Chapter 4 Physiological Psychology Mid-term Study Quiz

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Chapter 4 Physiological Psychology Mid-term Study Quiz - Quiz

Psychopharmacology


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Carrots, when eaten in high enough quantities, will turn your skin orange (it's true!). However, they're not considered drugs, why not?

    • A.

      They're not exogenous.

    • B.

      The effect requires too high a dosage.

    • C.

      The effect doesn't actually change how the bodily cells function, only how they appear

    • D.

      They are a drug, most people just don't view them like that

    Correct Answer
    B. The effect requires too high a dosage.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the effect of turning the skin orange from eating carrots requires too high a dosage. This means that a person would need to consume a very large amount of carrots in order for this effect to occur. Despite this, carrots are not considered drugs because the effect of turning the skin orange does not actually change how the bodily cells function, but only how they appear.

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  • 2. 

    ___________ is the study of what the body does to a drug.

    • A.

      Pharmacokinetics

    • B.

      Pharmacodynamics

    • C.

      Psychopharmacology

    • D.

      Psychopharmodynamics

    Correct Answer
    A. Pharmacokinetics
    Explanation
    Pharmacokinetics is the study of what the body does to a drug. It focuses on how drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated by the body. This includes understanding factors such as drug absorption rates, bioavailability, drug distribution in the body, drug metabolism, and drug excretion. Pharmacokinetics helps in determining the optimal dosage, frequency, and route of administration for a drug, as well as predicting drug interactions and potential side effects.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is the slowest drug absorption? 

    • A.

      Intravenous

    • B.

      Intramuscular

    • C.

      Oral administration

    • D.

      Inhalation

    Correct Answer
    C. Oral administration
    Explanation
    Oral administration is the slowest drug absorption method because it involves the drug passing through the digestive system before being absorbed into the bloodstream. The drug must first dissolve in the stomach or intestines and then be metabolized by the liver before entering the bloodstream. This process can take time and result in a delayed onset of action compared to other methods such as intravenous or inhalation, where the drug is directly introduced into the bloodstream or lungs, respectively. Intramuscular administration involves injecting the drug into the muscle, which allows for faster absorption than oral administration.

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  • 4. 

    A low therapeutic index is an indicator that ____________.

    • A.

      Care must be given to prescribing because the margin of safety is small.

    • B.

      The drug is incredibly safe because the median lethal dose is relatively low

    • C.

      The drug is incredibly safe because the median lethal dose is relatively high

    • D.

      The drug is not very effective

    Correct Answer
    A. Care must be given to prescribing because the margin of safety is small.
    Explanation
    A low therapeutic index means that the effective dose of a drug is very close to the toxic dose. This indicates that there is a small margin of safety, and therefore, caution must be exercised when prescribing the drug. It implies that even a slight increase in dosage could potentially lead to toxicity or adverse effects. Thus, the correct answer suggests that care must be given to prescribing because the margin of safety is small.

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  • 5. 

    ____________ is a phenomena where drugs bind with proteins in the blood.

    • A.

      Inactivation

    • B.

      Depot binding

    • C.

      Covalent binding

    • D.

      Ionic binding

    Correct Answer
    B. Depot binding
    Explanation
    Depot binding is a phenomenon where drugs bind with proteins in the blood. This binding occurs when drugs associate with specific proteins, such as albumin, forming a complex that remains in the bloodstream for an extended period of time. This binding allows for slow release and prolonged action of the drug, as it is sequestered in the protein-drug complex. Depot binding is important in pharmacokinetics as it affects the distribution and elimination of drugs in the body.

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  • 6. 

    A drug with high affinity generally requires ________.

    • A.

      A higher dose

    • B.

      A lower dose

    • C.

      A same size dose as it would with a low affinity

    • D.

