example of perceptual categorization because it does not involve the process of categorizing objects based on their perceptual features or characteristics. Instead, it is an example of an "isa" statement, where one object is identified as belonging to a specific category. In this case, the robin is being identified as a member of the bird category.

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  • 3. 

    "The sheer quantity of information involved... argues strongly that both the human subject's memory and our model thereof contain as little redundancy as possible and that it [should] contain stored facts only when these cannot otherwise be generated or inferred.

    • A.

      Cognitive economy

    • B.

      Encoding specificity

    • C.

      Dual-coding hypothesis

    • D.

      Characteristic feature storage

    Correct Answer
    A. Cognitive economy
    Explanation
    The explanation for the correct answer, Cognitive economy, is that it suggests that both human memory and our model of memory should minimize redundancy and only store facts that cannot be generated or inferred. This principle helps to explain why our memory is limited and why we tend to prioritize important or unique information over redundant information. By minimizing redundancy, our memory becomes more efficient and can store a larger quantity of information.

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  • 4. 

    In semantic memory research, the result that typical members of a category tend to be judged as members of the category more rapidly than atypical members

    • A.

      Typicality effect

    • B.

      Redundancy gain

    • C.

      Feature effect

    • D.

      Familiarity bias

    Correct Answer
    A. Typicality effect
    Explanation
    The typicality effect refers to the phenomenon in semantic memory research where typical members of a category are judged as members of the category more quickly than atypical members. This suggests that our cognitive processes are influenced by the typicality or prototypicality of objects or concepts within a category. The more closely an item aligns with our mental representation of a category, the faster we are able to recognize it as a member of that category. This effect highlights the importance of prototypes and typical examples in our cognitive processing.

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  • 5. 

    Which is NOT true?

    • A.

      Evidence supports the notion that multiple types of categorization are used.

    • B.

      Typical members resemble the prototype of the category.

    • C.

      Diffusion reduces the priming effects for central categorical membership.

    • D.

      Real-world concepts and categories involve fuzzy boundaries.

    Correct Answer
    C. Diffusion reduces the priming effects for central categorical membership.
    Explanation
    The statement "Diffusion reduces the priming effects for central categorical membership" is not true. Diffusion actually enhances the priming effects for central categorical membership.

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  • 6. 

    Lexical means:

    • A.

      Network

    • B.

      Meaning

    • C.

      Response time

    • D.

      Dictionary

    Correct Answer
    D. Dictionary
    Explanation
    The term "lexical" refers to anything related to words or vocabulary. In this context, "lexical" is used as an adjective to describe the noun "dictionary," which is a reference book that contains words and their meanings. Therefore, the correct answer is "dictionary" because it aligns with the meaning of "lexical" as something related to words and vocabulary.

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  • 7. 

    Anomia is a

    • A.

      Deficit in memory due to brain injury

    • B.

      Deficit in comprehension due to brain injury

    • C.

      Deficit in reading due to brain injury

    • D.

      Deficit in word finding due to brain injury

    Correct Answer
    D. Deficit in word finding due to brain injury
    Explanation
    Anomia refers to a deficit in word finding due to brain injury. This means that individuals with anomia have difficulty recalling or finding the right words to express their thoughts or communicate. It is a common symptom of various brain disorders, such as aphasia, which affects language processing and production. Brain injury can disrupt the connections between language-related areas in the brain, leading to difficulties in word retrieval.

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  • 8. 

    "A theoretical perspective in which different abilities, characteristics, type of cognitive processes, and so forth are theorized to be represented in separate components or modules in memory"

    • A.

      Individual differences

    • B.

      Modularity

    • C.

      Hemispheric speciation

    • D.

      Comprehensive function

    Correct Answer
    B. Modularity
    Explanation
    Modularity is the correct answer because it refers to a theoretical perspective in which different abilities, characteristics, and cognitive processes are believed to be represented in separate components or modules in memory. This perspective suggests that these modules operate independently of each other, allowing for specialization and efficiency in processing information. Modularity is a widely accepted concept in cognitive psychology and helps explain individual differences in cognitive abilities and functions.

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  • 9. 

    The proper term for better-than-baseline response (generally a result of useful advance information):

    • A.

      Facilitation

    • B.

      Stroop

    • C.

      Typicality

    • D.

