1.
In a particular scattergram, the trend of the results appears to start high and then become lower and lower, sloping down toward the right in a very distinct fashion. What kind of correlation is this an example of?
Correct Answer
B. Perfect negative correlation
Explanation
This scattergram shows a very distinct downward slope from high to low as we move from left to right. This indicates that as one variable increases, the other variable consistently decreases. Therefore, this is an example of a perfect negative correlation, where the two variables have a strong and consistent inverse relationship.
2.
Correlation of results does not necesarily imply causation.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
This statement is true because correlation simply indicates a relationship or association between two variables, but it does not prove that one variable causes the other. There could be other factors or variables at play that are influencing both variables simultaneously, leading to a correlation. To establish causation, further research and experimentation are required to determine the cause-and-effect relationship between the variables.
3.
What is the principle problem with taking average scores?
Correct Answer
C. Extreme results will infuence the data.
Explanation
Taking average scores can be problematic because extreme results have the potential to heavily influence the overall data. This means that outliers, whether they are extremely high or extremely low scores, can skew the average and provide a misleading representation of the data set. By including these extreme results in the calculation, the average may not accurately reflect the true central tendency of the scores.
4.
A plus or minus in front of the correlation coefficient indicates:
Correct Answer
B. The direction of the relationship
Explanation
A plus or minus sign in front of the correlation coefficient indicates the direction of the relationship between two variables. A plus sign indicates a positive relationship, meaning that as one variable increases, the other variable also tends to increase. On the other hand, a minus sign indicates a negative relationship, where as one variable increases, the other variable tends to decrease. The presence of a plus or minus sign helps to understand the nature of the relationship between the variables being studied.
5.
What is the definition of a graph?
Correct Answer
B. A line or curve which is achieved by plotting raw data on two axes
Explanation
The correct answer is "A line or curve which is achieved by plotting raw data on two axes." This definition accurately describes a graph, which is a visual representation of data that is plotted on a coordinate plane. The data is typically represented by points or markers connected by lines or curves, allowing for the visualization of trends or relationships between variables.
6.
Raw data is the name given to data that has not been interpreted in any way yet.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Raw data refers to unprocessed and unanalyzed data that has not undergone any transformation or interpretation. It is data in its original form, directly collected from sources without any modifications or analysis. Therefore, the statement that raw data is the name given to data that has not been interpreted in any way yet is true.
7.
10 people competing achieved the following scores: 2, 5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 2, 1, 8. What is the average or mean of the scores?
Correct Answer
C. 3.8
Explanation
The average or mean of a set of numbers is found by adding up all the numbers in the set and then dividing the sum by the total number of elements. In this case, the sum of the scores is 2+5+2+3+4+6+5+2+1+8 = 38. There are 10 scores in total. So, the average is 38/10 = 3.8.
8.
Using the previous example, what is the range of the scores? (Scores: 2, 5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 2, 1, 8)
Correct Answer
D. 8
Explanation
The range of the scores is the difference between the highest and lowest scores. In this case, the highest score is 8 and the lowest score is 2. Therefore, the range is 8 - 2 = 6.
9.
A significance test would determine whether a particular result was meaningful.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
A significance test is a statistical method used to determine whether a particular result is statistically significant or not. It helps to determine if the observed difference or relationship between variables is due to chance or if it is meaningful and not just a random occurrence. By comparing the observed data with a null hypothesis, the test calculates the probability of obtaining the observed result by chance alone. If the probability is below a predetermined threshold (usually 0.05), the result is considered statistically significant, indicating that it is unlikely to have occurred by chance. Therefore, the statement that a significance test determines whether a particular result was meaningful is true.