      The drug to be administered intravenously

    Correct Answer
    B. A lower dose
    Explanation
    A drug with high affinity generally requires a lower dose because high affinity means that the drug has a strong binding ability to its target receptor or enzyme. This strong binding allows the drug to be effective at lower concentrations, as it can bind to and activate or inhibit the target more efficiently. Therefore, a lower dose of the drug would be sufficient to achieve the desired therapeutic effect.

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  • 7. 

    ____________ is the study of what a drug does to the body.

    • A.

      Pharmacokinetics

    • B.

      Pharmacodynamics

    • C.

      Therapeutic Index

    • D.

      Drug distribution

    Correct Answer
    B. Pharmacodynamics
    Explanation
    Pharmacodynamics is the study of what a drug does to the body. It focuses on the effects of a drug on the body's physiological and biochemical processes, including how the drug interacts with its target receptors and produces therapeutic or adverse effects. This field examines how drugs exert their actions, the dose-response relationship, and the mechanisms of drug action. It is an essential aspect of drug development and helps in understanding the effectiveness and safety of drugs in treating various diseases.

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  • 8. 

    Enzymes in the __________ deactivate drugs in the body.

    • A.

      Kidney

    • B.

      Liver

    • C.

      Stomach

    • D.

      Pancreas

    Correct Answer
    B. Liver
    Explanation
    Enzymes in the liver play a crucial role in drug metabolism, where they break down and deactivate drugs in the body. The liver is responsible for metabolizing most drugs, as it contains numerous enzymes that can modify the chemical structure of drugs, making them more water-soluble and easier to eliminate from the body. This process helps to prevent the accumulation of drugs and their potential toxic effects.

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  • 9. 

    Why are many drugs used to treat mental illness lipid-soluble?

    • A.

      You can attach chemicals in a more dense form onto a lipid-soluble drug than a water-soluble drug

    • B.

      The immune system would recognize water-soluble drugs as invaders and fight them

    • C.

      The blood brain barrier is only a barrier for water-soluble molecules so lipid soluble drugs pass through

    • D.

      Water-soluble drugs would alter the pH value of the bloodstream and therefore have significant side effects compared to lipid-soluble drugs.

    Correct Answer
    C. The blood brain barrier is only a barrier for water-soluble molecules so lipid soluble drugs pass through
    Explanation
    Lipid-soluble drugs are able to pass through the blood brain barrier, which is a protective barrier that prevents the entry of water-soluble molecules into the brain. This is why many drugs used to treat mental illness are lipid-soluble.

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  • 10. 

    ____________ is an example of drug tolerance.

    • A.

      Having to down 6 Smirnoff Twists to get buzzed when 2 used to be enough

    • B.

      Feeling the opposite of drunk and strongly desiring more alcohol

    • C.

      Feeling really sick after just one shot of tequila (and it just so happens you got really drunk and threw up after having tequila last week-end)

    • D.

      Feeling drunk even though your friend slipped you O'Doul's (non-alcoholic beer) as a prank

    Correct Answer
    A. Having to down 6 Smirnoff Twists to get buzzed when 2 used to be enough
    Explanation
    Drug tolerance refers to the phenomenon where the body becomes less responsive to the effects of a drug over time, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect. In this example, the individual's tolerance to alcohol has increased, as they now need to consume 6 Smirnoff Twists instead of 2 to achieve a buzz. This indicates that their body has adapted to the effects of alcohol and requires a higher dose to produce the desired outcome.

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  • 11. 

    __________ is an example of drug withdrawal.

    • A.

      Having to down 6 Smirnoff Twists to get buzzed when 2 used to be enough

    • B.

      Feeling the opposite of drunk and strongly desiring more alcohol

    • C.

      Feeling really sick after just one shot of tequila (and it just so happens you got really drunk and threw up after having tequila last week-end)

    • D.

      Feeling drunk even though your friend slipped you O'Doul's (non-alcoholic beer) as a prank

    Correct Answer
    B. Feeling the opposite of drunk and strongly desiring more alcohol
    Explanation
    Feeling the opposite of drunk and strongly desiring more alcohol is an example of drug withdrawal because it suggests a craving for alcohol despite not experiencing the desired effects. This indicates a dependence on alcohol and a withdrawal symptom of feeling the opposite of the desired state (sober) and needing more alcohol to achieve it.