      Prototyping

    Correct Answer
    A. Facilitation
    Explanation
    Facilitation is the proper term for a better-than-baseline response, which is typically a result of useful advance information. Facilitation refers to the enhancement in performance or response speed due to the presence of facilitative factors. In this context, it suggests that the advance information provided has improved the individual's response or performance beyond what would be expected without that information. The term "Facilitation" accurately describes this phenomenon and is the correct answer in this case.

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  • 10. 

    Which is NOT a purported advantage of using connectionist modeling to study cognition?

    • A.

      The yes/no of neural firing mirrors the on/off binary aspect of connectionist units.

    • B.

      Individual units within connectionist models are "similar" to neurons.

    • C.

      Massive parallel functions allow us to extrapolate beyond what computers can model.

    • D.

      Structural similarity to neural connections

    Correct Answer
    C. Massive parallel functions allow us to extrapolate beyond what computers can model.
    Explanation
    Connectionist modeling is a computational approach that attempts to simulate cognitive processes using interconnected units, which are similar to neurons. One advantage of connectionist modeling is that the yes/no nature of neural firing can be mirrored by the on/off binary aspect of connectionist units. Another advantage is the structural similarity to neural connections. However, the statement that massive parallel functions allow us to extrapolate beyond what computers can model is not a purported advantage of using connectionist modeling to study cognition. This suggests that connectionist modeling does not necessarily provide a unique advantage in terms of parallel processing capabilities compared to traditional computer models.

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  • 11. 

    Which is NOT one of Schacter's "seven sins of memory"?

    • A.

      Blocking

    • B.

      Transience

    • C.

      Suggestibility

    • D.

      Transfer

    Correct Answer
    D. Transfer
    Explanation
    Transfer is not one of Schacter's "seven sins of memory" because it refers to the process of information being stored in memory and then being retrieved at a later time. The seven sins of memory, as proposed by Schacter, are different types of memory failures, such as blocking (temporary inability to retrieve information), transience (gradual loss of memory over time), and suggestibility (tendency to incorporate misleading information into memory). Transfer, on the other hand, is not a memory failure but rather a fundamental process in memory formation and retrieval.

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  • 12. 

    Schemata

    • A.

      A stored framework or body of knowledge about some topic

    • B.

      An active organization of past reactions or past experiences

    • C.

      A knowledge structure in memory prospective memory

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The term "schemata" refers to a stored framework or body of knowledge about a specific topic. It is also an active organization of past reactions or experiences, as well as a knowledge structure in memory for prospective memory. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above" as all the given options accurately describe the concept of schemata.

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  • 13. 

    The most likely problem for the effective and fair use of eyewitness testimony in court proceedings is

    • A.

      Semantic roles as pathway labels

    • B.

      Recollection or recognition of exactly what was experienced

    • C.

      Propositional encoding

    • D.

      A "hit" despite a high proportion of "false alarms"

    Correct Answer
    B. Recollection or recognition of exactly what was experienced
    Explanation
    Eyewitness testimony is often considered unreliable because people may not accurately recollect or recognize exactly what they experienced. Memory is a complex process that can be influenced by various factors such as stress, time, and suggestion. People may unintentionally distort or misremember details, leading to inaccuracies in their testimony. This can create problems in court proceedings as eyewitness testimony is often given significant weight and can sway the decision of the judge or jury. Therefore, the recollection or recognition of exactly what was experienced is the most likely problem for the effective and fair use of eyewitness testimony in court proceedings.

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  • 14. 

    Large scale semantic and episodic knowledge structures that guide our interpretation and comprehension of daily experience

    • A.

      Scripts

    • B.

      Isolationistics

    • C.

      Propositions

    • D.

      Mnemonics

    Correct Answer
    C. Propositions
    Explanation
    Propositions refer to the large-scale semantic and episodic knowledge structures that guide our interpretation and comprehension of daily experiences. They are the underlying representations of meaning that help us understand and make sense of the world around us. Through propositions, we are able to organize and store information, allowing us to form coherent thoughts and understand the relationships between different concepts.

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  • 15. 

    Which is NOT mentioned as a source of memory distortion?

    • A.

      Source misattribution

    • B.

      Misinformation acceptance

    • C.

      Overconfidence in memory

    • D.

      Encoding specificity

    Correct Answer
    D. Encoding specificity
    Explanation
    Encoding specificity refers to the idea that memory is more effective when the context in which information is encoded matches the context in which it is retrieved. It does not involve memory distortion, but rather focuses on the relationship between encoding and retrieval processes. Therefore, encoding specificity is not mentioned as a source of memory distortion in the given options.

