Chapter 7: Deviance, Crime, Criminal Justice System

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Criminal Justice System Quizzes & Trivia

Chapter 7


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A behavior that violates expected rules or norms. 

    Explanation
    Deviance refers to a behavior that goes against the expected rules or norms in a society. It is an action or conduct that deviates from what is considered acceptable or appropriate. Deviant behavior can vary across different cultures and societies, as what may be considered deviant in one place may not be in another. Deviance can range from minor infractions to serious offenses, and it can be influenced by factors such as social, cultural, and individual norms.

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  • 2. 

    Who defines deviance?

    Explanation
    Power is the entity that defines deviance in society. This means that those in positions of power, such as governments or influential individuals, have the authority to determine what behaviors or actions are considered deviant or outside the norms of society. The definition of deviance can vary across different cultures and time periods, as it is shaped by the dominant power structures and their values and beliefs.

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  • 3. 

    The techniques and strategies that regulate people’s behavior in society. (purpose to eliminate or at least reduce deviance.

    Explanation
    Social control refers to the various techniques and strategies that are implemented in society to regulate people's behavior. It aims to maintain social order and conformity by eliminating or minimizing deviant behavior. This can be achieved through formal mechanisms such as laws, rules, and regulations, as well as informal mechanisms like social norms, customs, and peer pressure. Social control ensures that individuals adhere to societal expectations and norms, thus promoting stability and harmony within a community or society.

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  • 4. 

    A violation of societal norms and rules for which punishment is specified by public law. 

    Explanation
    Crime refers to a violation of societal norms and rules that is punishable by public law. It encompasses a wide range of illegal activities that are considered harmful to individuals or society as a whole. The punishment for committing a crime is determined by the legal system and can vary depending on the severity of the offense. The term "crime" is commonly used to describe acts such as theft, assault, murder, fraud, and drug trafficking, among others.

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  • 5. 

    Used to gain stats on crime. Doesn’t count attempted, white collar or internet crime so not very accurate.

    Explanation
    The Uniform Crime Report is a system used to gather statistics on crime. However, it does not include data on attempted crimes, white-collar crimes, or internet crimes. As a result, the report may not provide a fully accurate representation of the overall crime rate.

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  • 6. 

    A method of gathering data that involves interviewing people about their experiences as crime victims. Most widely used survey. Response rates are 90%+. More accurate than UCR. This includes reported and unreported crime.

    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "Victim Survey". This method involves interviewing people about their experiences as crime victims and is considered the most widely used survey. It has high response rates of 90% or more, making it a reliable source of data. It is also considered more accurate than the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) method as it includes both reported and unreported crimes, providing a more comprehensive understanding of crime rates.

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  • 7. 

    Most Crime victims are men, African Americans, people under age 25, and those who are poor or live in urban areas.  (besides intimate partners, spouses etc, Men are 2x s likely to be victims of violent crimes such as robbery and assault with a deadly weapon.)

    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that the majority of crime victims are men, African Americans, people under the age of 25, and those who are poor or live in urban areas. It also mentions that men are twice as likely as women to be victims of violent crimes such as robbery and assault with a deadly weapon. This information highlights the demographics and characteristics of individuals who are more vulnerable to becoming victims of crimes.

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  • 8. 

    Most offenders have never been caught, however generally the ones who are caught are younger because the older Americans get, the less likely they are to engage in crime.  29 and under are 58% of all arrestees. Men make up 82% of people arrested for violent, an d 68 % of property crimed. 10x more likely to commit muder than woman,. 70% arrested are white, 28 black. Crime rates higher in low-income areas.

    Explanation
    The given information provides statistics about offenders, such as their age, gender, race, and the likelihood of committing different types of crimes. It states that most offenders have never been caught, and those who are caught are generally younger. It also mentions that men are more likely to be arrested for violent and property crimes, and that they are 10 times more likely to commit murder than women. Additionally, it states that 70% of those arrested are white and 28% are black. The information also suggests that crime rates are higher in low-income areas. Therefore, the correct answer is "Offenders."

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  • 9. 

    Functions of Deviance

    • A.

      Affirms Cultural Values and norms (without evil, no good)

    • B.

      Responding to Deviance clarifies moral boundaries (labeling people deviant makes right/wrong boundaries)

    • C.

      Responding to Deviance brings people together (9/11)

    • D.