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  • 12. 

    __________ is an example of drug sensitization.

    • A.

      Having to down 6 Smirnoff Twists to get buzzed when 2 used to be enough

    • B.

      Feeling the opposite of drunk and strongly desiring more alcohol

    • C.

      Feeling really sick after just one shot of tequila (and it just so happens you got really drunk and threw up after having tequila last week-end)

    • D.

      Feeling drunk even though your friend slipped you O'Doul's (non-alcoholic beer) as a prank

    Correct Answer
    C. Feeling really sick after just one shot of tequila (and it just so happens you got really drunk and threw up after having tequila last week-end)
    Explanation
    Drug sensitization refers to an increased sensitivity or reaction to a drug after previous exposure. In this case, feeling really sick after just one shot of tequila indicates that the individual has developed a heightened sensitivity to the effects of tequila. This is supported by the fact that they previously got drunk and threw up after consuming tequila, suggesting that their body now reacts strongly to even a small amount of the substance.

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  • 13. 

    ___________ is an example of placebo effect.

    • A.

      Having to down 6 Smirnoff Twists to get buzzed when 2 used to be enough

    • B.

      Feeling the opposite of drunk and strongly desiring more alcohol

    • C.

      Feeling really sick after just one shot of tequila (and it just so happens you got really drunk and threw up after having tequila last week-end)

    • D.

      Feeling drunk even though your friend slipped you O'Doul's (non-alcoholic beer) as a prank

    Correct Answer
    D. Feeling drunk even though your friend slipped you O'Doul's (non-alcoholic beer) as a prank
    Explanation
    The scenario described in the answer choice demonstrates the placebo effect. The person believes they are consuming alcoholic beer, so their mind and body respond accordingly, making them feel drunk even though the beverage is non-alcoholic. This showcases the power of the mind in influencing physical sensations and highlights how expectations and beliefs can impact our experiences.

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  • 14. 

    A drug that attaches itself to a postsynaptic binding site and opens the corresponding ion channel is an example of a ________________.

    • A.

      Direct agonist

    • B.

      Direct antagonist

    • C.

      Indirect antagonist

    • D.

      Receptor blocker

    Correct Answer
    A. Direct agonist
    Explanation
    A drug that attaches itself to a postsynaptic binding site and opens the corresponding ion channel is classified as a direct agonist. This is because it directly activates the receptor and mimics the action of the neurotransmitter, leading to an increase in the activity of the ion channel.

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  • 15. 

    A drug that attaches itself to a postsynaptic binding site but does not open the corresponding ion channel is an example of a ________________.

    • A.

      Direct agonist

    • B.

      Direct antagonist

    • C.

      Indirect antagonist

    • D.

      Drug mimic

    Correct Answer
    B. Direct antagonist
    Explanation
    A drug that attaches itself to a postsynaptic binding site but does not open the corresponding ion channel is an example of a direct antagonist. This means that the drug blocks or inhibits the normal functioning of the receptor, preventing the ion channel from opening and inhibiting the transmission of signals across the synapse.

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  • 16. 

    A drug that engages in noncompetitive binding, thereby preventing the ion channel from opening, is an example of a _____________

    • A.

      Direct agonist

    • B.

      Direct antagonist

    • C.

      Indirect antagonist

    • D.

      Drug mimic

    Correct Answer
    C. Indirect antagonist
    Explanation
    An indirect antagonist refers to a drug that inhibits the action of a receptor or ion channel by binding to a different site on the protein, thereby preventing the ion channel from opening. In this case, the drug engages in noncompetitive binding, which means it binds to a site other than the active site of the ion channel, effectively blocking its function. As a result, the drug acts as an indirect antagonist by indirectly inhibiting the ion channel's activity.