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  • 16. 

    Refers to the ease with which something is processed or comes to mind

    • A.

      Reconstruction

    • B.

      Semanitc Processing

    • C.

      Processing fluency

    • D.

      Source effect

    Correct Answer
    C. Processing fluency
    Explanation
    Processing fluency refers to the ease with which something is processed or comes to mind. It is the cognitive ease or smoothness experienced when processing information. When information is easy to process, it is more likely to be perceived as true, familiar, or trustworthy. This concept has implications in various domains such as memory, decision making, and persuasion. It suggests that the ease of processing information can influence our judgments and attitudes towards it.

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  • 17. 

    Attaching a title to a story can distort recall or recollection of the story.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Attaching a title to a story can distort recall or recollection of the story. This is because a title can create expectations or biases in the reader's mind, leading them to remember or interpret the story in a way that aligns with the title. The title can influence their perception of the story's themes, characters, or events, potentially altering their memory of the actual content. Therefore, it is true that attaching a title to a story can distort recall or recollection.

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  • 18. 

    In script picture stories:

    • A.

      Atypical information is remembered better than typical information

    • B.

      "Effects" produce fewer memory impairments than do "causes"

    • C.

      After correcting for guessing, typical content is remembered better than atypical content

    • D.

      People have good technical accuracy, even across a five day retention interval

    Correct Answer
    B. "Effects" produce fewer memory impairments than do "causes"
    Explanation
    The given answer states that "Effects" produce fewer memory impairments than "causes." This means that people are more likely to remember the effects of an event or action rather than the causes behind it. This could be because effects are often more noticeable or have a stronger impact on individuals, making them more memorable. Additionally, remembering effects may be easier as they are often associated with specific outcomes or consequences, whereas causes may be more abstract or complex. Overall, this suggests that when it comes to memory, people tend to focus more on the outcomes or results rather than the underlying causes.

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  • 19. 

    Sign language is a true language

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Sign language is considered a true language because it has all the necessary components of a language, including grammar, vocabulary, syntax, and the ability to convey complex ideas and concepts. It is a visual-gestural language that uses handshapes, facial expressions, and body movements to communicate. Sign language is used by Deaf individuals and is recognized as an official language in many countries. It is not just a collection of gestures or miming, but a fully developed language with its own linguistic structure and rules.

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  • 20. 

    Understanding productivity is argued to be the key to understanding language.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Understanding productivity is argued to be the key to understanding language because productivity refers to the ability of language users to create and understand an infinite number of new sentences. It allows us to combine words and phrases in novel ways to express new ideas and communicate effectively. Without productivity, language would be limited to a fixed set of phrases and expressions, making it difficult to convey complex thoughts and adapt to new situations. Therefore, understanding productivity is crucial in unraveling the complexities of language.

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  • 21. 

    Languages with more phonemes allow more complex ideas to be communicated.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Languages with more phonemes do not necessarily allow for more complex ideas to be communicated. The complexity of ideas in a language is determined by its grammar, vocabulary, and syntax, rather than the number of distinct sounds or phonemes it has. Some languages with a smaller number of phonemes, such as Chinese, can convey complex ideas through their writing systems and word order. Similarly, languages with a larger number of phonemes, such as English, can also express complex ideas. Therefore, the statement that languages with more phonemes allow for more complex ideas to be communicated is false.

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  • 22. 

    With training, grammatical versus ungrammatical sentence structures do not impact shadowing performance.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is false. With training, grammatical versus ungrammatical sentence structures do impact shadowing performance. Training helps individuals improve their ability to accurately repeat and understand spoken language, and this includes being able to distinguish between grammatically correct and incorrect sentence structures. Therefore, training can have an impact on shadowing performance in relation to grammatical and ungrammatical sentence structures.

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  • 23. 

    Any theory of speech recognition must account for both data-driven and conceptually driven processing.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement suggests that any theory of speech recognition needs to consider both data-driven processing, which involves analyzing and interpreting the actual speech data, as well as conceptually driven processing, which involves using prior knowledge and understanding of language to aid in recognition. In other words, speech recognition involves a combination of analyzing the raw speech data and applying knowledge and context to interpret it accurately.

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  • 24. 