      Encourages social change

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Affirms Cultural Values and norms (without evil, no good)
    B. Responding to Deviance clarifies moral boundaries (labeling people deviant makes right/wrong boundaries)
    C. Responding to Deviance brings people together (9/11)
    D. Encourages social change
    Explanation
    The functions of deviance include affirming cultural values and norms by contrasting them with deviant behavior, responding to deviance by labeling individuals as deviant and thereby clarifying moral boundaries, bringing people together in response to deviant acts (as seen in the unity following the 9/11 attacks), and encouraging social change by challenging existing norms and promoting new ideas or behaviors.

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  • 10. 

    The idea that people may engage in deviant behavior when they experience a conflict between goals and the means available to obtain the goals. 

    Correct Answer(s)
    Merton's Strain Theory
    Explanation
    Merton's Strain Theory suggests that individuals may engage in deviant behavior when they experience a conflict between their goals and the means available to achieve those goals. According to Merton, when individuals are unable to attain their desired goals through legitimate means, they may resort to deviant behavior as a way to achieve success or fulfillment. This theory highlights the importance of societal structures and the impact they have on individuals' behavior, emphasizing that social conditions and inequalities can contribute to deviance.

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  • 11. 

    Responses when goals can't be met (strain theory)

    • A.

      Innovation – People have endorsed the cultural goal of economic successs but turn to illegitimate means, especially crime to achieve goal.

    • B.

      Ritualism – People don’t expect to get rich but get the necessary education and experience to obtain or retain their jobs.

    • C.

      3. Retreatism – People have rejected both the goals and the means for success. (alcoholics, drug addicts)

    • D.

      Rebellion - People feel so alienated that they want to change the social structure entirely by substituting new goals and means for the original ones.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Innovation – People have endorsed the cultural goal of economic successs but turn to illegitimate means, especially crime to achieve goal.
    B. Ritualism – People don’t expect to get rich but get the necessary education and experience to obtain or retain their jobs.
    C. 3. Retreatism – People have rejected both the goals and the means for success. (alcoholics, drug addicts)
    D. Rebellion - People feel so alienated that they want to change the social structure entirely by substituting new goals and means for the original ones.
    Explanation
    The answer provides a comprehensive explanation of the different responses when goals can't be met according to strain theory. Innovation refers to individuals who pursue economic success but resort to illegal means, such as crime, to achieve their goals. Ritualism describes individuals who do not expect to become wealthy but still acquire the necessary education and experience to maintain their jobs. Retreatism involves individuals who reject both the goals and the means for success, often leading to substance abuse issues. Rebellion encompasses individuals who feel alienated and seek to completely change the social structure by replacing the original goals and means with new ones.

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  • 12. 

    People learn deviance throughinteraction, especially with significant others. (family members or friends teach techniques for commiting criminal behavior). More likely to  engage in crime if exposed early in life, frequently, over a long period of time, and from important people.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Differential Association Theory
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that the Differential Association Theory suggests that people learn deviant behavior through their interactions with others, particularly significant individuals such as family members or friends. These individuals teach techniques for engaging in criminal behavior, which increases the likelihood of the person committing crimes. The theory also states that the earlier in life a person is exposed to deviant behavior, the more frequently and over a longer period of time they are exposed to it, and the more influential the people teaching it are, the more likely they are to engage in criminal activities.

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  • 13. 

    Emphasizes the role of enlightened self-interest in individual decision-making.  

    Correct Answer(s)
    Rational Choice Theory
    Explanation
    Rational Choice Theory emphasizes the role of enlightened self-interest in individual decision-making. This theory suggests that individuals make rational choices by weighing the costs and benefits of different options and selecting the one that maximizes their self-interest. It assumes that individuals are rational actors who have complete information, can accurately assess the consequences of their actions, and act in a way that maximizes their own well-being. This theory is widely used in various fields, including economics, political science, and sociology, to understand and predict individual behavior in decision-making processes.

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  • 14. 

    Proposes that exploiting the process of socialization and social learning builds self-control and reduces the inclination to indulge on behavior recognized as antisocial.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Control Theory
    Explanation
    Control Theory proposes that individuals who have been socialized and have learned social norms and values are more likely to have self-control and refrain from engaging in antisocial behavior. This theory suggests that through the process of socialization, individuals internalize societal expectations and develop a sense of self-control, which reduces their inclination to indulge in antisocial behavior. By adhering to social norms and values, individuals are able to regulate their behavior and maintain social order. This theory emphasizes the importance of socialization and social learning in shaping individuals' behavior and promoting prosocial actions.