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  • 17. 

    A hetereoreceptor is said to have _____________.

    • A.

      The ability to depot bind

    • B.

      The ability to activate enzymatic deactivation

    • C.

      Low specificity

    • D.

      High specificity

    Correct Answer
    C. Low specificity
    Explanation
    A heteroreceptor is said to have low specificity. This means that it is not highly selective and can interact with a wide range of ligands or molecules. Unlike receptors with high specificity, which only bind to a specific ligand or molecule, heteroreceptors have a broader binding capability and can interact with multiple ligands. This flexibility allows heteroreceptors to modulate various signaling pathways and have a more diverse range of functions in the body.

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  • 18. 

    Autoreceptors are different from normal postsynaptic receptors because _______________.

    • A.

      They do not require neurotransmitters to activate; they activate automatically.

    • B.

      They are activated by neurotransmitters within the cell

    • C.

      They react to hormones, not neurotransmitters

    • D.

      They activate AChE to destroy ACh

    Correct Answer
    B. They are activated by neurotransmitters within the cell
    Explanation
    Autoreceptors are different from normal postsynaptic receptors because they are activated by neurotransmitters within the cell. Unlike postsynaptic receptors, which are activated by neurotransmitters released from presynaptic neurons, autoreceptors respond to neurotransmitters that are already present within the cell. This allows them to regulate the release of neurotransmitters and modulate neuronal activity. Autoreceptors play a crucial role in maintaining proper neurotransmitter levels and regulating synaptic transmission.

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  • 19. 

    Drug tolerance is an example of _____________.

    • A.

      The body down-regulating

    • B.

      The body up-regulating

    • C.

      The body attaining lower specificity

    • D.

      The body attaining higher affinity

    Correct Answer
    A. The body down-regulating
    Explanation
    Drug tolerance refers to the body's reduced response to a drug over time, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect. This phenomenon occurs due to the body down-regulating its response to the drug. Down-regulation involves a decrease in the number or sensitivity of receptors that the drug targets, resulting in a decreased effect. This is why higher doses are needed to achieve the desired response, as the body has adapted to the drug's presence and reduced its sensitivity to it.

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  • 20. 

    The primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain is ____________.

    • A.

      GABA

    • B.

      Seretonin

    • C.

      Acetylcholine

    • D.

      Glutamate

    Correct Answer
    D. Glutamate
    Explanation
    Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. It is responsible for stimulating the neurons and enhancing their activity. Glutamate plays a crucial role in various brain functions such as learning, memory, and information processing. It is involved in the transmission of signals between nerve cells and is essential for normal brain development and function.

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  • 21. 

    The primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain is ___________.

    • A.

      GABA

    • B.

      Seretonin

    • C.

      Acetylcholine

    • D.

      Glutamate

    Correct Answer
    A. GABA
    Explanation
    GABA, or gamma-aminobutyric acid, is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. It plays a crucial role in regulating neuronal excitability by reducing the activity of neurons and preventing them from firing. GABA is involved in various brain functions, including anxiety regulation, sleep, and motor control. Imbalances in GABA levels have been associated with several neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, anxiety disorders, and depression.

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  • 22. 

    __________ can alter the action of systems of neurons that transmit information using glutamate or GABA.

    • A.

      M-system

    • B.

      Norepineprhine

    • C.

      A neuromodulator

    • D.

      D-system

    Correct Answer
    C. A neuromodulator
    Explanation
    A neuromodulator refers to a substance or chemical messenger that can modify or alter the activity of systems of neurons that transmit information using glutamate or GABA. These neuromodulators can influence the release, synthesis, or reuptake of neurotransmitters, thereby affecting the overall functioning of the neural circuits. They can either enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals between neurons, leading to changes in neural activity and ultimately impacting various physiological and behavioral processes.

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  • 23. 

    The primary neurotransmitter secreted by efferent CNS cells is _____________.