    Exposure to a syntactic structure can prime future use of that structure.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Exposure to a syntactic structure refers to being exposed to a particular grammatical pattern or arrangement of words in a sentence. Priming, in this context, means that being exposed to a certain structure makes it more likely for someone to use that structure in the future. Therefore, the statement suggests that when individuals are exposed to a particular syntactic structure, it can influence and increase the likelihood of them using that structure in their own language production. Hence, the correct answer is True.

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  • 25. 

    We begin our utterances before the syntax and semantics of the final portion of the sentence have been worked out.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that when we start speaking, we may not have fully formed the structure and meaning of the last part of the sentence. This is true as we often start speaking without having planned out the entire sentence in advance. We may have an idea of what we want to say but the exact words and structure may still be developing as we speak. Therefore, the answer is true.

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  • 26. 

    Garden path sentences facilitate comprehension.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Garden path sentences actually hinder comprehension instead of facilitating it. These sentences are designed in a way that initially leads the reader or listener to interpret the sentence in a certain way, but as they progress, they realize that their initial interpretation was incorrect and need to reanalyze the sentence. This can cause confusion and make the sentence harder to understand. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 27. 

    Agraphia is an inability to do mathematical computations.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Agraphia is not an inability to do mathematical computations. Agraphia refers to the loss or impairment of the ability to write, typically due to brain damage or injury. It is not directly related to mathematical computations.

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  • 28. 

    With sufficient exposure, the ERPs to nonsense words look like ERPs to meaningful words.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    With sufficient exposure, the brain's response to nonsense words can become similar to its response to meaningful words. This suggests that the brain can adapt and recognize patterns even in nonsensical stimuli, leading to similar neural responses. This phenomenon highlights the brain's ability to make sense of unfamiliar or meaningless information over time.

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  • 29. 

    In conversation, your beliefs about your conversational partners' knowledge and interests reflects:

    • A.

      Derivative theory

    • B.

      Second-order theory

    • C.

      Direct theory

    • D.

      Primary theory

    Correct Answer
    C. Direct theory
    Explanation
    Direct theory suggests that in a conversation, individuals make assumptions about their conversational partners' knowledge and interests based on their own beliefs and experiences. This means that they assume their partners have similar knowledge and interests as themselves, and therefore tailor their communication accordingly. This theory emphasizes the importance of understanding and adapting to the listener's perspective in order to effectively communicate.

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  • 30. 

    Which is NOT part of Gernsbacher's structure building framework?

    • A.

      Mapping information

    • B.

      Pragmatic assessment

    • C.

      Shifting

    • D.

      Laying a foundation

    Correct Answer
    B. Pragmatic assessment
    Explanation
    Gernsbacher's structure building framework involves several components that contribute to the construction of a coherent mental representation of a text. These components include mapping information, shifting, and laying a foundation. Pragmatic assessment, however, is not mentioned as part of this framework. Pragmatic assessment typically refers to the evaluation of how language is used in context to achieve communicative goals, which may not directly align with the goal of constructing a coherent mental representation of a text.

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  • 31. 

    Introduction of a new character is most associated with:

    • A.

      Suppression

    • B.

      Mapping

    • C.

      Shifting

    • D.

      Foundation building

    Correct Answer
    C. Shifting
    Explanation
    The introduction of a new character in a story often leads to a shifting of focus or perspective. This can include a change in the dynamics between existing characters, a shift in the plot direction, or a new perspective being introduced. The addition of a new character can bring about new conflicts, motivations, or relationships that alter the course of the story. Therefore, "shifting" is the most associated term with the introduction of a new character.

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  • 32. 

    A memory representation of a real-word situation. For example, a representation of the situation described in a passage of text

    • A.

      Process model

    • B.

      Semantic model

    • C.

      Situational model

    • D.

      Reference model

    Correct Answer
    C. Situational model
    Explanation
    A situational model refers to a memory representation of a real-world situation, such as the one described in a passage of text. It helps in understanding and analyzing the situation by providing a structured representation of the relevant information. This model allows for a better comprehension of the context and facilitates decision-making or problem-solving processes.

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  • 33. 

    Which of the following represents "indirect reference by characterization?"

    • A.

      Identity: Michelle bought a computer. It was on sale.

    • B.

      Causes: They answered a question in class. The professor had called upon her.

    • C.

      Optional roles: I taught a class yesterday. The chalk tray was empty.