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  • 15. 

    Conscience, values, integrity, morality

    Correct Answer(s)
    Inner Controls
  • 16. 

    Police, family etc.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Outer Controls
  • 17. 

    “Elements of social bonding include attachment to families, commitment to social norms and institutions, involvement in activities, and belief that these things are important. Emphasizes the fact that there is an absence of social attachments among juvenile delinquents. 1.       Attachment to families 2.       Commitment to social norms and institutions 3.       Involvement in activities 4.       Belief that these things are important.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Hirschi's Social Bond Theory
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Hirschi's Social Bond Theory. Hirschi's theory suggests that social bonds, such as attachment to families, commitment to social norms and institutions, involvement in activities, and belief in their importance, play a crucial role in preventing delinquent behavior. This theory highlights the absence of these social attachments among juvenile delinquents, indicating that their lack of social bonds contributes to their involvement in delinquent activities.

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  • 18. 

    A perspective that holds society’s reaction to behavior is a major factor in defining oneself or others as deviant. (teenagers who were caught are tagged as delinquents).

    Correct Answer(s)
    Labeling Theory
    Explanation
    The explanation for the correct answer is that the labeling theory suggests that society's reaction to someone's behavior plays a significant role in defining them as deviant. In this case, teenagers who were caught engaging in delinquent behavior are labeled as delinquents based on society's perception and reaction to their actions. The labeling theory emphasizes the impact of social judgments and stigmatization on individuals, arguing that being labeled as deviant can lead to further deviant behavior and a self-fulfilling prophecy.

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  • 19. 

    The initial violation of a norm or law. (can range from relatively minor offenses, such as not attending a family member’s funeral, to serious offenses, such as stealing and murder).

    Correct Answer(s)
    Primary Deviance
    Explanation
    Primary deviance refers to the initial violation of a norm or law, which can range from minor offenses to serious crimes. It is the first act of deviance that an individual engages in, and it may not necessarily lead to the person being labeled as a deviant by society. Primary deviance is often seen as a temporary and isolated behavior that does not have a significant impact on an individual's self-identity or social status. It is important to note that primary deviance is distinct from secondary deviance, which involves repeated and habitual deviant behavior that is more likely to result in stigmatization and labeling.

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  • 20. 

    Rule-breaking behavior that people adopt in response to the reactions of others. (marijuana smoker is a druggie).

    Correct Answer(s)
    Secondary Deviance
    Explanation
    Secondary deviance refers to the rule-breaking behavior that individuals engage in as a result of the reactions they receive from others. In this context, the example of labeling a marijuana smoker as a "druggie" demonstrates how societal reactions and stigmatization can lead to further deviant behavior. The individual may internalize this label and continue engaging in deviant behavior, reinforcing their identity as a "druggie." Secondary deviance highlights the role of social interactions and societal responses in shaping individuals' deviant behavior.

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  • 21. 

    A form of rebellion that occurs when a secondary deviant tries to relabel certain activity as normal rather than deviant.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Tertiary Deviance
    Explanation
    Tertiary deviance refers to a form of rebellion where a secondary deviant attempts to redefine certain behavior as normal instead of deviant. This means that individuals who have already been labeled as deviant by society try to challenge and change the perception of their behavior by relabeling it as acceptable or mainstream. This can be seen as a way for secondary deviants to regain control over their identity and challenge the stigmatization they face.

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  • 22. 

    A negative label that devalues a person and changes her or his self-concept and social identity. (people may alter appearance to get rid of stigma [liposuction])

    Correct Answer(s)
    Stigma
    Explanation
    Stigma refers to a negative label that diminishes a person's worth and alters their self-perception and social identity. It is a form of social disapproval that can lead individuals to change their appearance or undergo procedures like liposuction in an attempt to rid themselves of the stigma. Stigma can have a profound impact on a person's mental and emotional well-being, as well as their overall quality of life.

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  • 23. 

    Illegal activities committed by high-status individuals in the course of their occupation. (thefts in business enterprises to internet fraud)

    Correct Answer(s)
    White-Collar Crime
    Explanation
    The term "white-collar crime" refers to illegal activities that are typically committed by high-status individuals in the course of their occupation. This can include a range of offenses, from thefts in business enterprises to internet fraud. Unlike traditional street crimes, white-collar crimes are often non-violent and involve financial deception or manipulation. These crimes are typically carried out by individuals in positions of power or authority, such as executives, professionals, or government officials. The term "white-collar crime" was coined to distinguish these offenses from crimes typically associated with lower-status individuals.