    • A.

      GABA

    • B.

      Seretonin

    • C.

      Acetylcholine

    • D.

      Glutamate

    Correct Answer
    C. Acetylcholine
    Explanation
    Acetylcholine is the primary neurotransmitter secreted by efferent CNS cells. It plays a crucial role in transmitting signals from the central nervous system to the peripheral nervous system. Acetylcholine is involved in various functions, including muscle movement, memory, learning, and regulating the autonomic nervous system. It is released by efferent neurons and acts on specific receptors in the target cells, allowing for the transmission of signals between neurons and ultimately facilitating communication within the nervous system.

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  • 24. 

    When released in the brain, Acetylcholine usually results in ___________.

    • A.

      Facilitory effects

    • B.

      Inhibitory effects

    • C.

      Activation of autoreceptors

    • D.

      Activation of heteroreceptors

    Correct Answer
    A. Facilitory effects
    Explanation
    Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that is involved in various functions in the brain and body. When released in the brain, it usually has facilitory effects, meaning it enhances or promotes certain processes. This can include facilitating the transmission of nerve signals, enhancing cognitive functions such as learning and memory, and promoting muscle contractions. Acetylcholine is generally associated with excitatory effects rather than inhibitory effects, as it tends to increase activity in the nervous system. Activation of autoreceptors or heteroreceptors may regulate the release or effects of acetylcholine, but the primary effect of acetylcholine itself is facilitory.

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  • 25. 

    AChE's primary function in the body is to ______________.

    • A.

      Synthesize more ACh

    • B.

      Serve as a binding receptor to ACh

    • C.

      Destroy ACh during enzymatic deacitvation

    • D.

      Serve as a catecholamine

    Correct Answer
    C. Destroy ACh during enzymatic deacitvation
    Explanation
    AChE, or Acetylcholinesterase, is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the body by breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Acetylcholine is involved in various functions such as muscle contraction, memory, and cognition. Therefore, AChE's primary function is to destroy ACh during enzymatic deactivation, ensuring that the levels of acetylcholine are regulated and preventing excessive stimulation of the nervous system. This allows for proper neurotransmission and prevents the overstimulation of muscles and nerves.

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  • 26. 

    Nicotinic receptors are _______________ for ACh, and muscarinic receptors are ___________ for ACh.

    • A.

      Metabotropic antagonist; metabotropic agonists

    • B.

      Metabotropic agonist; ionotropic agonists

    • C.

      Ionotropic antagonist; metabotropic antagonist

    • D.

      Ionotropic agonists; metabotropic agonist

    Correct Answer
    D. Ionotropic agonists; metabotropic agonist
    Explanation
    Nicotinic receptors are ionotropic agonists for ACh, meaning they are activated by ACh and directly open ion channels. On the other hand, muscarinic receptors are metabotropic agonists for ACh, meaning they are activated by ACh and trigger intracellular signaling pathways through G-proteins.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following is a monamine but not a catecholamine?

    • A.

      Dopamine

    • B.

      Seretonin

    • C.

      Epinephrine

    • D.

      Norepinephrine

    Correct Answer
    B. Seretonin
    Explanation
    Serotonin is a monoamine but not a catecholamine. Catecholamines are a subgroup of monoamines that have a catechol ring structure. Dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine all have this catechol ring structure, making them catecholamines. Serotonin, on the other hand, does not have this ring structure and therefore is classified as a monoamine but not a catecholamine.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following correctly describes the synthesis of norepinephrine?

    • A.

      Tyrosine -> 5HTP -> Serotonin -> Norepinephrine

    • B.

      Tryptophan -> 5HTP -> Epinephrine -> Norepinephrine

    • C.

      Tryptophan -> L-DOPA -> Dopamine -> Norepinephrine

    • D.