    • D.

      Probable parts: Erick bought a used snowboard. The bindings are broken.

    Correct Answer
    C. Optional roles: I taught a class yesterday. The chalk tray was empty.
  • 34. 

    During reading, the eye remains fixated on a word as long as the word is being actively processed. This reflects:

    • A.

      Direct reference

    • B.

      Eye-mind assumption

    • C.

      Immediacy assumption

    • D.

      The "assist" function

    Correct Answer
    B. Eye-mind assumption
    Explanation
    The eye-mind assumption suggests that the eye remains fixated on a word as long as the word is being actively processed by the mind. This means that our eyes tend to stay on a word until we have understood its meaning or have finished processing its information. This assumption is based on the idea that our eye movements are closely linked to our cognitive processes and that our eyes naturally move in accordance with our mental processing.

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  • 35. 

    Which is NOT one of the four conversational maxims identified by Grice (1975)?

    • A.

      Manner and tone

    • B.

      Recipient awareness

    • C.

      Quality

    • D.

      Quantity

    Correct Answer
    B. Recipient awareness
    Explanation
    Grice's conversational maxims, also known as Gricean maxims, refer to the principles that govern effective communication. The four maxims identified by Grice are quality, quantity, relevance, and manner. These maxims outline the expectations for speakers to be truthful, informative, relevant, and clear in their communication. "Recipient awareness" is not one of the maxims identified by Grice. This term does not align with any specific principle of effective communication.

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  • 36. 

    In conversation, your beliefs about what your conversational partner knows about you and your interests - what they think you are like - reflects:

    • A.

      Direct theory

    • B.

      Derivative theory

    • C.

      Primary theory

    • D.

      Second-Order theory

    Correct Answer
    D. Second-Order theory
    Explanation
    Second-Order theory refers to the beliefs we have about what others think about us. It involves understanding the perceptions and judgments that our conversational partner may have about our interests and characteristics. This theory goes beyond our own beliefs and takes into account how others perceive us, allowing us to adapt our communication and behavior accordingly. It involves considering the thoughts and opinions of others, which can greatly influence our interactions and relationships.

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  • 37. 

    If, prior to a guest speaker coming in, your boss noted "the water glasses are empty." Which is true?

    • A.

      The statement would be processed at the same rate if it had been made by a coworker.

    • B.

      The statement would be processed more slowly than if made by a coworker.

    • C.

      The statement would be processed more quickly than if made by a coworker.

    • D.

      The statement would violate the quantity and clarity metric.

    Correct Answer
    C. The statement would be processed more quickly than if made by a coworker.
    Explanation
    The given correct answer suggests that the statement "the water glasses are empty" would be processed more quickly if it had been made by a coworker. This implies that the boss's statement carries more weight and importance due to their higher position in the hierarchy. As a result, employees may prioritize and act upon the boss's statement more promptly than if it had been made by a coworker.

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  • 38. 

    FMRI studies show greater RIGHT hemisphere activation for sentences with definite articles than indefinite articles.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    fMRI studies have revealed that there is an increased activation in the RIGHT hemisphere when processing sentences that contain definite articles (e.g., "the") compared to sentences with indefinite articles (e.g., "a/an"). This suggests that the brain processes information differently depending on the type of article used in a sentence.

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  • 39. 

    In reasoning, the tendency to search for evidence that confirms a conclusion

    • A.

      Confirmation bias

    • B.

      Availability heuristic

    • C.

      Counterfactual reasoning

    • D.

      Insight

    Correct Answer
    A. Confirmation bias
    Explanation
    Confirmation bias refers to the tendency to search for and interpret information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses. This bias can lead individuals to selectively gather evidence that supports their views while ignoring or dismissing information that contradicts them. It can occur in various contexts, such as decision-making, problem-solving, and forming opinions. Confirmation bias can hinder critical thinking and objective analysis, as it can prevent individuals from considering alternative perspectives or being open to new information that may challenge their existing beliefs.

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  • 40. 

    Consider this problem. What does it represent? Premise 1: If Mark drew it; it is a duck; Premise 2: Mark drew it. Conclusion: It is a duck.

    • A.

      Conditional reasoning

    • B.

      Affirm the antecedent

    • C.