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  • 24. 

    White-collar crimes committed by executives to benefit themselves and their companies (also known as organizational crimes).

    Correct Answer(s)
    Corporate Crime
    Explanation
    Corporate crime refers to white-collar crimes committed by executives with the intention of benefiting themselves and their companies. These crimes can include fraud, embezzlement, insider trading, bribery, and other illegal activities carried out within a corporate setting. Such crimes are often complex and involve high-level individuals who exploit their positions of power for personal gain. The term "corporate crime" is used to distinguish these offenses from other types of crimes committed by individuals outside of a corporate context.

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  • 25. 

    A form of racism consisting of the policy of policemen who stop and search vehicles driven by persons belonging to particular racial groups.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Racial Profiling
    Explanation
    Racial profiling refers to the practice of targeting individuals from specific racial or ethnic groups for suspicion or scrutiny, particularly by law enforcement authorities. In this context, the correct answer is racial profiling because it accurately describes the policy of police officers stopping and searching vehicles driven by individuals belonging to certain racial groups. This practice is considered a form of racism as it unfairly targets individuals based on their race rather than any evidence of wrongdoing.

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  • 26. 

    Any thing that is done without the approval of the other. That can be construed as being harmful to the persons life or way of life.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Crimes against the Person
    Explanation
    The term "crimes against the person" refers to any actions or behaviors that are carried out without the consent or approval of another individual, and that can be perceived as causing harm to their life or way of life. These crimes typically involve direct physical harm or threat to an individual, such as assault, murder, or kidnapping. They are considered serious offenses as they directly violate the rights and safety of the person involved.

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  • 27. 

    Acts that violate laws but involve individuals who don’t consider themselves victims. (prostitutes)

    Correct Answer(s)
    Victimless Crimes or Moral crimes
    Explanation
    This answer is correct because victimless crimes or moral crimes refer to acts that violate laws but do not involve individuals who consider themselves victims. In the context of the question, prostitution is often considered a victimless crime because it involves consenting adults engaging in a transaction. While it may be illegal in some jurisdictions, the individuals involved do not see themselves as victims and willingly participate in the activity.

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  • 28. 

    A negotiation in which the defendant agrees to enter a plea of guilty to a lesser charge.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Plea Bargaining
    Explanation
    Plea bargaining refers to a negotiation process where the defendant agrees to plead guilty to a lesser charge. This agreement is typically reached between the defendant's lawyer and the prosecutor, with the aim of avoiding a lengthy and costly trial. By accepting a plea bargain, the defendant may receive a reduced sentence or have other charges dropped. Plea bargaining is a common practice in the legal system and is used to expedite cases, alleviate court congestion, and provide some level of certainty for both the defendant and the prosecution.

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  • 29. 

    A trial period during which your character and abilities are tested to see whether you are suitablefor work or membership.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Probation
    Explanation
    Probation refers to a trial period in which an individual's character and abilities are assessed to determine their suitability for work or membership. It is a common practice in many organizations to evaluate an employee's performance and behavior during this probationary period before making a final decision on their employment or membership status. During this time, employers or organizations can closely monitor and evaluate the individual's skills, work ethic, and overall fit within the company or group.

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  • 30. 

    Operating within bounds of law.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Due Process
    Explanation
    Due process refers to the legal requirement that individuals must be treated fairly and have their rights protected by the government. It ensures that the government follows established procedures and respects the rights of individuals when making decisions or taking actions that may affect them. Operating within the bounds of the law is closely related to due process, as it implies that the government is following the legal framework and not exceeding its authority. Therefore, the answer "Due Process" is a suitable explanation for the given statement.

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  • 31. 

    Habitual relapse into crime

    Correct Answer(s)
    recidivism
    Explanation
    Recidivism refers to the act of relapsing into criminal behavior repeatedly. It is a term used to describe the habitual relapse into crime. It indicates a pattern of individuals who have previously been convicted of a crime and then go on to commit further offenses. Recidivism is a significant concern as it demonstrates the failure of rehabilitation efforts and highlights the challenges in preventing individuals from reoffending.

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