      Tyrosine -> L-DOPA -> Dopamine -> Norepinephrine

    Correct Answer
    D. Tyrosine -> L-DOPA -> Dopamine -> Norepinephrine
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Tyrosine -> L-DOPA -> Dopamine -> Norepinephrine. This is the correct synthesis pathway for norepinephrine. Tyrosine is converted to L-DOPA by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. L-DOPA is then converted to dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. Finally, dopamine is converted to norepinephrine by the enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase.

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  • 29. 

    _________ is involved in movement, attention, learning, and addiction.

    • A.

      Dopamine

    • B.

      Seretonin

    • C.

      Epinephrine

    • D.

      Norepinephrine

    Correct Answer
    A. Dopamine
    Explanation
    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is involved in various important functions in the brain, including movement, attention, learning, and addiction. It plays a crucial role in the reward system of the brain, influencing motivation, pleasure, and reinforcement. Dopamine is also involved in motor control, helping to regulate movement and coordination. Additionally, it is involved in attention and learning processes, aiding in the formation and consolidation of memories. Finally, dopamine plays a role in addiction, as it is released in response to rewarding stimuli and can contribute to the development of addictive behaviors.

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  • 30. 

    _________ is involved in the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.

    • A.

      Dopamine

    • B.

      Seretonin

    • C.

      Epinephrine

    • D.

      Norepinephrine

    Correct Answer
    D. Norepinephrine
    Explanation
    Norepinephrine is involved in the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. The sympathetic division is responsible for the "fight or flight" response, which prepares the body for action in stressful or dangerous situations. Norepinephrine is released by sympathetic nerve fibers and acts as a neurotransmitter, helping to mobilize the body's resources by increasing heart rate, constricting blood vessels, and increasing blood pressure. Its role in the sympathetic division makes it the correct answer in this case.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following correctly describes the synthesis of serotonin?

    • A.

      Tryptophan -> L-DOPA -> Serotonin

    • B.

      Tryptophan -> 5HTP -> Serotonin

    • C.

      Tyrosine -> 5HTP -> Serotonin

    • D.

      Tyrosine -> L-DOPA -> Serotonin

    Correct Answer
    B. Tryptophan -> 5HTP -> Serotonin
  • 32. 

    98% of the serotonin in the body can be found in _____________.

    • A.

      The brain

    • B.

      The heart

    • C.

      The bloodstream

    • D.

      The gut

    Correct Answer
    D. The gut
    Explanation
    Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep. It is primarily produced in the gut, specifically in the enterochromaffin cells of the intestinal lining. From there, it can be transported to various parts of the body, including the brain, where it influences mood and behavior. Therefore, the correct answer is "the gut" as it is the primary source of serotonin in the body.

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  • 33. 

    ___________, originating in the _________  does forms synapses.

    • A.

      D System; dorsal raphe nucleus

    • B.

      V System; ventral raphe nucleus

    • C.

      M System; median raphe nucleus

    • D.

      C System; caudal raphe nucleus

    Correct Answer
    C. M System; median raphe nucleus
    Explanation
    The M system, originating in the median raphe nucleus, forms synapses.

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  • 34. 

    Prozac is an example of a drug that serves a reuptake inhibitor of ____________. It is used to treat depression, some types of anxiety disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    • A.

      Dopamine

    • B.

      Seretonin

    • C.

      Epinephrine

    • D.

      Norepinephrine

    Correct Answer
    B. Seretonin
    Explanation
    Prozac is an example of a drug that serves as a reuptake inhibitor of serotonin. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that plays a role in regulating mood, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. By inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, Prozac increases the levels of serotonin in the brain, which can help alleviate symptoms of depression, anxiety disorders, and OCD.

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  • 35. 

    Which of these is not true about GABA?

    • A.

      It is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain

    • B.

      Tetanus toxin is a GABA antagonist by inhibiting its release

    • C.

      Parkinson's Disease involves degeneration of GABA cells in basal ganglia

    • D.