      Valid inference

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The given argument is an example of conditional reasoning because it involves a conditional statement "If Mark drew it; it is a duck." The argument also affirms the antecedent, which means that it states that Mark drew it, and concludes that "It is a duck." This is a valid inference because it follows logically from the premises. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above" as all the options accurately describe the argument.

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  • 41. 

    Which is NOT true?

    • A.

      "If a conclusion matches the first mental model derived from the problem, it is particularly easy (and thus likely) to accept the (potentially false) conclusion, leading to fallacies or errors in If a conclusion matches the first mental model derived from the problem, it is particularly easy (and thus likely) to accept the (potentially false) conclusion, leading to fallacies or errors in reasoning."

    • B.

      In statistics, we test against the null hypothesis in hopes that our evidence will be inconsistent with the predicted "no effect" outcome.

    • C.

      When hypothesis testing with increasingly complex if-then relations, the typical mistake is to search for positive, confirming evidence.

    • D.

      The strongest logical test of a scientific theory is to see if the hypothesized effects are produced in accordance with the theoretical predictions.

    Correct Answer
    D. The strongest logical test of a scientific theory is to see if the hypothesized effects are produced in accordance with the theoretical predictions.
    Explanation
    The statement "The strongest logical test of a scientific theory is to see if the hypothesized effects are produced in accordance with the theoretical predictions" is NOT true. While it is important for a scientific theory to be supported by evidence and produce expected effects, this alone does not constitute the strongest logical test. The strongest test involves actively seeking evidence that could potentially disprove or contradict the theory, as this helps to eliminate biases and ensure the theory's validity. This approach is known as falsifiability and is a key principle in scientific inquiry.

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  • 42. 

    "Consider this pair of judgments about which is smaller - "Which is smaller, a sheep or a bear?" and "Which is smaller, a mouse or a rat?" The faster response to the second question illustrates:"

    • A.

      The semantic congruity effect

    • B.

      The imagery effect

    • C.

      The number magnitude effect

    • D.

      The symbolic distance effect

    Correct Answer
    A. The semantic congruity effect
    Explanation
    The semantic congruity effect refers to the phenomenon where people respond faster and more accurately when the comparison being made is conceptually congruent. In this case, the second question about the size of a mouse and a rat is conceptually congruent as both are small animals, whereas the first question about the size of a sheep and a bear is conceptually incongruent as one is small and the other is large. Therefore, the faster response to the second question illustrates the semantic congruity effect.

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  • 43. 

    Heuristic Algorithm

    • A.

      The act of someone who reasons; to think logically; to analyze with reason

    • B.

      The mental representation of meaning in a reasoning problem

    • C.

      "A specific rule or solution procedure that is certain to yield the correct answer if followed A specific rule or solution procedure that is certain to yield the correct answer if followed correctly"

    • D.

      An informal "rule of thumb" method for solving problems, not necessarily guaranteed to solve the problem correctly but usually much faster or more tractable than other alternatives

    Correct Answer
    D. An informal "rule of thumb" method for solving problems, not necessarily guaranteed to solve the problem correctly but usually much faster or more tractable than other alternatives
    Explanation
    A heuristic algorithm is an informal "rule of thumb" method for solving problems. It is not guaranteed to always provide the correct answer, but it is usually faster or more manageable than other approaches. This means that while it may not always yield the correct solution, it is a practical and efficient strategy for problem-solving.

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  • 44. 

    The belief that small samples will be representative of the population from which they are selected

    • A.

      The "law of large numbers"

    • B.

      The central limit theorem

    • C.

      The fallacy "law of small numbers"

    • D.

      This particular bias in the availability heuristic is called "sensitivity to sample size."

    Correct Answer
    C. The fallacy "law of small numbers"
    Explanation
    The fallacy "law of small numbers" refers to the belief that small samples will be representative of the population from which they are selected. This is a mistaken belief because small samples are more likely to be influenced by random variation and may not accurately reflect the characteristics of the larger population. It is important to recognize that larger sample sizes are generally more reliable and representative of the population.

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  • 45. 

    Kahneman & Tversky (1973) report having participants read various personality descriptions and then estimate the likelihood or probability that a person was a member of one or another profession. To a surprising degree, people's estimates are influenced by the similarity of the description to a widely held stereotype. This reflects:

    • A.

      Availability heuristic

    • B.

      The representativeness heuristic

    • C.

      General world Knowledge

    • D.

