A behavior that violates expected rules or
Who defines deviance?
The techniques and strategies that regulate people’s
behavior in society. (purpose to eliminate or at least reduce deviance.
A violation of societal norms and rules for which
punishment is specified by public law.
Used to gain stats on crime. Doesn’t count
attempted, white collar or internet crime so not very accurate.
A method of gathering data that involves interviewing
people about their experiences as crime victims. Most widely used survey.
Response rates are 90%+. More accurate than UCR. This includes reported and
Most Crime victims are men, African Americans,
people under age 25, and those who are poor or live in urban areas. (besides intimate partners, spouses etc, Men
are 2x s likely to be victims of violent crimes such as robbery and assault
with a deadly weapon.)
Most offenders have never been caught, however
generally the ones who are caught are younger because the older Americans get,
the less likely they are to engage in crime.
29 and under are 58% of all arrestees. Men make up 82% of people
arrested for violent, an d 68 % of property crimed. 10x more likely to commit
muder than woman,. 70% arrested are white, 28 black. Crime rates higher in
Functions of Deviance
Affirms Cultural Values and norms (without evil, no good)
Responding to Deviance clarifies moral boundaries (labeling people deviant makes right/wrong boundaries)
Responding to Deviance brings people together (9/11)
The idea that people may engage in deviant
behavior when they experience a conflict between goals and the means available
to obtain the goals.
Responses when goals can't be met (strain theory)
Innovation – People have endorsed the cultural goal of economic successs but turn to illegitimate means, especially crime to achieve goal.
Ritualism – People don’t expect to get rich but get the necessary education and experience to obtain or retain their jobs.
3. Retreatism – People have rejected both the goals and the means for success. (alcoholics, drug addicts)
Rebellion - People feel so alienated that they want to change the social structure entirely by substituting new goals and means for the original ones.
People learn deviance throughinteraction,
especially with significant others. (family members or friends teach techniques
for commiting criminal behavior). More likely to engage in crime if exposed early in life,
frequently, over a long period of time, and from important people.
Emphasizes the role of enlightened self-interest
in individual decision-making.
Proposes that exploiting the process of
socialization and social learning builds self-control and reduces the
inclination to indulge on behavior recognized as antisocial.
Conscience, values, integrity, morality
Police, family etc.
“Elements of social bonding include attachment to
families, commitment to social norms and institutions, involvement in
activities, and belief that these things are important. Emphasizes the fact
that there is an absence of social attachments among juvenile delinquents.
Attachment to families
Commitment to social norms
Involvement in activities
Belief that these things
A perspective that holds society’s reaction to
behavior is a major factor in defining oneself or others as deviant. (teenagers
who were caught are tagged as delinquents).
The initial violation of a norm or law. (can
range from relatively minor offenses, such as not attending a family member’s
funeral, to serious offenses, such as stealing and murder).
Rule-breaking behavior that people adopt in response to
the reactions of others. (marijuana smoker is a druggie).
A form of rebellion that occurs when a secondary
deviant tries to relabel certain activity as normal rather than deviant.
A negative label that devalues a person and
changes her or his self-concept and social identity. (people may alter
appearance to get rid of stigma [liposuction])
Illegal activities committed by high-status
individuals in the course of their occupation. (thefts in business enterprises
to internet fraud)
White-collar crimes committed by executives to
benefit themselves and their companies (also known as organizational crimes).
A form of racism consisting of the policy of
policemen who stop and search vehicles driven by persons belonging to
particular racial groups.