      Strychnine is a GABA antagonist by blocking its receptors

    Correct Answer
    C. Parkinson's Disease involves degeneration of GABA cells in basal ganglia
    Explanation
    Parkinson's Disease involves degeneration of dopamine-producing cells in the basal ganglia, not GABA cells. GABA is not directly implicated in the degeneration seen in Parkinson's Disease.

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  • 36. 

    ____________ is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and lower portions of the brain.

    • A.

      GABA

    • B.

      Glycine

    • C.

      Glutamate

    • D.

      Choline

    Correct Answer
    B. Glycine
    Explanation
    Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and lower portions of the brain. It acts to decrease the activity of neurons and helps regulate the excitability of the nervous system. Glycine plays a crucial role in motor control, pain perception, and the regulation of sleep. It is involved in various physiological processes and is essential for maintaining a balanced and functioning nervous system.

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  • 37. 

    Similar to ____________, tetanus toxin and strychnine serve as antagonists toward glycine.

    • A.

      Dopamine

    • B.

      GABA

    • C.

      Glutamate

    • D.

      Choline

    Correct Answer
    B. GABA
    Explanation
    Similar to GABA, tetanus toxin and strychnine serve as antagonists toward glycine. This means that tetanus toxin and strychnine block the action of glycine, just like GABA does. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and its role is to reduce neuronal activity. Tetanus toxin and strychnine also inhibit neuronal activity by blocking the action of glycine, which is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Therefore, GABA, tetanus toxin, and strychnine all have similar effects on glycine and neuronal activity.

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  • 38. 

    After a cell releases peptides, what occurs?

    • A.

      Reuptake cycle

    • B.

      Enzymatic deactivation

    • C.

      AChE destroys the peptides

    • D.

      Nothing

    Correct Answer
    D. Nothing
    Explanation
    After a cell releases peptides, nothing occurs. This means that there is no specific action or process that takes place after the release of peptides. It could imply that the peptides are not involved in any further biological activity or that their effects are not yet known or understood.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following is not a common side effect of THC (despite the best efforts of an old nun to persuade me she commonly experiences it, funny story, ask me sometime)?

    • A.

      Analgesia

    • B.

      Sedation

    • C.

      Distorted perception of the passage of time

    • D.

      Vivid visual hallucinations

    Correct Answer
    D. Vivid visual hallucinations
    Explanation
    Vivid visual hallucinations are not a common side effect of THC. THC, the main psychoactive compound in cannabis, can cause various effects such as analgesia (pain relief), sedation, and a distorted perception of time. However, vivid visual hallucinations are not typically associated with THC use.

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  • 40. 

    What is anandamide and where is it stored?

    • A.

      Natural analgesic; liver

    • B.

      Peptide neurotransmitter; synaptic vesicles

    • C.

      Natural ligand for THC receptor; not stored at all

    • D.

      Predecessor to formation of epinephrine; formed from enzymatic deactivation of norepinephrine

    Correct Answer
    C. Natural ligand for THC receptor; not stored at all
    Explanation
    Anandamide is a natural ligand for the THC receptor, which means it is a substance that binds to and activates the receptor. Unlike other neurotransmitters or substances, anandamide is not stored in any specific location in the body. Instead, it is synthesized on demand and rapidly broken down by enzymes after it is used. This means that anandamide is not stored for future use but rather produced as needed, highlighting its role as a signaling molecule in the body.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following is not a drug that causes sedation?

    • A.

      Barbiturates

    • B.

      Dopamine receptor blockers

    • C.

      Ethyl Alcohol

    • D.

      Benzodiazepines

    Correct Answer
    B. Dopamine receptor blockers
    Explanation
    Dopamine receptor blockers are not drugs that cause sedation. They are typically used to treat conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder by blocking the effects of dopamine in the brain. Sedation is typically caused by drugs that act on the central nervous system, such as barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and ethyl alcohol. Dopamine receptor blockers have a different mechanism of action and do not typically have sedative effects.

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  • 42. 

    Which of the following is not a drug that causes excitation?

    • A.