      Vividness effect

    Correct Answer
    B. The representativeness heuristic
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the representativeness heuristic. This is because the participants' estimates of the likelihood or probability of a person belonging to a certain profession were influenced by the similarity of the description to a widely held stereotype. The representativeness heuristic refers to the tendency to judge the probability or likelihood of an event based on how similar it is to a prototype or stereotype. In this case, participants used the similarity of the personality descriptions to the stereotype of a certain profession to make their estimates.

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  • 46. 

    "A decision-making strategy based on the ease of retrieval from memory" The anchoring and adjustment effect most likely reflects:

    • A.

      Retrieval effect

    • B.

      Availability heuristic

    • C.

      Algorithm

    • D.

      Representativeness heuristic

    Correct Answer
    B. Availability heuristic
    Explanation
    The anchoring and adjustment effect most likely reflects the availability heuristic. This heuristic is a mental shortcut where people make judgments based on the ease with which examples or instances come to mind. In the case of anchoring and adjustment, people tend to rely heavily on an initial piece of information (the anchor) and then adjust their judgment from that starting point. This effect occurs because people often rely on the information that is readily available in their memory, rather than considering all relevant information or using a systematic decision-making process.

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  • 47. 

    "The argument that there is a central flaw in "heuristics and bias" research - that it is a mistake to assume that the correct answer to any decision-making problem must be the normative answer supplied by classic probability theory"

    • A.

      Adaptive thinking

    • B.

      Inductive rationalization

    • C.

      Paradoxically called the "recognition heuristic"

    • D.

      Counterfactual thinking

    Correct Answer
    C. Paradoxically called the "recognition heuristic"
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Paradoxically called the 'recognition heuristic'". This refers to the central flaw in "heuristics and bias" research, which is the assumption that the correct answer to decision-making problems should align with classic probability theory. The recognition heuristic challenges this assumption by suggesting that people often make decisions based on recognition or familiarity rather than complex calculations. This paradoxical nature arises from the fact that relying on recognition can lead to accurate decisions in some cases, but can also result in biases and errors in others.

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  • 48. 

    A German sample was better at (correctly) identifying that San Diego was more populous than San Antonio than a U.S. sample. This result is best described as reflecting:

    • A.

      Mental models

    • B.

      Naive physics

    • C.

      Simulation heuristic

    • D.

      Self-conceptualization of beliefs

    Correct Answer
    B. Naive physics
    Explanation
    The given answer, "Naive physics," is the best description for the result of the German sample being better at identifying that San Diego was more populous than San Antonio compared to the U.S. sample. Naive physics refers to people's intuitive understanding of physical concepts and how they apply them to real-world situations. In this case, the German sample might have relied on their understanding of population size and geographical factors to make a more accurate judgment.

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  • 49. 

    In problem solving, an inability to think of or consider anything but the customary uses for objects and tools Wasting a lot of time opening "junk mail," even when the envelope is obviously not a "real" bill might reflect:

    • A.

      Functional fixedness

    • B.

      Negative set

    • C.

      Conditional reasoning

    • D.

      Causal analysis

    Correct Answer
    A. Functional fixedness
    Explanation
    Functional fixedness refers to the cognitive bias that limits a person's ability to see alternative uses or functions for objects or tools beyond their customary uses. In the given scenario, the individual's inability to consider that the "junk mail" envelope may have a different purpose or content, despite it being obvious that it is not a bill, reflects functional fixedness. They are stuck in their preconceived notion that envelopes are only used for important documents like bills, which leads to wasting time opening unnecessary mail.

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  • 50. 

    A deep, useful understanding of the nature of something, especially a difficult problem A complex kind of problem solving in which relationships in one situation are mapped onto another to solve a problem

    • A.

      Analogical reasoning

    • B.

      Insight

    • C.

      Clarification of the goal state

    • D.

      Algorithmic solutions

    Correct Answer
    B. Insight
    Explanation
    Insight refers to a deep, useful understanding of the nature of something, especially a difficult problem. It involves gaining a new perspective or a sudden realization that leads to a solution. Unlike algorithmic solutions, which follow a step-by-step procedure, insight relies on the ability to make connections and draw upon previous knowledge or experiences. Analogical reasoning, on the other hand, involves mapping relationships in one situation onto another to solve a problem. Clarification of the goal state is the process of clearly defining the desired outcome, while algorithmic solutions refer to problem-solving methods that follow a set of rules or instructions.

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