      Nicotine

    • B.

      Amphetamine

    • C.

      Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)

    • D.

      Cocaine

    Correct Answer
    C. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)
    Explanation
    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is not a drug that causes excitation. MDMA is a psychoactive drug that primarily acts as a stimulant and hallucinogen. It produces feelings of increased energy, euphoria, and empathy, rather than causing excitation. Nicotine, amphetamine, and cocaine are all drugs that can cause excitation by stimulating the central nervous system and increasing alertness and arousal.

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  • 43. 

    Which of the following is not a drug that modifies perception or produces hallucinations?

    • A.

      PCP

    • B.

      THC

    • C.

      Mescaline

    • D.

      Opiates

    Correct Answer
    D. Opiates
    Explanation
    Opiates are not a drug that modifies perception or produces hallucinations. Opiates are a class of drugs that primarily act as pain relievers and depress the central nervous system. They are used for their analgesic properties and can produce feelings of relaxation and euphoria, but they do not typically cause hallucinations or alter perception in the same way as PCP, THC, or Mescaline.

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  • 44. 

    Which of the following is not a psychotherapeutic drug?

    • A.

      Adenosine agonist

    • B.

      Inhibitors of serotonin or norepinephrine re-uptake

    • C.

      Lithium carbonate

    • D.

      Monoamine oxidase inhibitors

    Correct Answer
    A. Adenosine agonist
    Explanation
    An adenosine agonist is not a psychotherapeutic drug because it does not directly target or affect the brain's neurotransmitters or receptors involved in psychological disorders. Psychotherapeutic drugs typically work by modulating the levels or activity of neurotransmitters such as serotonin or norepinephrine, inhibiting the re-uptake of these neurotransmitters, or inhibiting enzymes like monoamine oxidase. Adenosine agonists, on the other hand, primarily affect the adenosine receptors in the body, which are involved in various physiological processes but not directly related to psychotherapy.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following is not an analgesic drug?

    • A.

      Opiates

    • B.

      Antidepressant drugs

    • C.

      Aspirin

    • D.

      Opium

    Correct Answer
    B. Antidepressant drugs
    Explanation
    Antidepressant drugs are not classified as analgesics because they primarily work to treat depression and other mood disorders, rather than providing pain relief. While some antidepressants may have mild analgesic effects, their primary mechanism of action is not related to pain management. Analgesics, on the other hand, are drugs specifically designed to relieve pain. Opiates, aspirin, and opium are all examples of analgesic drugs that are commonly used to alleviate pain.

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  • 46. 

    Barbiturates facilitate ________ binding, and are therefore said to _______ it's affinity.

    • A.

      GABA; decrease

    • B.

      GABA; increase

    • C.

      Glutamate; decrease

    • D.

      Glutamate; increase

    Correct Answer
    B. GABA; increase
    Explanation
    Barbiturates are known to enhance the binding of GABA, a neurotransmitter that inhibits the activity of the central nervous system. By increasing the binding of GABA, barbiturates effectively increase its affinity, meaning that GABA is more likely to bind to its receptors and produce its inhibitory effects. This ultimately leads to sedation and can be used as a therapeutic effect in the treatment of anxiety, insomnia, and seizures.

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  • 47. 

    Valium, a benzodiazepine, has the behavior effect of ___________.

    • A.

      Reducing anxiety but suppressing dreaming (bad sleep medication)

    • B.

      Reducing anxiety and facilitating sleep

    • C.

      Making the individual happier but suppressing dreaming (bad sleep medication)

    • D.

      Making the individual happier and facilitating sleep

    Correct Answer
    B. Reducing anxiety and facilitating sleep
    Explanation
    Valium, being a benzodiazepine, is known to have the behavior effect of reducing anxiety and facilitating sleep. This medication helps to alleviate anxiety symptoms by calming the individual and promoting a sense of relaxation. Additionally, it aids in inducing sleep and improving the quality of sleep for those who have difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep.

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